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Article
The Periodontal Health Status Among Patients Attending the Periodontal Department, School of Dentistry , Facualty of Medical Science, Sulaimani University,Kurdistan Region ,Iraq

Author: Abdulkareem Hussain Al- Saidy عبد الكريم حسين السعدي
Journal: Diyala Journal of Medicine مجلة ديالى الطبية ISSN: 97642219 Year: 2013 Volume: 4 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-14
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Background: In our studys the sample included 672 patient (348 male and 324 female patients),who were attended the department of periodontics, school of dentistry University of Sulaimani during one academic year (2008-2009).The sample was divided into subgroups according to age and sex. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the number of patients and their chief complaints, type of periodontal diseases, and to determine the number of patients from outside and inside sulaimani city. Methods: The clinical examination was recorded, including methods of detection of bacterial plaque , according to the plaque index ( PL1) Sliness and Loe1964 ; gingival index ( G1) according to Loe and Sliness1963;attachment loss (CAL); probing pocket depth (PPD).Results: The questionnaires include general information such as, patients name; sex and age; address, visit to dentist (regular visit, irregular visit) ; chief complaints (routine checking; scaling & polishing; pain; bleeding; pre-prosthetic scaling and polishing; gingival swelling; teeth hypersensitivity; halitosis ; esthetic). There was significant relationship between: age groups and sex; patient age group and chief complain; male patients with plaque induced gingivitis and male patients with chronic periodonities; male age groups and visiting the dentist; female patients lived inside Sulaimani city and female patients lived outside Sulaimani; age groups of total patients [male and female] and visiting the dentist. In addition, there was high significant relationship between age groups and patients chief complaints; age groups of male patients and type of periodontal disease; between female age groups and type of periodontal disease.Conclusion: Otherwise no statistically significant differences between male and female patients; the address of male patient (inside and outside Sulimani),and patients with plaque induced gingivitis and female patients with chronic periodontitis were found.


Article
Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in periodontal infections

Authors: Ghada Y Abdul–Rahman --- Blend S Abdullah
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2006 Volume: 6 Issue: SpIss Pages: S79-S83
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

To isolate and identify Actino–bacillus actinomycetemcomitans because of its importance in periodontal diseases, to show their incidence in periodontal infections, and to study their important virulence factors. Materials and Methods: The isolating procedure had been done through using the selective Dentaid–1 medium, with anaerobic cultivation at 37 °C for 48 hours, and different microscopic features and biochemical activities were carried out. Also the study included the detection of virulence factors that owned by this type of bacteria through various tests. Results: The rate of infection was 45% in patients suffering from periodontal disease and the isolated bacteria had the ability to adhere to human epithelial cells of the mouth, also had the ability to produce bacteriocins as the substantive factors for the bacterial growth among the closer species of bacteria, and the presence of capsule, which was the most important virulence factor. Susceptibility of the isolated bacteria to selected types of antibiotic showed that 100% of the isolates were sensitive to tetracycline and ciprofloxacin, 100% were resistant to erythromycin and vancomycin. Conclusion: Actinohatillus actinomycetemcomitans was very important periodontal pathogen; having a large number of pathogenic and virulence factors; ciprofloxacin is the drug of choice.


Article
Estimation of soluble CD14 level in saliva of patients with different periodontal conditions and its correlation with periodontal health status

