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Article
Geological Model of Khasib Reservoir- Central Area/East Baghdad Field

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Abstract

The Geological modeling has been constructed by using Petrel E&P software to incorporate data, for improved Three-dimensional models of porosity model, water saturation, permeability estimated from core data, well log interpretation, and fault analysis modeling.Three-dimensional geological models attributed with physical properties constructed from primary geological data. The reservoir contains a huge hydrocarbon accumulation, a unique geological model characterization with faults, high heterogeneity, and a very complex field in nature.The results of this study show that the Three-dimensional geological model of Khasib reservoir, to build the reservoir model starting with evaluation of reservoir to interpretation of well log by using IP software for 14 wells, defining and divided the layers based on the GR Log and Resistivity log to nine layers and then maintained the fault model for a divided central area to four regions. Compared porosity log with porosity core to estimate correction porosity and enter this value to predict the permeability value for each layer by using FZI, and RQI method. The model Containing faults, horizons, zones, and layers depending on this data to make gridding by using pillar gridding.This paper presents a geological modeling and an uncertainty analysis for stock-tank original oil in place. The distribution of the faults is also discussed.


Article
Static Model of Zubair Reservoir in Luhais Oil Field

Authors: Ahmed Abdulmueen Alher --- Mohammed Saleh Aljawad --- Abdullah Abdulhasan Ali
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2018 Volume: 19 Issue: 1 Pages: 57-60
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Static reservoir modeling is the interacting and analysis of the geological data to visualize the reservoir framework by three-dimensional model and distribute the static reservoir properties. The Petrel E&P software used to incorporate the data. The interpreted log data and core report used in distribution of petrophysical properties of porosity, water saturation and permeability for Zubair reservoir in Luhais oil field. The reservoir discretized to 274968 cells in increments of 300, 200 and 1 meter in the direction of X, Y, and Z respectively. The geostatistical approach used in the distribution of the properties of porosity and water saturation overall the reservoir units. The permeability has been calculated with classical method depending on the routine core reports data. The results show the main reservoir unit is 1C where its porosity and permeability are about 20% and 400md respectively. This unit underlaid by barrier unit and rounded by water. The estimated value of oil in place is about 209*106 ScM3, most of it accumulate at 1C unit and the other at the upper parts of unit 1E.


Article
Evaluation the Castability of Titanium Casting Alloy

Authors: Lamia T Rejab --- Ibtehal H Hasan --- Salwan F Al-Hamdani
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2013 Volume: 13 Issue: 23 Pages: 396-402
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: is to evaluate the castability of titanium alloy and compare it with that of nickel-chromium and cobalt-chromium alloys by measuring castability and porosity values. Materials and methods: A total of 30 samples were prepared for castability and porosity tests. Castability was measured by castability test according to Hinman method by measuring the numerical number of the reproduced segments of casting samples . Porosity value was measured by determined the porosity percentage according to (Archimedes) method . ANOVA and Duncun,s multiple range test were carried out to determine the significant difference at p ≤ 0.05% . Results: the results showed that titanium alloy has a lowest value of castability and the highest value of porosity percentage, While cobalt-chromium alloys has intermediate values. Nickel-chromium alloy has highest value of castability and the lowest value of porosity. Conclusion: there is a significant differences between the castabilty and porosity values among different casting alloys used. The differences between the catability values are related to variance between the melting temperature of the different casting alloys, the higher the melting temperature the less castability value.

Keywords

Castability --- Titanium --- porosity


Article
Porosity of different thickness of acrylic polymerized by different methods.

Author: Luay N Abood
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2007 Volume: 7 Issue: 10 Pages: 173-179
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To evaluate the porosity that occur in the acrylic resin denture base polymerized by themicrowave cycle and conventional water bath with two different thickness, relation between thethickness of specimen and its percentage of porosity. Material and methods: Forty rectangular resinspecimens with the following dimensions (65×40×6mm), (65×40×3mm) were subdivided according topolymerization method into microwave cycle and conventional heat polymerization method to obtain10 specimens with different polymerization method and thickness, for each one of 4 groups. Porositywas calculated by measure the specimen volume before and after its immersion in water, data wereanalyzed by student t–test analysis at ( p< 0.05). Results: Showed that specimens of (6mm) that curedby microwave polymerization method showed significantly higher percentage of porosity whencompared to the same thickness of conventional water bath polymerized acrylic resin at (p<0.05), whileno significant difference between the percentage porosity of the conventional and microwave heatcured acrylic resin of (3mm) thickness specimens. Also there is no significant difference between thethickness of specimen and the conventional water bath method of heat cured acrylic resin. While formicrowave curing method of heat cured acrylic resin there is significant difference for increase ofpercentage of porosity with increase of thickness of specimens. Conclusions: The conventional acrylicresin of (≥3mm) specimens thickness can be polymerized with microwave curing method safely withless porosity , while for (≥ 6mm) specimens thickness is preferred to be polymerized by conventionalwater bath curing method


