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Article
Assessment of Postpartum Depression among Mothers Attending Primary Health Care Centers in Hawler City
تقييم اكتئاب ما بعد الولادة بين الأمهات اللائي يراجعون مراكز الرعاية الصحية الأولية في مدينة هولير

Authors: Twana Abdulrahman Rahim --- Sawza Hamid Ramadan Albotany
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2012 Volume: 16 Issue: 1 Pages: 58-64
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Background and objectives: Postpartum depression is a global, life-threatening disorder which affects particular mothers in their post-natal periods. It’s regarded to be one of the major disabling conditions of motherhood. We aimed to study the rate of, as well as assessing a group of psycho-obstetrical risk factors behind postpartum depression.Methods: 98 newly gave-birth mothers were recruited with mean age of 27.07 year between the periods of November 2009 to February 2010. Edinburg Post-natal Depression Scale was adopted by authors for the assessment of postpartum depression. Comparisons on groups of demographic, obstetrical, and psychological data were done between both positive and negative mothers for the disorder.Results: 39.8% of mothers were diagnosed as postpartum depression. For which, no particular demographic factors were significantly predictive for. Depressed mothers were of significant higher mean number of gestation with p value of 0.0472. However, no other obstetrical factors revealed back statistical significant differences. Past history of depres-sive disorders, whether post-natal or not, was significant predictor for current postpartum depression with p value of 0.02 for history of previous postpartum depression, and p value of 0.042 for non postpartum depressive disorders.Conclusion: Postpartum depression is highly prevalent in our society. History of depres-sive disorders is a strong predictor for future postpartum disorder. However, there were no clear correlation between postpartum depression and other demographic and obstetrical data apart from the mean number of gestation.


Article
The effect of pre-operative intravenous Cyklokapron on the amount of blood loss during and after caesarean section for anemic patients At Al Yarmouk teaching hospital in Baghdad.

Authors: Hind Abdul Khaliq --- Ban Hadi Hameed
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 3 Pages: 23-27
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Back ground: caesarean section carries significant morbidity and mortality over vaginal delivery. Anemia with hemorrhagic complications add significantly for this morbidity and mortality. Aim of the study: to assess the effectiveness of Cyklokapron in reducing the intra-operative blood loss at time of caesarean section and postpartum hemorrhage in anemic patients and to evaluate its safety when used prophylactically. Patients and method: A hundred pregnant women aged 19 - 41 years with term gestation were recruited in this randomized, case control, prospective therapeutic trial, which was conducted for a period of one year at Al Yarmouk teaching hospital Baghdad Iraq, the participants were admitted for caesarean section. They were divided randomly into two groups; the study group 50 patients received intravenous Cyklokapron pre-operatively and a control group matched for the indication of caesarean section, the intra-operative, post-operative blood loss and hematocrit were evaluated and compared for both groups. Results: The intra-operative blood loss was measured in both groups, the total loss was significantly lower in the study group (170.12 ± 68.4 ml) compared to the control group (420.39 ± 130.6 ml) as P value was 0.0001 Concerning the post-operative blood loss, it was comparable in both groups and blood transfusion was required for two patients in the control group because of severe anemia (hemoglobin less than 8 gmdl) with no transfusion in the study group and this difference was not significant statistically. The mean reduction in hematocrit was significantly lower in the study group compared to control group (1.52 ± 0.81%) versus (2.58±0.85%) respectively and P value was less than 0.05 Conclusion and recommendations: The current study revealed that Cyklokapron is significantly effective in reducing blood loss at time of caesarean section. We recommend further studies with higher doses and more patients to evaluate its effect in reducing the intra-operative loss and preventing postpartum hemorrhage.


Article
Comparison of Oral Misoprostol with Conventional Uterotonics in the Management of Third Stage of Labor

Authors: Hameedah Hadi --- Zahida A. Al- Saadi
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2019 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 4103-4110
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