Authors: Sarah E.H. Al-Karawi --- Maha Sh. Al-Rubaie مها الربيعي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2014 Volume: 26 Issue: 1 Pages: 138-143
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) is a serum/cell surface glycoprotein; and it is a pattern recognition receptor. CD14 expressed on the surface of various cells, or it found soluble in saliva and other body fluids. It has been proposed that soluble CD14 (sCD14) may play a protective role by controlling Gram negative bacterial infections through its capacity to bind lipopolysaccharide. This study was conducted to assess the level of soluble CD14 in saliva of patients with different periodontal diseases and healthy subjects and determine its correlation with clinical periodontal parameters.Materials & Methods: A total of 80 subjects, age ranged (25-50) years old, divided into three main groups, group Ι consisted of 45 chronic periodontitis patients, group ΙΙ consisted of 20 gingivitis patients, lastly group ΙΙΙ comprised 15 apparently- healthy volunteers. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected to determine levels of soluble CD14 in saliva by enzyme-linked immune–sorbent assay (ELISA). Clinical periodontal parameters were recorded at four sites per tooth including plaque index, gingival index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level.Results: A highly significant difference (P<0.01) was found for salivary sCD14 levels among the three groups, also it was greater in chronic periodontitis group than those detected for gingivitis and healthy controls with a highly significant difference (P<0.01). Furthermore, Spearman’s correlation analysis showed statistically highly significant strong correlations (P < 0.05) between salivary sCD14 levels and each of (probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level). And non-significant correlation between salivary sCD14 level with plaque, gingival & bleeding on probing indices.Conclusion: The findings of the present study reemphasize the importance of whole saliva as sampling method in terms of immunological purposes in periodontal disease and suggest that the elevated sCD14 concentration may be one of the host-response components associated with the clinical manifestations of periodontal disease

الخلفية: كتلة التمايز 14 هي بروتين سكري يوجد في مصل الدم او على سطح الخلايا. وهو احد مستقبلات نمط التعرف. يتواجد على سطح مختلف الخلايا, منها الخلايا الاحاديةالدموية, خلايا البلعمة النسيجية, الخلايا العدلة وكذلك الخلايا الليفية اللثوية. او يوجد ذائب في اللعاب او سوائل الجسم الاخرى. وقد اقُترح ان sCD14 ريما يلعب دور وقائياً عبرالسيطرة على الاتهابات البكتيرية السالبة من خلال قدرته على الارتباط مع السكريات المتعددة البروتينات. ان المعلومات المتوفرة عن مستوى تركيز مستقبلات CD14 الذائبة فياللعاب عند مرضى النساغ المزمن قليلة جدا, لذا اعدت هذه الدراسة لتكون الاولى في العراق لاكتشاف مستوى هذه المستقبلات الذائبة في لعاب مرضى النساغ المزمن ومرضى التهاباللثة وكذلك تحديد ارتباط هذه المستقبلات مع مؤشرات ما حول الاسنان السريرية .50 ( سنة , موزعون على 3 مجاميع , المجموعة 1 تتالف من 45 مريض لديهم مرض النساغ المزمن,اما المجموعة – المواد والطرق: اجمالي 00 شخص تتراوح اعمارهم بين ) 25الثانية فتتالف من 20 مريض بالتهاب اللثة . واخيرا مجموعة المتطوعين الاصحاء وعددهم 15 شخص. وقد تم اخذ عينات اللعاب لتحديد مستوى المستقبلات وتحليلها بواسطة نظامالايلايزا)مقايسة الانزيم الممتز المناعي( وكذلك قياس مؤشرات ما حول الاسنان السريرية مثل مؤشر الصفيحة الجرثومية, مؤشر التهاب اللثة, مؤشر النزف عند التسبير, عمق جيوباللثة وفقدان الانسجة الرابطة سريري اً .النتائج: اظهرت هذه الدراسة أن هناك فرق معنوي بين مرضى النساغ المزمن ومرضى التهاب اللثة والاصحاء بالنسبة الى مستوى ال CD14 الذائبة في اللعاب علاوة على ذلك،أظهر تحليل الارتباط سبيرمان وجود ارتباط بين البيانات من مستويات CD14 الذائبة في اللعاب وسبر عمق جيب اللثة وفقدان الانسجة الرابطة سريري اً (P <0.01).الاستنتاج: إن نتائج هذه الدراسة تؤكد مجدداً على أهمية اللعاب و طريقة أخذ العينات من اجل ألاغراض المناعية في مرضى النساغ المزمن ومرضى التهاب اللثة وتشير إلى أن ارتفاعتركيز مستقبلات CD14 الذائبة في اللعاب قد تكون واحدة من مكونات استجابة المضيف المرتبطة للمظاهر السريرية لمرضى النساغ المزمن ومرضى اللثة


Article
Periodontal health status of patients with Maxillary Chronic Rhinosinusitis (Part 1: Clinical study)

