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Article
Comparison of Pica in Breastfeeding versus Artificial Feeding in Children 2 Years of Age or Younger

Author: Sijal Fadhil F. Al‑Joborae, Zainab Amer Mousa Al‑Malikey
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2018 Volume: 15 Issue: 4 Pages: 357-362
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Background: Pica is the daily compulsive eating of food or nonfood items not part of one’s habitual diet or preferences, which is inappropriateto the developmental level. Pica is a distinctive but poorly understood accompaniment of iron deficiency or depletion in some children,although most pica items contain little or no iron. Objectives: The objective of the study is to assess and compare pica in breastfed versusartificially fed children aged 2 years or younger in Hilla city, Babylon Province, Iraq. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive hospitalbased cross‑sectional study which was carried out on a convenient sample of 150 children aged 2‑year‑old or younger who attended pediatricclinics in three hospitals in Babylon Province in the Center of Iraq who accepted to participate in this study. Results: The study found thatthe mean age (month) of children with childhood pica is 14.51 ± 4.13 with the mean birth weight (g) is 2812.83 ± 533.18, the gender gapin childhood pica is in favor of male children (69.3%). The study found that almost two‑thirds of children with pica were breastfed (68.7%)while the other one‑third was artificially fed. The majority of children suffering from pica consumed the material clay (43.3%). The mean ofhemoglobin (Hb) (g/dl), total serum iron (μg/dl), and serum ferritin (ng/ml) and which is 8.44 ± 1.50, 7.68 ± 2.36, and 6.36 ± 1.54, respectively.Conclusion: Children with pica had low level of Hb, iron, and ferritin which mimics the hematological picture accompanying iron deficiencyanemia. There is a significant mean difference between the type of feeding of children with pica and the birth weight, serum iron, Hb, andserum ferritin. Furthermore, there is a significant association between type of feedings and the following variables: gestational age, onset ofpica, birth order, and spacing between births.

Keywords

Anemia --- clay --- iron --- pica


Article
Comparative Histological Study of the Stomach in Two Species of Iraqi Vertebrates (Magpie Pica pica L. and Small Asian Mongoose Herpestes javanicus E.)
دراسة نسجية مقارنة للمعدة في نوعين من الفقريات العراقية ( العقعق Pica pica L. وابن عرس الاسيوي الصغير Herpestidae javanicus E. )

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Abstract

A histological study showed the wall of the stomach in Pica pica and Herpestes javanicus consists of four layers: mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa and serosa. Also, the present study showed many differences in the histological structures of the stomach for each in both types. The stomach of P. pica consists of two portions: the proventiculus and gizzard, while the stomach of H. javanicus consists of three portions: cardiac, fundic and pyloric regions. The mucosa layer formed short gastric folds, named plicae. In the proventiculus of P. pica, sulcus is found between each two plicae, but the folds called gastric pits in the gizzard, which are full with koilin. Lamina properia in both types contained gastric glands (straight simple tubular glands) named superficial glands, as well as another gastric gland found in the submucosa layer of the proventiculus in P. pica only named deep gastric glands. The gastric gland in the stomach of H. javanicus contained: mucous neck cells and parietal cells positive to AB/PAS stains in cardiac portion, as well as chief cells in fundic portion, but pyloric portion had just mucous neck cells. Muscularis externa in both types formed two muscle layers: inner and outer layer.

أظهرت الدراسة النسجية بأن جدار المعدة في العقعق Pica pica وأبن عرس الاسيوي الصغير Herpestes javanicus يتألف من اربع طبقات هي: المخاطية، وتحت المخاطية، والعضلية الخارجية، والمصلية. كما أظهرت الدراسة الحالية اختلافات عديدة في التركيب النسجي للمعدة في كلا النوعين. تتألف معدة العقعق من جزأين هما: المعدة الامامية، والقانصة، بينما تتألف المعدة في أبن عرس الاسيوي الصغير من ثلاث اجزاء هي: الفؤادي، والقاعي، والبوابي. تتكون الطبقة المخاطية في المعدة الامامية للعقعق من طيات معدية قصيرة تسمى بالبروزات والتي تحصر بينها الاخاديد، ولكن تسمى الطيات في القانصة بالنقر المعدية والتي تغطى بالكويلين. تحتوي الصفيحة الاصيلة في كلا النوعين على غدد معدية (الغدد النبيبية المستقيمة البسيطة) تسمى الغدد السطحية، فضلاً عن وجود غدد معدية اخرى في الطبقة التحت مخاطية في المعدة الامامية للعقعق تسمى غدد معدية عميقة فقط. ان الغدد المعدية في معدة أبن عرس الاسيوي الصغير تتألف من: خلايا العنق المخاطية، و الخلايا الجدارية التي تكون موجبة لصبغة AB/PAS وتوجد هذه الغدد في الجزء الفؤادي، اضافه للخلايا الرئيسة التي توجد في الجزء القاعي، لكن يتألف الجزء البوابي من خلايا العنق المخاطية فقط. تتألف العضلية الخارجية في كلا النوعين من طبقتان عضليتان هما : الطبقة الداخلية، والطبقة الخارجية.

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