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Article
Comparetive study between saline sonohysterography,transvaginal ultrasound and biopsy in evaluation of endometrial disease in postmenopausal bleeding
دراسة مقارنة بين الفحص بالامواج فوق الصوتية المهبلي باستخدام المحلول الملحي المتعادل مع الخزعة في تقييم امراض بطانة الرحم في حالات النزف مابعد سن اليأس

Author: Laith Ahmed ليث احمد
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2013 Volume: 55 Issue: 1 Pages: 15-21
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background : Transvaginal ultrasound is used conventionally as initial investigation of patients with postmenopausal bleeding, but saline contrast sonohysterography is a better technique to reliably distinguish focal from diffuse endometrial lesion. Objectives: to compare the ability of transvaginal ultrasonography and saline infusion sonohysterography as initial modality for the diagnosis of endometrial abnormalities in women with PMB by correlating the results with endometrial biopsy. Patients and methods: During the period from November 2011 to MAY 2012 ,40 female patients with postmenopausal bleeding were submitted to sequential examination by transvaginal ultrasound ,and sonohysterography .the presence of focal endometrial lesions and type of lesion (endometrial hyperplasia ,polyp, submucous myoma ,or malignancy )were noted .predictive values were calculated by correlating the results with final diagnosis reached by endometrial biopsy.Result:The sonohysterography had 89.4 % sensitivity and 90% specificity , DA 90%, compared to 60%sensitivity and 70%specificity achieved by transvaginal sonography .The diagnostic performance of sonohysterography for 3 main endometrial abnormalities (i.e. endometrial hyperplasia ,polyps and submucous myoma ) was better than transvaginal sonography. The best results were seen in cases of submucos myoma where sensitivity and specificity of sonohysterography reached to 100% as compared to TVS (66% and 95.24% respectively).Conclusion:The results have substantiated that sonohysterography is a better tool than transvaginal sonography for the assessment of endometrial intra-cavity lesion .by providing accurate differentiation between focal and diffuse endometrial lesions. Keywords : sonohysterography , transvaginal us , postmenopausal bleeding

ان هذا البحث يعمد الى دراسة فعالية الفحص بالأمواج فوق الصوتيه المهبلي بعد حقن كمية من المحلول الملحي المتعادل في تقييم امراض بطانة الرحم لحالات النزف بعد سن اليأس .المرضى والطرق: خلال الفترة مابين تشرين الثاني 2011 ولغاية شهر أيار 2012 في مستشفى بغداد التعليمي التابع لمدينة ا لطب .تم تحري 40 مريضة تعاني من النزف الرحمي بعد سن اليأس بأستخدام جهاز الأمواج فوق الصوتية المهبلي عالي التردد بعد حقن كمية من المحلول الملحي المتعادل .لقد تم تقييم امراض بطانة الرحم الموضعية مثل (ورم ليفي رحمي تحت الغشاء المخاطي ,زوائد مخاطية وتكثر نسيجي موضعي) وتمييزها عن امراض بطانة الرحم المنتشرة.تم اجراء التحليل النسيجي بعد ذلك بواسطة جرف بطانة الرحم التشخيصي وأستئصال الرحم وحسب النتائج المستحصله تم مقارنة الخواص المتعلقه ببطانة الرحم من خلال الفحص بالأمواج فوق الصوتية المهبلي المائي مع نتائج اتحليل النسيجي.النتائج: لقد تبين ان حساسية الفحص مقارنة بنتائج التحليل النسيجي تكون 89% والنوعية 91% والدقة التشخيصية 90%. افضل نتيجة للفحص كانت في تقييم الورم الليفي الرحمي تحت الغشاء المخاطي حيث الحساسيه والنوعية 100%.الاستنتاجات: بقارنة نتائج الدراسة مع نتائج الدراسات الاخرى تبين ان لكل امرأة تعاني من نزف مابعد سن اليأس يعتبر الفحص بالامواج فوق الصوتية المهبلي باستخدام المحلول الملحي المتعادل الفحص الاولي والافضل في تقييم امراض بطانة الرحم وذلك لقدرة الفحص في التمييز بين امراض بطانة الرحم الموضعية والمنتشرة.


