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Article
Evaluation of fracture strength of endodontically treated teeth restored by milled zirconia post and core with different post and core systems (An in vitro comparative study)

Authors: Huda Musaa'd Lafta --- Adel Farhan Ibraheem
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 4 Pages: 12-16
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Restoration of root canal treated teeth with a permanent restoration affect in the success ofendodontically treated teeth. This in vitro study was performed to evaluate and compare the fracture strength ofendodontically treated teeth restored by using custom made zirconium posts and cores, prefabricated carbonfiber, glass fiber and zirconium ceramic posts.Materials and method: Forty intact human mandibular second premolars were collected for this study and weredivided into five groups. Each group contains 8 specimens: Group1: Teeth restored with Carbon Fiber Posts; Group2:Teeth restored with Glass Fiber Posts; Group3: Teeth restored with Zirconium Ceramic prefabricated Posts; Group4:Teeth restored with Zirconium Posts and Cores (copy milling); Group5: (Control Group).For groups 1, 2, 3, and 4;crowns were removed horizontally at the level of cement-enamel junction. Endodontic therapy was then done for allspecimens in these groups using step-back technique.These specimens received standardized posts preparation(10mm depth), and then mounted in acrylic resin blocks. Panavia F 2.0 dual cure resin cement was used forcementation. The core build up was done with composite (Filtek P60). The specimens were then stored in saline andwere subjected to compressive loads parallel to their long axes using universal testing machine (WP 300) until failure.Results: Data obtained were analyzed by one-way analysis of varianceand student t-test. The results showed thatzirconium posts and cores possessed the highest significant differences followed by glass fiber posts, carbon fiberposts, and prefabricated ceramic zirconium posts. There were no significant differences between glass fiber, carbonfiber, and control group. The specimens were examined to determine the root fracture patterns and locations.Conclusion: In the present study the fiber post treated teeth showed significantly more desirable fracture patternscompared to those restored with zircon posts


Article
Effect of different partial ferrule locations on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with fiber posts and complete crowns

Author: Haider Hasan Jasim.
Journal: Tikrit Journal for Dental Sciences مجلة تكريت لعلوم طب الاسنان ISSN: 20731213 Year: 2016 Volume: 4 Issue: 1 Pages: 39-49
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Purpose. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of partial ferrule locations on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary canines restored with complete crowns. Material and Methods. Fifty extracted maxillary canines were sectioned 18 mm from their apices, endodontically treated, and divided into 5 groups of 10 teeth each. All groups were prepared with full shoulder crown preparations. the first group having axial wall heights of 2 mm around the preparation circumferences, the axial walls were circumferential, 360 degrees around the preparations (Complete group), the second, third, and forth groups the axial walls were continuous for 180 degrees (one half of the axial tooth structure) of Palatal, Labial, and Proximal groups, and the fifth group all axial tooth structure was sectioned to the level of the preparation shoulder (Level group). All prepared teeth were then restored with quartz fiber posts (RTD), composite resin (Multicore) cores, and complete metal crowns. The fracture resistance was measured in a universal testing machine at 135 degrees to the long axis of the tooth until failure. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and then by Least Significance Difference test (LSD). The mode of failure was determined by visual inspection of all specimens. Results. Significant differences (P<0.05) were found among the mean fracture loads of the test groups, and was 803.7 N, 747.7N, 347.3 N, 386.6 N, and 186.7N for the Complete, Palatal, Labial, Proximal, and Level groups, respectively. When the mode of failure was evaluated, all failure was an oblique palatal to facial root fracture for the groups with remaining coronal tooth structure. In the Level group, post debonding was the predominant mode of failure. Conclusion. The palatal axial wall was more effective than the labial or proximal axial wall in providing fracture resistance to force applied to the palatal aspect in endodontically treated teeth.


Article
In Vitro Comparative Assessment of Facture Resistance of Roots Restored With Everstick Fiber Reinforced Composite Post

Authors: Makdad Chakmakchi --- Raghad Rasheed --- Rajaa Suliman
Journal: Journal of Oral and Dental Research مجلة طب الفم والاسنان ISSN: 23106417 Year: 2015 Volume: 2 Issue: 1 Pages: 43-50
Publisher: Iraqi Association for Oral Research الجمعية العراقية لبحوث طب الفم

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Abstract

Aims: To evaluate and compare the fracture resistance of maxillary central incisors received EverStick adaptableglass fiber reinforced composite posts and prefabricated glass fiber Luxa post and to determine the mode of failure.Materials and Methods: Thirty extracted human permanent maxillary central incisor were decoronated, instrumented,and obturated. Post space was prepared in each root, randomly divided into 3 groups (n=10). Group (A): Control group;the roots remained without post space preparation. Group (B): The roots prepared to receive prefabricated translucentglass fiber posts (Luxa post). Group (C): The roots prepared to receive adaptable EverStick fiber reinforced compositepost. After core built up, the specimens were thermocycled, mounted in a customized metal ring and fracture resistancewas tested in a Universal Testing Machine. Data collected were analyzed statistically and the mode of failures wasanalyzed under stereomicroscope. Results: Statistical analysis revealed highly significant difference at p≤ 0.001. Group(C) showed the highest mean of fracture resistance followed by Group (B). While Group (A) the control group showthe lowest mean of fracture resistance. Fracture pattern indicated that specimens in Group: C represent 100 % favorablefailure, followed by group: B which represent 80 % favorable failure, while the control group showed 80 % unfavorablefailure. Conclusions: EverStick adaptable glass fiber reinforced composite post showed significantly more predictablefracture resistance than prefabricated glass fiber Luxa post.