background: Randomized prospective control study it is objective to compare effect of oral misoprostol with conventional uterotonics in the management of the third stage of labor.Aim of study: The incidence of Hemorrhage and the decrease in hemoglobin concentration is the main out comes of the trial. Secondary outcomes included the occurrences of sever postpartum hemorrhage.Patient and method: This study was done in Department of obstetrics and gynecology at Baghdad Teaching Hospital. In controlled trials a pregnant women total number 280 were randomized into four groups, as followed: Group I: received oral misoprostol 400 Mg, followed by two doses of oral misoprostol 100 Mg 4hours a part. (n=72), group 2: received intravenous infusion of oxytocin10 IU plus oral misoprostol 400 Mg followed by two doses of 100Mg oral misoprostol 4 hours apart group 3: received intravenous infusion of oxytocin 10 IU. (n=69), group 4: received intravenous infusion of 10 IU oxytocin plus intramuscular administration of methylergometrine (methergine) 0.2 mg. (n=77). The data of 40 women were excluded from the study because of loss to follow up, previous cesarean deliveries performed after randomization n=25, pre delivery hemoglobin was unavailable n= 10, postpartum percentage of hematocrit unavailable n=5. Main measures, the incidences of postpartum hemorrhage and the changes in hematocrit concentration from before delivery to 24 hours postpartum, in those women used oral misoprostol in management of third stage of labor with or without the use of other uterotonicsResult: Shows, Mean blood loss in misoprostol group was not significantly higher than blood loss in oxytocin group and oxytocin misoprostol group, but there was statistically significant difference when compared with oxytocin-methylergometrine group.Conclusion: Oral administrated misoprostol is as effective as conventional oxytocic in prevention of postpartum hemorrhage


Article
Assessment of licensed indigenous midwives’ knowledge concerning prevention and management of postpartum hemorrhage in Baghdad city

Authors: Eman A. Jaber --- Iqbal M. Abbas
Journal: nursing national Iraqi specility المجلة العراقية الوطنية للعلوم التمريضية ISSN: 18122388 Year: 2011 Volume: 24 Issue: 2 Pages: 1-12
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Objective(s): The aim of this study is to assess licensed indigenous midwives’ knowledge concerning prevention and management of postpartum hemorrhage in Baghdad City. Methodology: A descriptive analytic study is conducted on a purposive "non-probability" sample of one hundred licensed indigenous midwives who were selected what represents 26% of the target population, during period from March, 5th to May, 10th, 2008. The study is conducted at the two settings of Ministry of Health (Baghdad health directorate in Al-Karhk and Al-Risafa) sector during their annual renewed license for midwifery practice. The questionnaire form is consisted of three parts which included demographic data, knowledge concerning prevention and management of primary postpartum hemorrhage. Content validity and reliability of the questionnaire is determined through a pilot study, descriptive and inferential statistical are used to analyze the data.Results: The study results showed that the highest percentage (40%) of study sample is of the age group (50-59 years) and more than half of the study sample is primary school graduate and less. More than the half of the study sample is assigned to primary postpartum hemorrhage during their practices in midwifery. There were statistically significant relationships between knowledge of licensed Indigenous Midwives regarding prevention and management of primary postpartum hemorrhage and their ages and level of education.Recommendations: The study recommends that licensed indigenous midwife should be provided with information on safe delivery practices and the importance of healthy referral system. Committing licensed indigenous midwife to apply Ministry of Health instructions, do not allowing delivering risky pregnant cases. Establish midwifery department for medical technical institutes and higher diploma degree in midwifery for college nurse graduates

الهدف : تهدف الدراسة إلى تقييم معارف القابلات الأهليات المجازات حول منع وتدبر النزف بعد الولادة في مدينة بغداد.المنهجية : دراسة وصفية تحليلية, تمّ اختيار عيّنة غير احتمالية (عمدية) لمائة قابلة أهلية والتي مثلت (26%) من المجتمع المستهدف للدراسة خلال المُدّة من5 آذار ولغاية 10 آيار، 2008. تمّ إجراء الدراسة في وزارة الصحة (دائرة صحة بغداد الكرخ والرصافة) خلال تجديد الإجازة السنوية لممارسة القبالة. تكونت الإستمارة الاستبيانية من (3) أجزاء تشمل الخصائص الديموغرافية ومعارف القابلات الأهليات المجازات في منع وتدبير النزف الأولي بعد الولادة, وتمّ تحديد صدق المحتوى وثبات الاستمارة الاستبيانية من خلال دراسة إستطلاعية وإستعمال التحليل الإحصاء الوصفي والإستنتاجي في تحليل البيانات.النتائـج: تشير نتائج الدراسة إن أعلى نسبة (40%) من أفراد عيّنة الدراسة تتراوح أعمارهن بين (50-59 سنة) وأكثر من نصف عيّنة الدراسة هُنّ من خريجات الدراسة الإبتدائية وأقل، وإنّ أكثر من نصف عيّنة الدراسةِ تعرّضنّ لحالات من النزف الأولي أثناء ممارستهن التوليد وأنّ هناك علاقة ذات دلالة إحصائية بين معارف القابلات الأهليات المجازات في منع (تدبر) النزف الأولي بعد الولادة وعمرهن ومستواهن التعليمي. التوصيـات: توصي الدراسة بتزويد القابلة الأهلية المجازة بالمعلومات عن ممارسات الولادة الآمنة وأهمية نظام الإحالة الصحيّ وإالزام القابلة الأهلية المجازة في تطبيق تعليمات وزارة الصحة بعدم السماح لها في توليد حالات الحمل المعرّضة للخطورة وإنشاء فرع للقبالة في معاهد الطبي التقني ودبلومِ عالي في القبالة لخريجات كلية التمريض