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Abstract

Background: Periodontal diseases (PD) are inflammatory conditions of the tissues supporting the teeth, most often gingivitis and periodontitis. Maxillary chronic rhinosinusitis (MCRS) is the inflammation of the maxillary sinuses which is last for at least 12 consecutive weeks duration. Aims of study: Distribution of periodontal diseases among patients with Maxillary chronic rhinosinusitis according to gender and age.Materials and methods: Males and females subjects (25-45 years), divided into two groups; 150 patients suffer from MCRS and 130 subjects without MCRS. Clinical periodontal parameters; Plaque Index (PL.I), Gingival Index (G.I), Probing Pocket Depth (PPD), Clinical Attachment Level (CAL) and Bleeding On Probing (BOP) recorded for four sites per tooth except third molars for all subjects, according to this examination groups were divided into four subgroups: clinically Healthy periodontium, Gingivitis, Chronic periodontitis CP.1, when PPD mean is (4-6 mm) and CP.2, when it is (> 6mm).Results: (75.33%) of patients with MCRS had periodontal diseases, highest percentage (48%) had Gingivitis, number of females more than males, percentages of females with clinically Healthy periodontium and Gingivitis were higher. Subjects without MCRS demonstrated highest percentage (56.92%) with clinically Healthy periodontium. Significant and highly significant differences between the 2 groups in PL.I, G.I, PPD and CAL at all subgroups except BOP score1 revealed non significant differences. Conclusion: 75.33% of patients with MCRS have periodontal diseases with greater PL.I, G.I, PPD and CAL when compared with subjects without MCRS. There is relation between periodontal diseases and MCRS


Article
Salivary antioxidants and physicochemical characteristics related to periodontal disease among a group of old adults

Authors: Baydaa A. Yas --- Ban S. Diab
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2009 Volume: 21 Issue: 3 Pages: 103-107
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: Old adults experienced pronounced oral changes. Saliva composition particularly the antioxidantsshowed significant changes with advancing age. The aims of this study were to assess salivary antioxidants and lipidperoxidation biomarker (malondialdehyde) levels in addition to salivary physicochemical characteristics and theireffect on periodontal disease among a group of old adults in comparison with middle-aged.Materials and methods: The study group consisted of all old adults (35 subjects) aged 55-65 years in comparison withall middle-aged (35 subjects) aged 30-40 years at the Textile factory in Mosul city who fitted the criteria of the study.Periodontal disease was evaluated by using the gingival index, periodontal pocket depth and clinical attachmentlevel. Unstimulated salivary samples were collected and salivary flow rate and pH were determined. Salivary samplesthen were chemically analyzed for the detection of salivary antioxidants (total protein, albumin, vitamin E, vitamin Cand uric acid) and lipid peroxidation biomarker (malondialdehyde) in addition to salivary constituents as urea,calcium, phosphorous and magnesium.Results: Antioxidants level (total protein, albumin, vitamin E, and vitamin C) was lower among old adults comparedto middle-aged ones with significant difference for vitamin C only. Malondialdehyde was slightly higher among oldadults with no significant difference. Statistically no significant difference could be found regarding salivary flow rateand pH between the two age groups. Salivary constituents (urea, calcium, phosphorous and magnesium) showedno significant difference between the two age groups. Mean gingival index was highly significantly higher amongold adults. The extent of pocket depth was higher among old adults at ≥4 and ≥5 mm thresholds but ≥7 mm thresholdwas absent among them. Clinical attachment level extent was higher among old adults at all thresholds of severity.Salivary albumin revealed inverse significant correlation with severe thresholds of clinical attachment level (i.e. ≥7, ≥8,≥9 mm). Lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) showed positive highly significant correlation with ≥9 mm attachmentlevel threshold among old adults. Salivary flow rate revealed inverse correlation with almost all clinical attachmentlevel thresholds among old adults.Conclusions: Periodontal disease revealed higher severity among old adults. Salivary antioxidants andphysicochemical characteristics were found to affect periodontal health status among old adults


Article
The relation of salivary antioxidants and lipid peroxidation biomarker to periodontal diseases among overweight and obese adult aged 55-65 year-old at Textile factory in Mosul city