Article
Multiplicity of minarets and the diversity of their names according to their function
تعددأشكال المآذن وتنوع مسمياتها تبعا لوظيفتها

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Abstract

The first beginnings of the emergence and development of the Art of Arab and Islamic architecture (with the tower and cylindrical minarets) of different types, forms and names, to the beginnings of the era of Islam, during the era of the Prophet Muhammad and the caliphs after him, until it reached the diversity and maturity that resulted from The first schools of Islamic art and architecture in the Al-Amawi period (45 – 132 AH), which were counted by researchers and specialists in a very complex and prosperous period of transition from the former art of Islam to a more developed and mature stage during the Abbasid period between the year (132-660AH),The views of the Western Orientalist researchers are almost devoid of reference to the artistic and technical achievements of the era of Islam, believing that the Arabs before and after Islam from the reign of prophecy had nothing to do with the architecture and the arts. After it, they are the ones who created and since the first year of emigration the first institutions and institutes of religious, scientific, medical and judicial and In all Muslim mosques and their religious and scientific schools, and in most of the funeral buildings, maqams, shrines,and tombs

ان البدايات الاولىلنشوء وتطورفنون العمارة العربية الاسلامية المتمثلة (بعناصر المئذنة) موضوع البحث، على اختلاف اشكالها وانواعها ومسمياتها، من اسطوانية وحلزونية ومنشورية وبرجية مربعة اومضلعة، تعود الى بدايات عصر صدر الاسلام، والمتمثلة بعهد رسول الله محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم والخلفاء الراشدون من بعده، والتي تمثل اللبنة الاولى لنشوء وتطور العمائر الاسلامية وفنوها في ربوع الجزيرة العربية في بداية عهدها، حتى بلغت من التنوع والنضوج شيوع أولى مدارسالفن والعمارة الاسلامية ابان العصرالاموي (45–132ه)، والتي عد الباحثون والمتخصصونهذه المرحلةفي غاية من التعقيد والازدهار كونها مرحلة وسطية اشتملت على انتقال من الفنون السابقةللاسلام الىمرحلة اكثر تطورا ونضوجا خلال العصر العباسي وما بعده (132-660ه).


Article
فحص وتقويم نظام الرقابة الداخلية على وفق اطار(coso ) في التعليم الجامعي الاهلي بحث تطبيقي في كلية شط العرب الجامعة الاهلية

Author: اشرف عبد ربة احمد
Journal: Muthanna Journal of Administrative and Economic Sciences مجلة المثنى للعلوم الادارية والاقتصادية ISSN: 14192226 53862572 Year: 2018 Volume: 8 Issue: 2 Pages: 140-156
Publisher: Al-Muthanna University جامعة المثنى

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Abstract

This study aims at the possibility of examining and evaluating the internal control system according to the coso framework in the university / private college of Shatt al-Arab University, which is an integral part of every system used by the college to organize and direct its operations, not a separate system in itself, which occur continuously within them, so as to lay the foundation and implemented and monitored and developed by individuals at all levels of college, and must take into account the design of the elements of return and cost. The system does not include internal control of matters and procedures related to the functions of the accounting system and financial reports only, but extends to the administrative and organizational aspects, from the plans and programs of the college through the organizational structure to the means and tools necessary to achieve them. The main conclusions of the study showed the need to adhere to the integrated and effective framework for systems Internal control that meets the objectives of the SOX Act. This integrated framework has the effect of providing confidence and transparency in financial reporting so that users of these reports can rely on them when making their decisions, Although the structural methods of internal control applied in the above-mentioned college did not contribute efficiently and effectively to the achievement of the supervisory objectives, there must be a precise job description of all jobs (technical, administrative) in the university college, which defines the full functions and specifications of the occupants of those jobs , The fact that the assignment of posts to non-specialists and not scientifically qualified and professional does not achieve the desired result.