Article
Study The Relationship of IL-33 with Adiponectin in Postmenopausal Female with and without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Author: Abeer Jabbar Hassan
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2015 Volume: 12 Issue: 3 Pages: 618-624
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Postmenopausal women influence by several physiological changes such as coronary artery disease, obesity and insulin resistance. Interleukin-33 (IL-33) a cytokine which have a protective effect to cardiovascular disorders and regarded either pro- or anti-inflammatory. Adiponectin is a hormone with anti-inflammatory properties, associated with hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships of IL-33, adiponectin with atherogenicity as considered risk factor for heart disease in postmenopausal women with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ninety women age between (54-62) years were enrolled in this study. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), body mass index (BMI), lipid profile, atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), IL-33 and adiponectin levels were determined in patients and control groups. The results revealed highly significant increase in FBG, HbA1c, BMI, TCh, TG, LDL-c, VLDL-c and AIP. While reduce HDL-c, adiponectin and IL-33 levels were founded in postmenopausal women when comparing to control group. Furthermore, a positive correlation was observed in IL-33 with HbA1c, also with AIP, but a negative significant correlation between IL-33 and adiponectin, also between IL-33 and BMI in diabetic postmenopausal women group. Conclusion from the results of present work lead to suggest that higher reduction in IL-33 and adiponectin levels in diabetic postmenopausal women may be useful in predict action of cardiovascular disorders.


Article
EVALUATION OF SERUM OSTEOPONTIN LEVEL IN OBESE IRAQI POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN WITH PRIMARY OSTEOPOROSIS
تقييم مستوى مصل الاوستيوبونين في مصل دم النساء العراقيات مابعد سن الياس المصابات بهشاشة العظام الاولي

Author: Manal kamal Rasheed منال كمال رشيد
Journal: AL-TAQANI مجلة التقني ISSN: 1818653X Year: 2014 Volume: 27 Issue: 2 Pages: E94-E103
Publisher: Foundation of technical education هيئة التعليم التقني

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Background: Osteoporosis (OP) is a chronic and progressive disease characterized bydecreased bone mass and micro architectural deterioration of bone tissue, resulting in anincreased risk of fracture .Body mass index (BMI) has been found to be related to the risk ofosteoporotic fractures in women, regardless of bone mineral density (BMD). Very few studieshave investigated the comparison of fracture risk among BMI categories, classified accordingto the WHO criteria, despite the potential usefulness of such information for clinical purposes.Osteopontin was described as a major component protein in bone and named bonesialoprotein1 it’s produced by osteoblasts and osteoclasts. It has been found to be associatedwith bone strength and bone remodeling. OPN influences bone homeostasis both by inhibitingmineral deposition, by promoting differentiation of osteoclasts and by enhancing osteoclastactivity