Article
Morphological Study of the mice’s Islets of Langerhans and β-cells mass assessment during Pregnancy and lactation conditions

Authors: May F. Al-Habib --- Hayder H. Abdulameer --- Ahmad H Abood
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2016 Volume: 9 Issue: 2 Pages: 2523-2533
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

background: Islets of langerhans adapts to changing insulin demands in the body. One of the most amazing reversible islets of langerhansadaptations occurs during pregnancy and postpartum conditions. During pregnancy,β-cells mass expand by increasing their number and size . and they are rapidly reversed at end of pregnancy by β- cell apoptosis and retained to normal level . Objectives: This study attempt to demonstrate the changes of the islets of langerhans that happen during pregnancy and lactation including changes in the general morphological and histological features, changes in the certain islets’ parameters e.g. number ,diameter and mean areas, and changes in the β – cells mass.Material and Methods: We were used thirty female mice which divided into (3) groups ten for each group. Group(A): served as a control. Group(B) was pregnant group (at day 15 of gestation). Group(C) was lactating group (at day 4 of Postpartum). Tissues were processed for both paraffin block and semithin plastic sections . Tissue sections were stained with H&E stain, Gomoritri chrome stain and NDS. Two digital image analysing soft wares were used in this study: Image J program and Image Scope programResults: It was demonstrated that the formation of new islets, enlargement of islets by union of adjacent small islets and by increased their cellularity were common features of pregnant group. also it was showed that in postpartum group, apoptosis of beta -cells started to restore the beta- cell number to normal level. The morphometric analysis of the islets parameters in this study showed a highly significant differences among the studied groups with P value ≤ 0.001. The mean number , mean diameter and mean area of islets were significantly higher in pregnant group, intermediate in lactating group and lowest in control group. In this study, the result also showed that the β-cell mass rose near the doubled during pregnancy as compared with control group, then decreased by 25% at 4th day of postpartum. This study conclude that islets of langerhans subjected to natural compensatory changes during pregnancy then they retain to normal state when pregnancy ended


Article
The Impact of Mother-Infant Bonding on Periodontal Health Status in the Postpartum Period

Authors: Rula Nabeel Issa رولا نبيل عيسى --- Ban Sahib Diab بان صاحب ذياب
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2018 Volume: 30 Issue: 1 Pages: 76-79
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: Mother-infant bonding is an important psychological step postpartum and disturbed relationship may carry dramatic consequences as a psychological disorder which may affect the periodontal health of the mother. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of the postpartum Mother-infant bonding on their periodontal condition.Materials and Methods: Mothers in the postpartum period with age range 20-35 years were subjected to postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ). Periodontal health status was assessed by measuring probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level.Results: The mean values of both probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were higher among disordered mothers than mothers with normal bonding relationship. The mean percentage of PPD according to different thresholds of severity and CAL (1-2 mm) was higher among the disordered mothers.Conclusion: Mother-infant bonding disorder could influence the periodontal health status of the mother


Article
Postpartum anestrus in cows
انعدام الشبق بعد الولادة في الأبقار

Author: K. D. Ahmed خالد ادفيك احمد
Journal: ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES مجلة الأنبار للعلوم الزراعية ISSN: PISSN: 19927479 / EISSN: 26176211 Year: 2009 Volume: 7 Issue: 1 Pages: 307-310
Publisher: University of Anbar جامعة الانبار

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Abstract

The study was conducted on 70 cows of Friesian and Holstein breed in AL-Faihaa station, Babylon Governorate during the period from January 2002 to March 2002. The age of animals ranged between 2 to 7 years. The study was designed to know the prevalence of postpartum anestrus and their treatments in cows. The prevalence of postpartum anestrus was 51.42% (36/70). The animals suffering from persistent corpus luteum were showed an incidence of 38.88% (14/36). The animals were treated with 15 mg PGF2α i.m. The animals suffering from inactive ovaries were showed an incidence of 61.11% (22/36). The animals suffered from inactive ovaries (n = 22) were divided into three groups; the first group (n = 9) were treated with 50 ml Lugol’s Iodine solution 5% intra uterine; The second group (n = 6) were treated with 0.5 mg GnRH i.m. while the third group (n = 7) treated with 6 mg estradiol benzoate i.m. The efficiency of the treatments were 55.5% , 100% and 71.4% respectively. There was a significant difference (P< 0.05) between different groups. It was concluded from this study that the postpartum anestrus prevalence is high and could be treated with PGF2α or GnRH with high success rate.

