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Article
The Effect of Premature Birth on The Primary Dentition

Authors: Baydaa A Al – Rawi --- Aisha A. Qasim --- Ghada Dh Al – Sayagh
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2008 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 18-22
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: The aims of the present study were to determine if primary teeth eruption and the presence of
enamel defect are affected by low birth weight and prematurely of birth. Materials and Methods: The
total subjects of (420) child aged 4 – 24 months were included in this study, consisted of (210) prematurely
born (<37 gestational weeks and birth weight < 2.500 Kg) children and 210 control children (&#8805;40
gestational weeks and birth weight &#8805; 2.500 Kg). Those children selected randomly the children who
came to the primary health care centers with their mother for vaccination and the mothers asked to participate
in this study. For each child, clinical exanimation was performed in dental chair. The criterion
used for enamel defect to include various enamel hypoplasias, deficiency of enamel in the form of pits,
grooves or other quantitative surface loss and enamel hypocalcifications and opacities. Data were analyzed
using numbers, percentages, means and standard deviations. T – test, Z – test Chi – square (X2)
test were used for determining the differences concerning different variables. The differences were
considered significant at p&#8804; 0.05. Results: There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between different
genders numbers among in each age group for the preterm and control children. The results
showed significantly (p<0.05) delayed eruption of the primary teeth in the prematurely born children as
compared with the control children in all age groups except in 4 – 6 months age group, also there was
significantly higher percentages of enamel defect present in preterm children, than in control children
in all age groups except in 4 – 6 months age group. Conclusions: The findings indicated that the eruption
of deciduous teeth was delayed and the percentage of enamel defect was significantly increased in
prematurely born children.


Article
Predictors and Frequency of Convulsions in Neonates with Neonatal Hypoglycemia; a Hospital-Based Study
تنبؤات و نسبة تكرار الاختلاجات في الاطفال حديثي الولادة المتلازمين بهبوط نسبة السكر في الدم; بحث اجري في المستشفى

Authors: Kawes O. H. Zangana د. كاويس عمر زنكنة --- Abdullah F. Ahmed عبد الله احمد
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2013 Volume: 26 Issue: 1 Pages: 24-29
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

AbstractIntroduction: Transient low blood glucose levels are common in neonates as the source of glucose at delivery changes from a continuous supply from the mother to the intermittent supply from feeds. The overall incidence of hypoglycemia has been estimated at 1 to 5 per 1,000 live births, but it is higher in at-risk populations. Aim of study: To identify predictors, risk factors and frequency of convulsion in hypoglycemic neonatesPatients and methods: A cross sectional study of analytic purpose was performed on 186 hypoglycemic neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit in Maternity Hospital and Raparin Pediatric Teaching Hospitals in the period from February1st 2010 to June 1st 2011 in Erbil governorate. Neonates presented with symptomatic hypoglycemia and blood glucose less than 30 mg/dl in the first day and less than 40mg/dl after first day were included in the study according to American Academy of Pediatrics criteria of neonatal hypoglycemia. The reading was taken while the neonate was just presented with the symptoms and had not received any glucose solutions.Results: Overall 4768 neonates admitted to the NICU during the study period; 186(3.9 %) developed hypoglycemia. 111(59.67%) of them were males and 75(40.33%) were female. Convulsions developed in 34(18.27%) of them; out of 34 convulsing hypoglycemic neonates, 20(58%) were males and 14(41%) were females with a male to female ratio of 1.42:1. Low birth weight hypoglycemic neonates more affected with convulsions 25(73.5%) versus normal birth weight neonates 9(26.7%). Premature babies also more affected with convulsions 20(58%) versus appropriate for gestational age babies 14(41.17%).Conclusions: Neonatal hypoglycemia is a common finding in neonatal care units and may lead to convulsions if not identified early and treated properly, and it’s more common in premature, small for gestational ages, infants of diabetic mother and mothers receiving glucose infusions before delivery, while jitteriness, lethargy and apnea were features that most commonly precede neonatal convulsion secondary to hypoglycemia Key words: neonates, premature, hypoglycemia, convulsions