مرض هشاشة العظام من الامراض المزمنة والمتفاقمة ويتميز بأنخفاض كثافة العظم وتدهور الشكل الهندسي للنسيج العظمي ,مما ينتج عنه زيادة خطورة الاصابة بالكسر. مقياس كتلة الجسم (BMI) وجد ان له علاقة بخطورة هشاشة العظام عند النساء, بغض النظر لكثافة العظام المعدنية (.BMDهناك دراسات قليلة شخصت العلاقة بين خطورة الكسر العظام ومقياس كتلة الجسم , والذي صنف أنسجاما مع معيار WHO.الاوستيوبيوتين هو البروتين المكون الاساسي للعظام ويسمى سيالوبروتين وهو ينتج من خلايا المكونة والهادمة للعظم. ويوجد أيضا في خلايا تقوية العظام وأعادة بناء العظام. والاستيوبونتين يؤثر في توازن العظام من خلال تثبيط ترسيب المعادن او من خلال زيادة المفاضلة بين عملية الانحلال وارتشاف النسيج العظمي وزيادة فعالية انحلال العظم. هذه الدراسة تضمنت تقييم مستوى مصل أوستيوبونتين عند النساء مابعد سن الياس المصابات بهشاشة العظام (بنخر العظام) والغير مصابات بهشاشة العظام من النوع الاولي ومقارنة النتائج بالنساء غير المصابات بهشاشة العظام كمجموعة ضابطة لغرض المقارنة . وهذه الدراسة تضمنت العلاقة مابين مستوى مصل أوستيوبونتين ومقياس كتلة الجسم عند النساء. انجزت الدراسة من الفترة اذار الى ايلول من سنة 2012 .تضمنت الدراسة ثمانون امرأة بعمر يتراوح بين(50-77)سنة . النساء قسموا الى مجموعتين : الاولى أ وعددها اربعة واربعون(44) امراة مصابات بهشاشة العظام الاولي ومصابة بكسر والمجموعة الثانية ب وعددها ست وثلاثون (36) امراة غير مصابات بهشاشة العظام ولايعانين من كسر (كمجموعة ضابطة)لغرض المقارنة. حیث تم تشخیص جمیع النساء في المجموعتین ا و ب للتاكد من وجود كسر من عدمه عن طريق اشعة السنية(x-ray ))طریقة كلیر كوبر( وكذلك تم تشخیص مرض هشاشة العظام من عدمه عن طریق قیاس كثافة العظم بجھاز (GE machine) DXAبالاضافة الى ذلك تم قیاس مستوى كل من كالسیوم ، فسفور والاكلاین فوسفاتیس في مصل الدم بواسطة المطیاف الضوئي(Spectrophotometerوتم قیاس الاستیوبونتین في مصل الدم بواسطة الاليزة (ELISA).وتم التاكد من ان جمیع النساء لم یتناولن الكحول ، غیر مدخنات ، غیرمصابات بمرض یؤثر على ایض العظام وكذلك لم یتناولن دواء له تاثیر على بناء الھیكل العظمي.أن متوسط قيم مستوى الاوستيوبونتين كان مرتفعا بشكل معنوي في مصل دم النساء مابعد سن الياس المصابات بهشاشة العظام ويعانين من كسر مقارنة بالنساء الغير مصابات بهشاشة العظام ولايعانين من كسر ( المجموعة الظابطة) p<0.0001. أن متوسط مصل الاوستيوبيونتين عند النساء مابعد سن اليأس مصابات بهشاشة العظام كان مرتفعا بشكل معنوي(22.56±4.57 kg/m2 مقارنة بالنساء غير المصابات بهشاشة العظام ولايعانين من كسر العظام كمجموعة ظابطة (15.83±0.52 kg/m2) (P<0.0001) ذو الوزن الطبيعي . وجد ايضا هناك زيادة معنوية في متوسط قيم مستوى الاوستيوبونتين عند المرضى (26.75±5.17) kg/m2 مقارنة بالمجموعة الظابطة (15.72±0.69) kg/m2 ) (p<0.0001)ذو الوزن الزائد . هناك زيادة معنوية في متوسط قيم مستوى الاوستيوبونتين عند المرضى(26.20±5.91kg/m²) مقارنة بالمجموعة الضابطة (16.07±0.66kg/m²) (p<0.0001)المصابون بالبدانة. وجد ايضا انا هناك علاقة معنوية موجبة مابين مستوى مصل الاوستيوبونتين ومقياس كتلة الجسم عند المرضى(r= 0.4 )(p< 0.05 ) اوعلاقة غيرمعنوية موجبة مابين مستوى مصل الاوستيوبونتين ومقياس كتلة الجسم عند المجموعة الضابطة.(r= 0.12 )(p> 0.05) ان ارتفاع مستوى مصل الاوستيونونتين في مصل دم النساءمابعد سن الياس المصابات بنخر العظام ويعانين من كسر يعطي دليلا على ان قياس مستوى الاوستيونونتين في مصل الدم يمكن الاستفادة منه في تشخيص الاصابة بهشاشة العظام الاولي . ومن النتائج التي ظهرت من هذا البحث ان السمنة هي عامل خطر ومؤثر على هشاشة العظام والذي يؤدي الى زيادة الاوستيوبونتين


Article
Early Changes of Bone Mineral Density in Symptomatic Women at First Visit to Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA) Investigation
التغيرات المبكره في كثافه معادن العظم عند النساء لدى احالتهم لاول مره للتشخيص بوساطه فحص مقياس امتصاصيه اشعه x- ذو الطاقه المتضاربه