أجريت الدراسة على 70 بقرة من سلالة الفريزيان و الهولشتاين تواجدت في محطة الفيحاء الواقعة في محافظة بابل خلال الفترة من بداية كانون الثاني 2002 إلى نهاية آذار 2002. تراوحت أعمار الحيوانات من (2 -7) سنوات . استهدفت الدراسة معرفة نسبة حدوث انعدام الشبق بعد الولادة في الأبقار وطرق علاجها. لوحظ أن الأبقار التي تعاني من احتباس الجسم الأصفر 14 بقرة وبنسبة (20%) تم علاجها باستخدام 15 ملغم من البروستوكلاندين PGF2α في العضل وكانت نسبة الاستجابة للعلاج (7.85 % ) أما عدد الأبقار التي تعاني من حالة خمول المبايض بلغ 22 بقرة وبنسبة ( 4.31 % ) وقد قسمت الأبقار المصابة إلى ثلاثة مجموعات : المجموعة الأولى ( شملت 9 أبقار ) عولجت باستخدام 50 مل من محلول الليكول داخل الرحم أما المجموعة الثانية ( شملت 6 أبقار ) عولجت باستخدام 0.5 ملغم من الفرتاجيل GnRH في العضل أما المجموعة الثالثة ( شملت 7 أبقار ) عولجت باستخدام 6 ملغم من الاستراديول في العضل . كانت نسبة الاستجابة للعلاج بمحلول الليكول ( 5.55 % ) أما نسبة الاستجابة للعلاج باستخدام الفرتاجيل ( GnRH ) والاستراديول فكانت ( 100 % ) و ( 4.71 % ) على التوالي ولوحظ وجود فروق معنوية عند (P< 0.05) بين طرق علاج خمول المبايض . نستنتج من الدراسة الحالية بأن نسبة حدوث انعدام الشبق بعد الولادة في الأبقار عالية وأن استخدام العلاجات الهرمونية ( PGF2α و GnRH ) قد أعطت نسبة نجاح عالية .


Article
Periodontal health and salivary Interleukin -6 among preterm postpartum women

Authors: Dhamiaa M. Tajer --- Wesal A. Al-Obaidi وصال العبيدي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 2 Pages: 140-142
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Hormonal changes during pregnancy have been suggested to predispose women to gingivitis.Furthermore, advance periodontal infection in pregnant women may pose a threat to the placenta and uterus andmay increase the like hood of preterm delivery. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of salivaryinterleukin -6 (IL-6) level and periodontal health among preterm postpartum women.Materials and Methods: Salivary samples were taken from 33 preterm postpartum women (study group) and 33 fullterm postpartum women (control group). The supernatant salivary samples were assayed using atomic absorptionspectrophotometer. Plaque, calculus and gingival indices were used for recording the oral hygiene and gingivitisalso probing pocket depth was recorded.Results: The mean values of plaque index, calculus index probing pocket depth were higher among study groupthan control group with no statistically significant difference, but a highly significant difference was observed in themean value of GI between the two groups. The full term women had a higher mean value of salivary IL-6 than studygroup with no statistically significant difference, weak positive correlation was found between salivary IL-6 andprobing pocket depth in control group. On the other hand, weak negative correlations were noticed betweensalivary IL-6 among study group with Plaque index, Gingival index, Calculus index and probing pocket depth, alsobetween salivary IL-6 with PlI, GI and CalI among control group. However, statistically all correlations were notsignificant.Conclusion: It is concluded that pregnant women during pregnancy required preventive programs directed forimprovement of oral health and especially periodontal disease to prevent any pregnancy outcomes such aspreterm delivery


Article
Assessment of Postpartum Depression among Mothers at Maternity Teaching Hospital in Erbil City-Iraq
تقييم اكتئاب ما بعد الولادة بين الأمهات في مستشفى النسائية التعليمي في مدينة أربيل _العراق