الملخصالمقدمة: الهبوط المؤقت في نسبة السكر في الدم شائعة في الاطفال حديثي الولادة لان مصدر الكلوكوز اثناء الولادة يتغير من مصدر مستمر عن طريق الام الى تمويل متقطع من الرضاعة. ويقدر حالات هبوط نسبة السكر1 الى 5 من 1000 حالة ولادة حية لكن النسبة اعلى في حديثي الولادة المعرضين للخطر.الهدف من الدراسة: اكتشاف عوامل الخطورة و المنبئات ونسبة تكرار الاختلاجات لدى الاطفال حديثي الولادة المصابين بهبوط السكري المرضى وطرق البحث: اجري البحث على 186 طفل حديثي الولادة المصابين بهبوط السكري الذين ادخلو الى وحدة العناية لحديثي الولادة بمستشفى الامومة و مستشفى رابةرين التعليمي للاطفال في محافظة اربيل خلال فترة 1-2-2010 الى 1-6-2011 . ان الاطفال حديثى الولادة المصبون بهبوط نسبة السكري المتلازمة مع الاعراض و نسبة كلوكوز الدم اقل من 30 ملغ في الاول واقل من 40 ملغ بعد اليوم الاول ادخلوا في هذا البحث حسب معيير الاكاديمية الاميركية للاطفال المتعلق بهبوط السكري في الاطفال حديثي الولادة .اخذت القراءة في حالة حدوث الاعراض المذكورة قبل اعطاء اي محلول كلوكوز النتائج: ادخل 4768 حديثي الى وحدة العناية المركزة لحديثي الولادة اثناء فترة البحث. 186(3.9%) اصابوا بهبوط نسبة السكي .111( 59.67%) منهم كانوا ذكورا و 75(40.33%) كانوا اناثا. حصلت اختلاجات في 34(18.27%) منهم , من 34 حديثي الولادة المصبين باختلاجات بسبب هبوط السكري, 20 (58%) كانوا ذكورا و 14(41%) كانوا اناثا مع نسبة الذكور والاناث 1.42:1 .اصيب حديثي الولادة المصابين بهبوط السكري ذوي اوزان ولادية منخفضة باختلاجات بنسبة 25(73.5%) مقارنة بحديثي الولادة ذوي اوزان ولادية طبيعية, وكذلك اصابة اطفال الخدج بالاختلاجات كانت اكثر20(58%) مقارنة بالاطفال الكاملين في العمر اثناء الحمل 14(41.17%)الاستنتاجات: هبوط نسبة السكري في حديثي الولادة يعتبر شائعا في وحدات عناية حديثي الولادة و قد يؤدي الى الاختلاجات اذا لم اكتشافها مبكرا و علاجها بطريقة سليمة و يعتبر اكثر شيوعا في الاطفال الخدج و الاطفال دون الوزن الطبيعي, الاطفال المولودون لدى امهات يعانون من داء السكري و الامهات اللاتى اعطين محلول الكلوكوز قبل الولادة . التهيج و السبات و انقطاع النفس يعتبر من الاعراض الاكثر شيوعا قبل حدوث الاختلاجات المصابين بهبوط نسبة السكري.


Article
The Effectiveness of Tramadol in Treatment of Premature Ejaculation on-Demand Basis

Authors: Montadhar H. Nima --- Samir Ali Muter --- Ahmed Samir Al-Naaimi --- Nibbras I. Al-Hamdani
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2013 Volume: 12 Issue: 3 Pages: 429-435
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT: *Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Baghdad.**Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Baghdad.***Department of Community Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Baghdad.****Consultant Urologist, Baghdad Medical City. BACKGROUND: Premature ejaculation (PE) is a worldwide problem. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) arewidely used “off label” as pharmacotherapeutic agents in the treatment of PE. OBJECTIVE: Assess the efficacy of Tramadol for on-demand treatment of PE. PATIENTS AND METHODS: During the period December 2008 through November 2009, 60 married men visited the surgicalspecialties hospital urology outpatient and consultancy clinics complaining of premature ejaculationwere enrolled in this study. Intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IVELT) was used as an objective toolto assess the efficacy of the investigated treatment. Single-blind, placebo-controlled therapeutic trialwas conducted on 60 patients with lifelong PE. PE was defined as IVELT of <2 minutes in at least 80%of intercourse episodes. The patients cohort was randomised into 2 equal sized groups. The interventiongroup (n=30) used 50 mg tablet of Tramadol hydrochloride, while the control group (n=30) used aplacebo tablet for 8 weeks. Drugs were taken 1–2 hours before sexual activity, and sexual intercoursewas required at least once per week. IVELT was timed by a stopwatch at each intercourse. RESULTS: The mean IVELT after tramadol and placebo significantly increased from 73.1 and 67.9 seconds toapproximately 442.1 and 113.3 seconds, respectively (P < 0.001). Sexual satisfaction was used to assessthe cut-off values of IVELT in defining the minimal and best clinical response to treatment. There wasno withdrawal symptoms recorded following the use of tramadol or placebo, but more adverse eventswere associated with tramadol treatment CONCLUSION: Tramadol seems to provide significantly better results in terms of IVELT and intercourse satisfactionversus placebo. Further studies are required to draw final conclusions on the efficacy of this drug inpremature ejaculation