Author: Nida Hassan Ali نداء حسن علي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2013 Volume: 26 Issue: 3 Pages: 277-281
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract:Background: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the most applicable method to assess bone density (BMD). Osteoporosis is diagnosed when finding low BMD compared to a reference population of young healthy women.Objective: This study aimed to categorize the DXA findings in postmenopausal women referred for the first time to DXA investigation. Patients & Method: A total number of 63 women who referred to DXA unit at Al-Yarmouk teaching hospital with a provisional diagnosis of osteoporosis were admitted in the study. Demographic data and medical history obtained from each patient and the anthropometric measurement were determined. Results: The results showed that the BMD is declined non-significantly with advance age and the changes of osteoporosis (as estimated by T score ≤ -2.5) was detected in higher frequency in spine L1, L1-L2 and in Ward's area. Conclusion: It concludes that postmenopausal women of whatever age or demographic characteristics should be subjected to DXA investigation at least of L1 and Ward's area to reach the osteoporosis diagnosis in the first visit to the DXA unitKeywords: Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, postmenopausal women

الخلفية : ان فحص مقياس امتصاص أشعه x- ذو الطاقه المتضاربه اكثر الطرق تطبيقا لتقيم كثافه العظم . وتشخص هشاشه العظم عندما تكون كثافه المعادن في العظم قليله مقارنه بكثافه العظم عند امرأه في الثلاثين من العمر وبصحه جيده .الهدف : هو الكشف المبكر عن التغيرات في كثافه المعادن في العظام عند النساء عند احالتهن لأول مره للتشخيص بواسطه مقياس امتصاص أشعه -x ذو الطاقه المتضاربه وذلك بترتيب وتصنيف المعلومات التي نحصل عليها من الجهاز.الطريقه : احالت 63 امرأه الى وحدة فحص الهشاشه في مستشفى اليرموك التعليمي بتشخيص تكهني، وتم تسجيل معلومات ديموغرافيه من كل مريضه وكذلك تم أخذ قياسات متريه الطول والوزن .النتائج : أظهرت االنتائج أن انحدار كثافه المعادن في العظم ليس له ارتباط كبير بتقدم العمر والتغيرات في هشاشه العظم التي قُيمت بمقياس T- أقل أو تساوي (- 5,2) قد تكررت بشكل كبير في الفقرة القطنيه الأولى ، وما بين الأولى – الثانيه ومنطقة الأرداف عند الحوض .الإستنتاج : ان النساء في فترة انقطاع الطمث في أي عمر كانت وكيفما كانت حالتها الديمغرافيه يجب ان تخضع لفحص أشعة x- ذو الطاقه المتضاربه على الاقل للفقرة القطنيه الأولى ومنطقة الأرداف للحصول على تشخيص هشاشه العظام في الزيارة الأولى لوحدة قياس هشاشه العظم .


Article
Salivary calcium and phosphate in relation to oral health among postmenopausal women in Baghdad governorate

Authors: Dr. Jinan Mohammed Rashad, B.D.S., M.Sc. * د. جنان محمد رشاد --- Dr. Sahar Jabbar Mohammed * د. سحر جبار --- Dr. Shatha Abbas Kalf * د.شذى عباس
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2016 Volume: 13 Issue: 1 Pages: 92-97
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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In women approaching menopause many physiological changes take placeincluding oral discomfort in addition to general climacteric complaints. The aim ofthis study was to evaluate the oral health status in relation to some salivaryconstituents including calcium and phosphate of pre and postmenopausal women.Oral health status of 40 women (20 pre-menopause and 20 post-menopause) wereexamined including (Decayed, Missing, and Filled teeth index (DMFT), gingivalindex, plaque index, and calculus index). Stimulated whole saliva was collected todetermine salivary calcium and phosphate composition. The data were analysed withStudent's t-test.The mean values of pH and flow rate were lower among postmenopausal womenthan premenopausal one. Plaque, gingival and calculus indices were higher in postmenopausewomen. Dental caries was also higher among postmenopausal womenwith a highly significant difference. Concerning the level of salivary calcium andphosphate, both of these elements were significantly higher among premenopausalwomen than postmenopausal one.Postmenopausal women showed significantly more oral changes than thepremenopausal women. These changes could be related to the hormone alterations.Therefore, it is necessary to take preventive and educational measures targeted atthese women.