Article
The effect of autoclave processing on some properties of heat cured denture base material

Authors: Salwan S. Abdulwahhab سلوان عبد الوهاب --- Widad A.H. Alnakkash وداد النقاش
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 3 Pages: 13-17
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Although most of the physical and mechanical properties of denture base resin polymerized by theconventional heat polymerization have been studied, the effect of autoclave processing in these properties has notbeen fully determined. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of two different cycles of autoclaveprocessing on the transverse strength, impact strength, surface hardness and the porosity of acrylic denture basematerial.Materials and methods: Vertex was the heat- cured acrylic denture base material included in the study. A total of120 specimens were prepared, the specimens were grouped into: Control groups (Group A) in which acrylic resinsprocessed by conventional water- bath processing technique (74°C for 1.5 hours then boil for 30 minutes) andexperimental groups in which acrylic resins processed by autoclave at 121°C,210KPa.The experimental groups weredivided into Group B(Fast) for15min. , and Group C (Slow) for 30min... To study the effect of the autoclaveprocessing (Tuttnauer 2540EA), four tests were conducted transverse strength (Instron universal testing machine),impact strength (charpy tester), surface hardness (shore D), and porosity test. The results were analyzed to ANOVAand LSD test.Results: There were no significant differences between the results of the processing techniques regarding transverse,impact, and hardness tests. While, there were a highly significant difference in porosity test results.Conclusions: The autoclave processing technique might also be a good alternative to the conventional water bathprocessing technique. Regarding to autoclave processing technique, the slow (long) curing cycle provide betterdenture bases material including the tested physical and mechanical properties as compared with the fast (short)curing cycle.

Keywords

Autoclave --- Transverse --- Impact --- Hardness --- Porosity


Article
Determination of Porosity and Permeability of Darnah Formation at Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar-North Eastern Libya
تعيين المسامية والنفاذية لتكوين درنة في الجبل الأخضر / شمال- شرق ليبيا

Author: Salman Z. Khorshid سلمان زين العابدين خورشيد
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2017 Volume: 58 Issue: 1B Pages: 266-279
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The study area is located at AL Jabal AL-Akhdar region North Eastern part of Libya. The study includes (23) fresh samples that are taken from Darnah limestone Formation, these samples were distributed on and covered about (210) km2. The porosities and permeabilities of these samples were determined. This study is important because this formation is considered as a good reservoir for hydrocarbon accumulation in other places in Libya. The porosity was measured by three different methods namely by porosimeter (using core samples), thin sections and binocular microscope. The permeability are also measured by two methods, the first method was by Nitrogen method and the other is by Klinkenberg method. The instrument that used for measuring permeability is Permeameter, which is found in Arabian Gulf Oil Company Laboratories (AGOCO) in Benghazi.Comparing the porosities by these three methods, it was clear that the porosity which was measured by porosimeter is better than the other two methods, because this instrument gives porosity by 3-Dimensions using core samples, but the other two methods give porosity in 2-Dimensions. The results show that the range of porosities measured by porosimeter was between (2.3% - 29.8%), the range by thin sections was between (2% - 23%) and the range by binocular microscope was between (4% - 29%). On other hand the range of permeabilities by Nitrogen method was found between (0.1 – 1572) millidarcy, and by Klinkenberg method was between (0.05 – 1506) Millidarcy. This variety of the range depends on the locations of samples as well as on active and inactive porosities, so there is no significant difference between the porosities and permeabilities of the same sample