Keywords

premature --- ejaculation --- tramadol


Article
The Role of Plasma Lipoprotein and Carotid Doppler in Detecting Premature Atherosclerosis Among Iraqi Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Author: Khudhir Zghayer Mayouf Al-Bidri
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2008 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 147-151
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Cardio vascular involvement is fatal and critical complication of the systemic lupus erythematosus. Serum lipid profile and carotid Doppler studies can be used to evaluate premature atherosclerosis among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus .OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to detect premature atherosclerosis among Iraqi patients with systemic lupus erythematosus by estimation of fasting serum lipid profiles and Doppler Carotid studies.PATIENTS AND METHODS:Fifty Iraqi patients (45 females and 5 males) who fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 1997 revised criteria for classification of SLE were studied . Another 50 healthy (45 females and 5 males) individuals matched for age and sex were collected from relatives and accompanying persons with patients attending the Rheumatology Clinic and studied serving a control group.Full history was taken and complete clinical examination was done for all patients and control group .The levels of serum cholesterol , low and high density lipoprotein and triglycerides were estimated and Doppler studies for common carotid arteries were done for individuals in both groups.The patients were classified according to clinical presentation to four groups:Group 1: Patients with mucocutaneous and musculoskeletal manifestation only.Group 2 : Patients with mucocutanous,musculoskeletal manifestation and serositis.Group 3: Patients with mucocutanous, musculoskeletal, serositis and lupus nephritis without cerebritis.Group 4: Patients with Mucocutanous , musculoskeletal, serositis and lupus cerebritis without nephritis.RESULTS:There were no significant differences in total cholesterol level in group 1 patients compared to control group, but there were significant differences in group 2,3,4 patients compared to control group.There were significant differences in cholesterol, low density lipoproteins (LDL),high density lipoproteins (HDL),and triglyceride (TG) levels between SLE patients compared to control group which is positively correlated with disease duration .There were no significant differences in intimal media thickness(IMT)in group1and2 compared to control group but there were significant differences in IMT in group 3 and 4 compared to control group and the significant differences in IMT were positively correlated with disease duration.CONCLUSION:The results showed that SLE patients mostly have hyperlipidemia as well as ultrasonic markers of atherosclerosis.


Article
Role of Intracranial Ultrasonography in the Evaluation of Premature Babies

Author: Balen Karim Salih, Abbas Abdulkadir Rabaty
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2019 Volume: 16 Issue: 3 Pages: 215-219
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Background and Objective: In this study, the role of intracranial ultrasonography was evaluated in detecting intracranial abnormalitiesin premature neonates; furthermore, some maternal risk factors were evaluated for increasing incidence of intracranial abnormalities.Materials and Methods: A prospective cross‑sectional study was done on 60 preterm neonates admitted in the neonatal care unit inboth Raparin pediatric teaching hospital and maternity teaching hospital over a 5‑month period. Neurosonogram was carried out forall within 1 week of life, and then, a second brain ultrasound (US) scan performed for them after 1 week if the first one was abnormaland the third scan for those who were abnormal at the second visit. Results: Incidence of intracranial abnormalities by ultrasonographyin preterm neonates is 13.3% in the present study. There were 50% male and 50% female neonates. Ten percent of the study samplehad evidence of intraventricular bleeding, and 3.3% had ventricular dilatation. There is a significant association between maternalrisk factors and incidence of intracranial abnormalities (P = 0.01), and furthermore, there is a significant association between weightand gestational age (P = 0.001). There is no significant association between US finding with each of weight, gestational age, gender,and mode of delivery. Conclusion: Neurosonogram is the best initial method of investigation for preterm babies in the evaluation ofintracranial abnormalities even if clinically silent. Maternal risk factors should be taken into consideration in increasing incidence ofintracranial abnormalities. It is best to perform neurosonogram studies on all preterm babies within the 1st week of birth. It is widelyavailable, cheap, and repeatable.