Author: Baydaa A. Yas بيداء ياس
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 1 Pages: 90-95
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: Overweight and obesity might be a potential risk factor for periodontal diseases. The principle objectiveof this study was to identify the relationship of salivary antioxidants (vitamin E and uric acid) and lipid peroxidationbiomarker (malondialdehyde/MDA) with periodontal diseases among overweight and obese adult aged 55-65 yearoldsubject at Textile factory in Mosul city.Materials and methods: All subjects aged 55-65 year-old (thirty five subjects) at Textile factory in Mosul city took partin this study. Salivary flow rate was measured after collection of unstimulated saliva then salivary samples wereanalyzed for the measurement of salivary antioxidants (vitamin E and uric acid) and lipid peroxidation biomarker(malondialdehyde/MDA). Periodontal diseases were evaluated by using the gingival index (GI), periodontal pocketdepth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL). Body weight was determined by using the Body Mass Index (BMI).Results: Malondialdehyde (MDA) level was higher among obese and overweight than non-obese with highlysignificant difference (F=5.52, P<0.01). Similarly vitamin E and uric acid levels were elevated among obese andoverweight compared with non-obese though statistical differences were not significant (P>0.05). In contrast salivaryflow rate was lower among obese and overweight than non-obese with highly significant difference (F=8.11, P<0.01).Regarding periodontal diseases, obese subjects showed higher periodontal destruction in comparison with nonobese.Conclusions: Overweight and obese subjects could be considered as special group who need educational andpreventive programs that include maintaining a normal body weight, eating a well-balanced diet and engaging inphysical activity in addition to oral hygiene practices to improve their oral and general health.


Article
Assessment of Periodontal Health Status and Serum Level of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Women with Breast Cancer

Authors: Areej A. Abdul-Hafidh اريج عبد الفتاح --- Maha Sh. Mahmood مها شكري محمود
Journal: Tikrit Journal for Dental Sciences مجلة تكريت لعلوم طب الاسنان ISSN: 20731213 Year: 2017 Volume: 5 Issue: 2 Pages: 11-18
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Periodontal diseases are inflammatory diseases that affect theperiodontium which lead to alveolar bone and attachment loss.Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide.Expression of (VEGF) is elevated in both diseases and it is themarker of angiogenesis related to cancer development. 1. Todetermine the periodontal health status and the serum levels of(VEGF) in women with breast cancer in comparison to womenwithout breast cancer. 2. To correlate between serum levels ofVEGF with clinical periodontal parameters (PLI, GI, BOP, PPD,and CAL) in women with breast cancer in comparison to womenwithout breast cancer. Eighty women with age ranged from (30-60) years old, 40 women with breast cancer and another 40 womenwithout. Periodontal health status were taken for all participantsand then they were subdivided into four groups: the (BC +CP)group which included participants with breast cancer and chronicperiodontitis (n=20), the (BC+ G) group included participants withbreast cancer and gingivitis (n=20), the (CP) group which includedparticipants with chronic periodontitis only (n=20) and the (G)group which included participants with gingivitis only (n=20).Other than breast cancer, all subjects were systemically healthyfemales. Periodontal health status was determined by clinicalperiodontal examination of (PLI, GI, BOP, PPD and CAL). Bloodsamples were collected from each participant, serum levels ofVEGF were determined by enzyme -linked immune-sorbent assay(ELISA). The results of this study showed that the median valuesof PLI and GI were slightly increased in BC+G group incomparison to other groups with non-significant differences, thepercentages of BOP showed highly significant differences amongthe groups (P <0.01). The median values of PPD showed slightincrease in BC+CP group than CP group with non-significantdifferences. Median values of CAL were increased in CP groupthan BC+CP group with non-significant differences. VEGF serumlevels were elevated in BC+CP group than other groups with nonsignificantdifferences. Also by using Spearman’s rank CorrelationCoefficient, serum levels of VEGF were correlated positively withall clinical periodontal parameters. VEGF serum level could beassociated with progression of both periodontal diseases and breastcancer.