تهدف هذه الدراسة الى مدى امكانية فحص وتقييم نظام الرقابة الداخلية على وفق اطارcoso في التعليم الجامعي الاهلي / كلية شط العرب الجامعة الاهلية , الذي هو جزء لا يتجزأ من كل نظام تستخدمه الكلية لتنظيم وتوجيه عملياتها , وليس نظاماً مستقلاً بحد ذاته، وهو مجموعة من الأعمال والأنشطة التي تحدث بشكل مستمر داخلها، بحيث يضع أساسه وينفذه ويراقبه ويطوره الأفراد على كافة المستويات بالكلية، كما يجب أن يراعى في تصميمة عنصري العائد والتكلفة . لا يشمل نظام الرقابة الداخلية على الأمور والإجراءات المتعلقة بوظائف النظام المحاسبي والتقارير المالية فقط ، بل يمتد ليشمل الجوانب الإدارية والتنظيمية ، بداية من الخطط وبرامج الكلية مرورا بالهيكل التنظيمي وانتهاء بالوسائل والأدوات اللازمة لتحقيقها ، وان من اهم الاستنتاجات أظهرت الدراسة ضرورة الالتزام والاهتمام بالإطار المتكامل والفعال لأنظمة الرقابة الداخلية والذي يلبي أهداف قانون (SOX) لما لهذا الإطار المتكامل من اثر في إضفاء الثقة والشفافية في التقارير المالية بالصورة التي تمكن مستخدمي تلك التقارير من الاعتماد عليها عند اتخاذ قراراتهم ، على الرغم من أن الأساليب الهيكلية للرقابة الداخلية المطبقة في الكلية الجامعة اعلاه لم تسهم بشكل كفوء وفعال في تحقيق الأهداف الرقابية , لذا يجب أن يكون هناك توصيف وظيفي دقيق للوظائف كافه (الفنية ، الإدارية ) في الكلية الجامعة يحدد من خلاله الوظائف والمواصفات الكاملة لشاغلي تلك الوظائف ، كون إسناد الوظائف لأفراد غير متخصصين وغير مؤهلين علميا ً ومهنيا ً لا يحقق النتائج المطلوبة.

Keywords

This study aims at the possibility of examining and evaluating the internal control system according to the coso framework in the university / private college of Shatt al-Arab University --- which is an integral part of every system used by the college to organize and direct its operations --- not a separate system in itself --- which occur continuously within them --- so as to lay the foundation and implemented and monitored and developed by individuals at all levels of college --- and must take into account the design of the elements of return and cost. The system does not include internal control of matters and procedures related to the functions of the accounting system and financial reports only --- but extends to the administrative and organizational aspects --- from the plans and programs of the college through the organizational structure to the means and tools necessary to achieve them. The main conclusions of the study showed the need to adhere to the integrated and effective framework for systems Internal control that meets the objectives of the SOX Act. This integrated framework has the effect of providing confidence and transparency in financial reporting so that users of these reports can rely on them when making their decisions --- Although the structural methods of internal control applied in the above-mentioned college did not contribute efficiently and effectively to the achievement of the supervisory objectives --- there must be a precise job description of all jobs --- technical --- administrative in the university college --- which defines the full functions and specifications of the occupants of those jobs --- The fact that the assignment of posts to non-specialists and not scientifically qualified and professional does not achieve the desired result. --- تهدف هذه الدراسة الى مدى امكانية فحص وتقييم نظام الرقابة الداخلية على وفق اطارcoso في التعليم الجامعي الاهلي / كلية شط العرب الجامعة الاهلية --- الذي هو جزء لا يتجزأ من كل نظام تستخدمه الكلية لتنظيم وتوجيه عملياتها --- وليس نظاماً مستقلاً بحد ذاته، وهو مجموعة من الأعمال والأنشطة التي تحدث بشكل مستمر داخلها، بحيث يضع أساسه وينفذه ويراقبه ويطوره الأفراد على كافة المستويات بالكلية، كما يجب أن يراعى في تصميمة عنصري العائد والتكلفة . لا يشمل نظام الرقابة الداخلية على الأمور والإجراءات المتعلقة بوظائف النظام المحاسبي والتقارير المالية فقط ، بل يمتد ليشمل الجوانب الإدارية والتنظيمية ، بداية من الخطط وبرامج الكلية مرورا بالهيكل التنظيمي وانتهاء بالوسائل والأدوات اللازمة لتحقيقها ، وان من اهم الاستنتاجات أظهرت الدراسة ضرورة الالتزام والاهتمام بالإطار المتكامل والفعال لأنظمة الرقابة الداخلية والذي يلبي أهداف قانون SOX --- لما لهذا الإطار المتكامل من اثر في إضفاء الثقة والشفافية في التقارير المالية بالصورة التي تمكن مستخدمي تلك التقارير من الاعتماد عليها عند اتخاذ قراراتهم ، على الرغم من أن الأساليب الهيكلية للرقابة الداخلية المطبقة في الكلية الجامعة اعلاه لم تسهم بشكل كفوء وفعال في تحقيق الأهداف الرقابية --- لذا يجب أن يكون هناك توصيف وظيفي دقيق للوظائف كافه الفنية ، الإدارية --- في الكلية الجامعة يحدد من خلاله الوظائف والمواصفات الكاملة لشاغلي تلك الوظائف ، كون إسناد الوظائف لأفراد غير متخصصين وغير مؤهلين علميا ً ومهنيا ً لا يحقق النتائج المطلوبة.

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