تقع هذه الدراسة في منطقة الجبل الأخضر شمال - شرقي ليبيا وتتضمن الدراسة أخذ (23) نموذجا نظيفا من تكوين درنة الجيري موزعة على مساحة حوالي (210) كم2 وذلك لقياس كل من المسامية والنفاذية لهذه النماذج حيث أن هذا التكوين المسامي يمكن ان يكون مكمنا جيدا لخزن الهايدروكاربونات في مناطق أخرى من ليبيا. تم قياس المسامية بثلاث طرائق مختلفة الأولى بجهاز متطور يستخدم غاز الهيليوم وهي جهاز ( البروسيميتر) حيث ان غاز الهيليوم ذا الذرات الصغيرة يدخل إلى جميع الفراغات الموجودة في اللباب الصخري المحضر من اللباب الصخري والثانية بعمل شرائح ودراستها تحت المجهر والثالثة تم دراستها بمجهر ثنائي العينين ( الباينوكلر) , أما النفاذية فتم قياسها بطريقتين باستخدام جهاز قياس النفاذية المتطورة ( البيرمياميتر) وان جميع الأجهزة متواجدة في شركة نفط الخليج العربي في بنغازي حيث يتم القياس أيضا من اللباب الصخري المحضر من النماذج . ففي الطريقة الأولى تم استخدام النايتروجين وفي الثانية بطريقة ( كلينكنبيرغ). أظهرت مقارنة نتائج المسامية بالطرائق الثلاثة ان المسامية المقاسة من اللباب الصخري أفضل من الطريقتين الآخريين وذلك لأن هذه الطريقة تعطي نتائج ثلاثية الأبعاد , أما الطريقتين الآخريان فتعطي نتائج ذات بعدين, حيث كان مدى النتائج في الطريقة الأولى بين (%2.3 – % 29.8 ) أما المسامية في دراسة الشرائح فكان مداها بين (%2 - %23 ) وان الطريقة الثالثة أعطت مدى بين (%4 - % 29 ). اما قياس النفاذية فوجد ان قيم المدى باستخدام النايتروجين بين (0.1 - 1572 ) مللي دارسي , وكان مدى طريقة (كلينكنبيرغ) بين ( 0.05 - 1506 ) مللي دارسي , هذا الإختلاف بين النتائج سببه مواقع النماذج ونوع المسامية الفعالة وغير الفعالة، ولوحظ إنه لا يوجد فرق جوهري بين النتائج لنفس النموذج في الطرائق المختلفة.


Article
Comparison of Petrophysical Properties Measurement Methods in Sandston Rocks

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Abstract

This paper displays a survey about the laboratory routine core analysis study on ten sandstone core samples taken from Zubair Reservoir/West Quarna Oil Field. The Petrophysical properties of rock as porosity, permeability, grain's size, roundness and sorting, type of mineral and volumes of shales inside the samples were tested by many apparatus in the Petroleum Technology Department/ University of Technology such as OFITE BLP-530 Gas Porosimeter, PERG-200TM Gas Permeameter and liquid Permeameter, GeoSpec2 apparatus (NMR method), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and OFITE Spectral Gamma Ray Logger apparatus. By comparing all the results of porosity and permeability measured by these instruments, it is clear a significant variation in the values with the depth within same formation. The porosity by gas, liquid and NMR are varied (15.4 - 35.9) %, (4.6 - 22.3) % and (2.4- 13.5) % respectively, While the permeability by gas, liquid and NMR were altered (0 - 512) md, (0-139.6) md and (1.577 x10-6 – 492) md respectively.


Article
Comparison of some physical properties of acrylic denture base material cured by water bath and microwave techniques

Author: Radhwan H Hasan
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2003 Volume: 3 Issue: 2 Pages: 143-147
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

This study was designed to evaluate the physical properties (porosity and transverse strength) for microwave cured acrylic resin using new Iraqi microwavable flask. For transverse strength test, 20 acrylic samples were prepared with dimensions 65 × 10 + 0.03 × 2.5 mm. Ten samples were processed by conventional water bath technique, while the other 10 samples were prepared by microwave technique using new Iraqi microwavable flask. The transverse strength of the acrylic samples were measured by three–point bending test. For porosity test, 16 acrylic samples were prepared with dimensions 65 × 55 × 2.5 mm. Eight acrylic samples were processed by conventional water bath while the other 8 samples were processed by microwave technique using new Iraqi microwavable flask. Evaluation of porosity occurrence was done using microscope at 20× and 40× magnifications. The results of student’s t–test showed that there are no significant differences ( p > 0.05) in transverse strength for samples cured by water bath and microwave techniques while microscopical examination revealed that all acrylic samples which cured by both techniques were free from porosities. It was concluded that new Iraqi microwavable flask could be successfully used in curing of acrylic denture base material by microwave technique.