Article
Effect of Alendronate Treatment on Salivary Levels of Osteoprotegrin and TNF-α in Postmenopausal Woman with Osteoporosis and Periodontal Diseases

Authors: Aseel J. Ibraheem --- Aysar N. Mohammed ايسر نجاح محمد
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2018 Volume: 30 Issue: 2 Pages: 17-22
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: All diseases concerning bone destruction such as osteoporosis and periodontal diseases share common pattern in which the osteoclast cells are absolutely responsible for bone resorption that occurred when osteoclast activity exceeds osteoblast activity. Osteoprotegrin (OPG) considered as novel soluble decoy receptor known as “bone protector” since it prevents extreme bone resorption through inhibition of differentiation and activity of osteoclast by competing for binding site. It binds to receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and prevent its interaction with receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK), thus inhibits osteoclast formation. TNF-α is a pro-inflammatory cytokines having a broad range of important roles in regulation of immune system and bone resorption through the stimulation of osteoclastogenesis. Alendronate (ALN) diminishes the expression of osteoclast activating factors and cytokines such as RANKL and enhances the production of decoy receptor osteoprotegerin in osteoblast cells. Moreover, it decreases the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α by macrophage, stimulates apoptosis of monocyte-macrophage cell lines derivative and reduces inflammatory response.Aims of the Study: 1. To assess the effect of alendronate treatment on salivary levels of osteoprotegrin and TNF-α in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and periodontal disease 2. To find any possible correlation between salivary levels of osteoprotegrin and TNF-α in control and study groups.Materials and Methods: Total sample of 90 female subjects (55-65 years) were divided into 3 groups, (30 subjects in each group): first control group involved systemically healthy subjects with healthy periodontium, second group involved postmenopausal women with osteoporosis under alendronate treatment for(3-6)months (alendronate group), third group involved postmenopausal women with osteoporosis without alendronate treatment(osteoporosis group). The last two groups were sub- divided in- to two sub –groups (15 subjects in each sub-group) of gingivitis and periodontitis subjects respectively. Salivary samples were collected from all subjects and salivary levels of osteoprotegrin and TNF- α were determined by enzyme –linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA).Results: Highest median value of salivary (OPG) was found in alendronate group followed by control group while the lowest value was found in osteoporosis group. Highest median value of TNF- α was found in osteoporosis group followed by control group and alendronate group respectively with highly significant differences between them. Spearman correlation between salivary levels of TNF-α and OPG showed non- significant correlation at all subgroups.Conclusion: Subjects with osteoporosis in this study had greater levels of TNF-α and decrease in the level of OPG comparing with patients under alendronate treatment. Alendronate treatment for women with osteoporosis and periodontal disease may have beneficial outcome.


Article
Chronic periodontitis chief complaints: gender and age distribution; their correlation with plaque indeand probing pocket depthx

Author: Dr. Ali Abbas Abdulkareem BDS, M. Sc .* د.علي عباس عبد الكريم
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2010 Volume: 7 Issue: 1 Pages: 143-149
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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To determine the most common chief complaints of chronic periodontitis patientsto assess the public awareness about this disease symptoms, their distribution amongmales & females and their correlation with age and some of periodontal parameters(PLI & PPD).Chief complaints of 1115 (641 males & 474 females) chronic periodontitispatients attending the College of Dentistry/ University of Baghdad seeking treatment.The age range was from 23 to 67 years; the mean age was 46.1. The patients dividedaccording to age groups & according to gender.The majority of patients expressing symptoms of chronic periodontitis weremainly between 40 and 60 years old. A highly significant difference between malesand females in referral and bleeding (P value= 0.001), a significant difference inmobility, altered gingival appearance, and pain (P value= 0.004, 0.022, and 0.002respectively); the other chief complaints (pathologic tooth migration and malodor)showed no significant differences between the two groups (males & females)(Pvalue= 0.909, and 0.872). The highest complaint was bleeding (about 31%) followedby referred patients (19.6%), while the malodor was the least reported chiefcomplaints (5.5%). An obvious correlation between chief complaints and age withPPD and PLI for all chief complaints groups.This study showed that there is an ignorance of the nature of periodontal diseaseson a community level which calls for more education programs to be carried out bydental team members concerning the proper oral hygiene measures instruction andmotivation to reverse or at least minimize the effect of periodontal disease(s).