Article
Can vaginal ultrasound replace diagnostic curettage in the detection of endometrial pathology in post-menopausal bleeding?

Authors: Media Ghazi Sedeq --- Shawnam Nasih Dawood --- Aska Farooq --- Shahla K. Alalaf
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2019 Volume: 23 Issue: 2 Pages: 233-241
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Background and objective: Post-menopausal bleeding due to endometrial abnormalities is a common diagnostic challenge facing the ultrasonogists and referring gynecologists. This study aimed to detect the validity of transvaginal ultrasound to detect endometrial pathologies and its sensitivity and specificity for determining endometrial carcinoma in women with postmenopausal bleeding.Methods: A diagnostic accuracy study of transvaginal ultrasound and diagnostic curettage was conducted for evaluation of endometrial pathology in the College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University from October2016to January 2018. The sample size included 55 women with post-menopausal vaginal bleeding. The ultrasound findings were compared with histopathological results of endometrial biopsy.Results: Out of 55 women, 49.09% had endometrial atrophy, 29.09% had endometrial hyperplasia, 16.36% had endometrial polyp, 3.64% had endometrial carcinoma, and 1.82% had hyperplasia with atypia according to histopathological findings. The sensitivity of ultrasound in detecting cancer was 66.7%, the specificity was 100%, the positive predictive value (PV) was 100%, and the negative predictive value was 98.1%. The total agreement rate was 98.2%.Conclusion: Transvaginal ultrasound is an excellent diagnostic tool to determine whether further investigation with histopathological examination of endometrial biopsy is necessary for postmenopausal vaginal bleeding.


Article
The periodontal health status of postmenopausal women and its relationship to bone mineral density

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The relationship between changes in postmenopausal women and periodontalcondition had been studied in many countries. It has been suggested that estrogendeficiency may play a role in periodontal disease following menopause. The aim ofthis study was to investigate the influence of postmenopausal alteration on the clinicalperiodontal parameters and teeth loss. In addition, to determine the relationshipbetween systemic bone mineral density and periodontal disease in postmenopausal.womenSixty Iraqi women in total were involved in this study, 20 women as a controlgroup of age (35-45) years and forty postmenopausal women divided into two.subgroups: groupl for age (50-60) years and group 2 of age (60-70) years:Questionnaire involved the following periodontal parametersPlaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP), pocketdepth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL). All these parameters were measured andtabulated according to redefined scores, or counts, and the data was analyzed.statistically- Fifteen of forty postmenopausal women, were examined using dual energy xray absorptiometry (DEXA) equipment to measure bone mineral density (BMD) inorder to determine the relationship between (BMD) and any of the above periodontalparameters. The means, Gl, BOP, PD and CAL were found to be significantly higher.)in the postmenopausal group than the control (P<0.05It was found that BMD is negatively associated with Gl, BOP, PD and CALbut the correlation is either of high significant or of slight of difference but notsignificant at (P<0.05). The clinical parameters may increase depending on theexpected negative effects during menopause further, it is concluded that BMD of the.lumbar spine is related to CAL, PD, number of teeth loss and to a lesser extent BOP


Article
Determination of Endometrial Thickness Threshold for Prompt Biopsy in Postmenopausal Women Without Vaginal Bleeding