Authors: Awaz Aziz أواز عزيز --- Mosleh S. Kareem مصلح كريم --- Abdulqadir Hussan Gardi عبدالقادر حسين
Journal: Mosul Journal of Nursing مجلة الموصل للتمريض ISSN: 23118784/26630311 Year: 2016 Volume: 4 Issue: 1 Pages: 7-12
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Background and aim: Postpartum period is the period that is associated with intense physical and emotional changes leading to anxiety and mood disturbances. The study aimed to assess the level of postpartum depression and to find out the association between levels of postpartum depression with demographic characteristics of mothers.Materials and method: A quantitative descriptive study, deals with 150 mothers who attending to the Maternity Teaching Hospital in Erbil City-Iraq. A questionnaire was used to collect the data from the period of 5th May 2015 to 4th August 2015. Data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistical (percentage, frequency, and chi –square).Results: the study shows that the majority of mothers age between (24-32) years was 46%, shows that the majority of sample (66%) was postpartum depressed also there were high significant relationship between some of demographic characteristics of mothers.Conclusion: The study concludes that there majority of sample was Postpartum depressed and significant relationship with their some demographic characters of mothers at P ≥ 0.5. Recommendation: The present study recommends that health education programs should be carried out for postnatal mothers apply by nurses.Keywords: Postpartum depressed, mothers.

خلفية البحث والأهداف: ترتبط فترة ما بعد الولادة بتغيرات جسدية وعاطفية مكثفة والتي قد تؤدي إلى القلق واضطرابات المزاج. هدفت الدراسة إلى تقييم مستوى اكتئاب ما بعد الولادة وايجاد العلاقة بين مستويات اكتئاب ما بعد الولادة والخصائص الديموغرافية للأمهات.منهجية البحث: دراسة وصفية كمية، تناولت 150 من الأمهات اللاتي ولدن في مستشفى الأمومة التعليمي في مدينة أربيل العراق. واستخدم استبانة لجمع البيانات للفترة من - 5 أيار 2015 إلى 4 آب 2015 . تم تحليل البيانات باستخدام الإحصاء الوصفي والاستنتاجي )النسبة المئوية، والتردد، والشيخوخة.النتائج: أظهرت الدراسة أن غالبية الأمهات كانت تتراوح أعمارهن بين 24 - 32 )سنة وكانت 46 ٪، وتبين أن غالبية العينة ) 66 ٪ كانت لديهن اكتئاب ما بعد الولادة كما كانت هناك علاقة معنوية عالية بين بعض الخصائص الديموغرافية للأمهات والاكتئاب.الاستنتاجات: خلصت الدراسة إلى أن أغلبية العينة كانت لديهن اكتئاب مابعد الولادة وهناك علاقة معنوية مع بعض الخصائص الديموغرافية للأمهات عند P ≥ 0.5 .التوصيات: توصي هذه الدراسة بضرورة تنفيذ برامج تثقيف صحي للأمهات بعد الولادة.


Article
Dental caries and salivary Interleukin-6 among preterm postpartum women in relation to baby birth weight (Comparative study)

Authors: Dhamiaa M. Tajer --- Wesal A. Al-Obaidi وصال العبيدي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: special issue 1 Pages: 174-177
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The physiologic, biochemical and anatomic changes that occur during pregnancy are extensive andmay be systemic or local. However, most of these changes return to pre pregnancy status six weeks postpartum. Theaim of the study was to investigate the effect of dental caries among preterm postpartum women and it's relation tobaby birth weight and salivary interleukin-6 (IL-6).Materials and methods: 66 postpartum women were examined, 33 preterm postpartum women (study group) and 33full term postpartum women (control group). Dental caries was recorded using, decayed, missing and filled surfacesindex, also assess the decayed lesion by severity. Salivary samples were taken from all subjects to estimate salivary IL-6 levels. Babies' birth weight also was measured.Results: Data of the present study showed a higher caries severity among study group compared to control group,with no statistically significant difference (P> 0.05). For both groups, the initial decayed surface D2 was the lightestvalue for both groups. While the deep frank cavitations D4 was the lowest in study group with no data recordingamong control group. The result revealed highly significant difference in baby birth weight between the two groups.The correlation between DS and salivary IL-6 was highly significant, and a significant correlation noticed between D3and salivary IL-6 in study group. In control group, a highly significant positive correlation was detected between babybirth weight and DMFS, and a significant correlation was obscured between baby birth weight with decayedsurface, also a significant correlation was found between salivary IL-6 and decayed surface in the same group.Conclusion: During pregnancy, a woman may be particularly amenable to disease prevention and healthpromotion interventions that could enhance her oral health on that of her infant's, due to the potential associationsbetween oral health and preterm delivery and baby birth weight

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