Article
Assessment of transforming growth factor beta one (TGF- β1) immunohistochemical (IHC) expression profile in the gingival tissue of patients with different forms of periodontal diseases

Authors: Basma F. Ali بسمة علي --- Maha Sh. Al-Rubaie مها شكري الربيعي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: special issue 1 Pages: 96-101
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: This study evaluate the immunohistochemical expression profile of transforming growth factor beta-1 ininflamed gingival tissue of patients with gingivitis and chronic periodontitis compared to healthy subjects and,determine the correlation between this cytokine and the clinical periodontal parameters, intensity of inflammationand chronic periodontitis severity.Materials and methods: Gingival tissue specimens were taken from 23 chronic periodontitis patients, 20 gingivitispatients and 20 periodontally healthy subjects. The periodontal status was evaluated by dichotomous measurementsof the clinical periodontal parameters (PLI, GI, BOP, PPD, CAL). The gingival specimens were fixed immediately in 10%formalin and processed routinely into paraffin blocks for further immunohistochemical analysis.Results: A highly significant statistical difference was observed between the study groups regarding the PLI ,GI ,thepercentage of bleeding on probing sites and the intensity of inflammation .TGF-β1 expression profile statisticalanalysis showed a high statistical significant difference among the study groups , A highly significant statisticaldifference was found between the PPD Scores while a significant statistical difference was revealed among the CALScores when the expression profile of TGF-β1 was compared.TGF-β1 was positively correlated with the clinicalperiodontal parameters (PLI, GI, and BOP) as well as with the intensity of inflammation in the three study groups. Inchronic periodontitis group a highly significant positive linear correlation between the PPD and CAL with the TGF-β1expression profile.Conclusions: TGF-β1 expression profile showed variations as the destructive character of the periodontal diseasechanged. Therefore, it could be proposed that TGF-β1 might contribute both to inflammatory regulation andremodeling events during periodontal disease

الھدف من ھذه الدراسة ھو تقییم نمط التعبیر لعامل النمو المحول بیتا في الانسجة اللثویة الملتھبة للمرضى الذین یعانون من التھاب اللثة ,مرض النساغ المزمن ومقارنتھمبالاصحاء عن طریق التحلیل المناعي واختبار العلاقة بین ھذا السیتوكین مع معلمات اللثة السریریة ,شدة التھاب اللثة وشدة مرض النساغ المزمن.تم اخذ 23 عینة من مرضى النساغالمزمن و 20 عینة من مرضى التھاب اللثة و 20 عینة من الاشخاص ذوي الانسجة اللثویة السلیمة وجرى تقییم حالة اللثة عن طریق قیاس المعلمات اللثویة (معامل الصفیحةالجرثومیة,معامل التھاب اللثة,النزف عند التسمیر,عمق الجیب اللثوي ومستوى الانسجة الرابطة).تم تثبیت العینات اللثویة على الفور في 10 % فورمالین تحضیرا لمعالجتھا بشكلروتیني وطمرھا بشمع البارافین لاغراض التحلیل المناعي.في نتائج البحث لوحظ وجود فروقات احصائیة عالیة بین المجموعات الداخلة في الدراسة فیما یخص معامل الصفیحةالجرثومیة ,معامل التھاب اللثة,النزف عند التسمیروشدة الالتھاب.اظھرت النتائج الاحصائیة لنمط تعبیر عامل النمو المحول بیتا وجود فروقات عالیة ضمن المجموعات الداخلة فيالدراسة.تم ایجاد فروقات احصائیة عالیة بین المستویات المختلفة لعمق الجیب اللثوي والانسجة الرابطة عندما تمت مقارنة نمط تعبیر عامل النمو المحول بیتا.ارتبط نمط تعبیر عاملالنمو المحول ایجابیا مع جمیع المعلمات اللثویة السریریة ومع شدة الالتھاب وتم ایجاد علاقة خطیة ایجابیة بین كل من عمق الجیب اللثوي ومستوى الانسجة الرابطة مع تعبیر عاملالنمو المحول بیتا.استنتاجات ھذه الدراسة تقترح ان التغییرات في عامل النمو المحول بیتا یمكن ان یساھم في كل من تنظیم الالتھابات وعملیة اعادة بناء الانسجة اللثویة

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