Authors: Nada S. Amen --- Manal Madani Abdul Qader
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2012 Volume: 11 Issue: 3 Pages: 292-296
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Transvaginal sonography is performed as part of a pelvic sonogram in postmenopausal women and images of the endometrium are frequently obtained . In asymptomatic postmenopausal women without vaginal bleeding, the threshold separating normal from abnormally thickened endometrium is not known.OBJECTIVE:To determine an endometrial thickness threshold using transvaginal sonography for prediction of endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women without vaginal bleeding (asymptomatic) .METHOD:The study group includes 100 asymptomatic postmenopausal women without vaginal bleeding, We measure the sensitivity and specificity of trasvaginal sonography in the prediction of cancer in asymptomatic postmenopausal women without vaginal bleeding at endometrial thickness ≤5mm ,5-10 mm &>10mm ,RESULTS:Four cases (4) of cancer were detected at >10mm endometrial thickness. In asymptomatic postmenopausal women without vaginal bleeding the sensitivity 100% ,specificity 47.91% ,positive predictive values 7.40% and negative predictive values 100% at 10mm endomtrial thickness while at 5mm endomtrial thickness,the sensitivity 100% ,specificity 9.3% ,positive predictive values 4% and negative predictive values 100%CONCLUSION:In asymptomatic postmenopausal women promotion for endometrial sampling if endometrial thickness >10mm seen by trasvaginal sonography give better positive predictive value, sensitivity & specificity than>5mm endometrial thicknes


Article
Treatment of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis By Evista (raloxifene) and Fasomax ( alendronate)A Comparable study

Author: Abdullah Y. Al-Mihyawi
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2007 Volume: 20 Issue: 1 Pages: 24-31
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Background :A new group of pharmaceutical substances for treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, named Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMS). Evista (raloxifene) is the recent generation of SERMS, which acts through the binding with estrogen receptors in such a way that it acts as an estrogen agonist on bone and cardiovascular system while acting as an estrogen antagonist on breast and endometrium . Another new drug, named Fasomax (alendronate), is stable analog of inorganic pyrophosphate, which acts through binding to the bone mineral surface and inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption.Objective : This study is focused to compare the effects of Evista (raloxifene) and Fasomax (alendronate) on the bone mineral density and bone quality in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.Methods: A prospective study done in Dar-Alshifa hospital (Abu-Dhabie), on 100 patients with postmenopausal steoporosis. These patients were randomized in two groups, Evista (raloxifene) and Fasomax (alendronate) treated groups, in both the results compared with a placebo group.Bone mineral density was performed regularly in our centre.Histomorphometry was performed on transiliac bone biopsy taken from volunteers in the central laboratory.Results: In all treated patients whether by Evista(raloxifene) or Fasomax(alendronate), newly formed bone retained its normal lamellar structure, and there was no evidence for marrow fibrosis or cellular toxicity. The increase in bone mineral density was 4% with Evista and 16% with Fasomax.Conclusion: Both Evista and Fasomax maintain the normal quality of bone. Evista has more extraskeletal beneficial effect esp. on lipid profile. Key words : evista, raloxifene, fasomax, alendronate, postmenopausal osteoporosis, histomorphometry, bone remodeling.Keywords: evista, raloxifene, fasomax, alendronate, postmenopausal osteoporosis, histomorphometry, bone remodeling.


Article
Association between osteoporosis and periodontitis

Author: N.A.AL-RAWI.
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2007 Volume: 20 Issue: 1 Pages: 32-36
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: Systemic bone loss has been proposed as a risk factor for periodontal disease however the relationship between these two diseases is still not clear. Objective: The aim of this prospective study was to assess the relationship between systemic bone mineral density , periodontal disease and status of smoking. Patients & Methods: The study population included 125 patients with osteoporosis, 110 of they were with periodontal disease and 15 without, 110 patients with moderate, advanced periodontitis. Aged 50-75 year (mean + SD: 65+7.1 years ). Skeletal bone density was assessed by plain x-ray of the femur , and the ant-post-view of the lumber spine. Periodontal disease severity was represented by application of community Periodontal Index (CPI). Three indicators of periodontal status were used for this assessment, gingival bleeding, calculus, and periodontal pockets (WHO, 1997). Results: Moderate osteoporosis was the most frequent grade in all patients. Periodontitis was noted in 88% of patients with osteoporosis, and 12% were non-periodontitis. Significant correlation was observed between osteoporosis severity and periodontitis.Conclusions: Skeletal bone mineral density is related to interproximal alveolar bone loss or to a less extent, to clinical attachment loss. Keywords: osteoporosis, etiology; bone density; smoking; risk factors; osteopenia; postmenopausal; periodontal diseases/etiology.

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