Article
The Effect of Oil and Filer Contents on the Porosity of Lead Acid Battery Separators Produced From Polyethylene
تأثير المكونات من الزيت والمالأت في الفراغية لعوازل بطاريات الرصاص السائلة المصنوعة من البولي اثيلين

Authors: Zyad Rafa'a Zair زياد رافع زاير --- Dr. Malek Mostafa Mohammed مالك مصطفى محمد
Journal: Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal مجلة الخوارزمي الهندسية ISSN: 18181171 23120789 Year: 2005 Volume: 1 Issue: 1 Pages: 101-116
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

In this investigation a high density polyethylene (HDPE) was used as a substitute to polyvinylchloride in the production of lead acid battery separators. This has been achieved by preparing mixtures of different percentages of the feed materials which include a high density polyethylene (HDPE) locally produced, filler materials such as silica and oils such as dioctylphthalate (DOP) or paraffin which were added to the mixture to improve the final properties of the separator. The materials were compounded by two roll-mills under the same conditions. The following parameters are involved:
1- Studying the use of a high density polyethylene as a binder to film components with (15-30) wt.%.
2- Studying the use of finely divided silica sand with (25-45) wt.% as a medium to oil adsorption.- Studying the use of two type plasticizers (Paraffin or DOP) with (35-55) wt. %. as a creative medium to films porosity.The best results of the feed materials in the mixture were selected so as to give the highest porosity using 15 wt. % PE, 30 wt. % filler, and 55 wt. % oil. It has been found that the films with DOP oil give higher porosity.

يتناول هذا البحث دراسة استخدام البولي اثيلين المنتج محليا في تصنيع عوازل بطاريات الرصاص السائلة كبديل اقتصادي عن عوازل البولي فينيل كلورايد المستخدمة من قبل الشركة العامة لصناعة البطاريات وكذلك عن عوازل البولي اثيلين المستوردة . تم ذلك من خلال تحضير خلطات بنسب مختلفة للمواد الداخلة والتي تشمل البولي اثيلين عالي الكثافة ، مواد مالئة مثل السليكا، زيوت مثل البارافين اوثنائي اوكتايل الفثاليت (الدوب) التي تضاف إلى الخلطة لتحسين الخواص النهائية للعازل ، ثم تشكيله بواسطة ماكنة الخلط والمعروفة two – roll mill بظروف عملية ثابتة .تضمن البحث المحاور آلاتية-استخدام البولي اثيلين العالي الكثافة بنسب وزنية 15-30 %.-إضافة مادة السيليكا بنسب وزنية 25-45%.-تأثير إضافة مادة ملدنة (لعمل الفراغات) مثل زيت البرافين و الدوب بنسب وزنية 35 -55%. تم تحديد أفضل النسب للمواد الداخلة في الخلطات والتي أعطت أعلى درجة من المسامية باستخدام البولي اثيلين العالي الكثافة بنسبة ( 15) %, مواد مالئة بنسبة (30) % و( 55) % من الزيت ، لقد وجد بان النماذج مع زيت ثنائي اوكتايل الفثاليت تمتاز بدرجة مسامية أعلى عن نماذج زيت البرافين .


Article
Porosity Measurements of Positive of Lead-Acid Battery Plates by Mercury PSorosimetry
قياسات المسامية لألواح نضيدة الرصاص الموجبة بطريقة مقياس المسامية الزئبقية

Author: Haeder A. J. AL-Meisslmawy حيدر عباس جواد المسلماوي
Journal: Baghdad Science Journal مجلة بغداد للعلوم ISSN: 20788665 24117986 Year: 2010 Volume: 7 Issue: 3 Pages: 1187-1192
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

A mercury porosimeter has been used to measure the intrusion volume of the three types mercury positive lead acid-battery plates. The intrusion volumes were used to calculate the pore diameter, pore volume, pore area, and pore size distribution. The variation of the pore area in positive lead acid-battery plates as well as of the pore volume has the following sequence. Paste positive > Uncured positive > Cured positive

تم استخدام جهاز المسام الزئبقي لقياس حجم الداخلي لثلاثة أنواع ألواح نضيدة الرصاص الحامضية الموجبة , تم حساب قطر المسام, حجم المسام , مساحة المسام , وتوزيع حجم المسام من خلال الحجوم الداخلة . أن الاختلاف في مساحة المسام لألواح نضيدة الرصاص الحامضية الموجبة وكذلك حجم المسام تتبع الترتيب الأتيpaste positive > uncured positive > cured positive

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