Article
Bacterial Vaginosis and PrematureUterine Contraction among Womenin Ramadi City

Author: Wassan A.H. Al-Jobori
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 / 24108057 Year: 2008 Volume: 50 Issue: 1 Pages: 31-36
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Summary:
Background :
To study the incidence of premature uterine contraction (PUC) with bacterial
vaginosis (BV) in Ramadi city and to correlate the incidence of (PUC) with severity
(grades of BV).
Patients and Methods:
A prospective study was performed involving 250 women who consecutively
attended Gynecological ward in Maternity and Child Hospital. 150 women were
control groups (without uterine contraction), and 100 women were regarded as
patients group (with uterine contraction) at 28-34 weeks of gestation. BV was
diagnosed on the basis of four diagnostic criteria; vaginal pH>4.7, homogenous
vaginal discharge, a positive Whiff test, and the presence of clue cells.
Results:
A total of 250 high vaginal specimens, BV were diagnosed in 74% of cases
with PUC (patient group); the incidence was 8% in grade I (GI), 29% in GII, and
37% in GIII. BV was 10% of cases without uterine contraction (control group).
Conclusions:
There was statistically significant correlation between BV and PUC up to 74%.
The incidence and severity of PUC increased with increasing the severity of BV.
The patients who used more IUCD (intrauterine contraceptive device), higher
reproductive ability, used vaginal douching, and have history of PID (pelvic
inflammatory disease) are more liable to have BV and more liable to have PUC.


Article
The effects of unilateral premature loss of maxillary primary molars on the dental arch dimensions

Author: Dunia A. Al-Dulayme دنيا الدليمي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 4 Pages: 95-99
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The aim of the study was to evaluate the amount of changes in the horizontal and vertical maxillaryarch dimensions measurements following the premature loss of primary molars.Materials and methods: The sample consist of (50) children with unilateral prematurely extracted either first or secondprimary molars at the mixed dentition stage.Results and Conclusions: Results shows that there was an increase in the vertical incisor to canine distance (A) withboth premature loss of first & second primary molars due to distal movement of primary canines and at the sametime there were a significant loss of space in the extraction space with premature loss of second primary molar dueto a mesial movement of maxillary first permanent molars which at the same time tip lingually and this is clearobvious from the decrease in the inter-molars distances horizontally.


Article
Mandibular dental arch dimensional changes following prematurely lost deciduous molars

Authors: Dunia A. AL-Dulayme --- Mohammad Rafid AL-Khannaq
Journal: Journal of Oral and Dental Research مجلة طب الفم والاسنان ISSN: 23106417 Year: 2014 Volume: 1 Issue: 2 Pages: 22-28
Publisher: Iraqi Association for Oral Research الجمعية العراقية لبحوث طب الفم

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Abstract

Background: The aimof the study wasto evaluate the changes in the mandibular dental arch width and lengthafter the unilateral premature loss of deciduous molars at the mixed dentition stage.Methods: The sample consist of (50) Iraqi children aged (8-9) years with unilateral prematurely extractedmandibular first or second deciduous molars, each child have a dental study models prepared by taking alginatehydrocolloid impressions,then the measurement were done on the Auto sketch program after scanning of theocclusal surface of the study casts.Results: reveals that in case of unilateral premature Loss of mandibularprimary molars at the mixed dentitionstage lead to changes in most of the vertical and horizontal distances of the dental arch.Conclusion: the findings of the present study indicate us the importance of space maintainer construction followingthe premature loss of mandibular primarymolars at the mixed dentition stage.


Article
Thyroid Function Test in Sick Premature Infants
دراسة وظائف الغدة الدرقية لدى المرضى من الاطفال الخدج حديثي الولادة

Author: Rajaa Jabbar kadhum
Journal: kufa Journal for Nursing sciences مجلة الكوفة لعلوم التمريض ISSN: 22234055 Year: 2015 Volume: 5 Issue: 3 Pages: 72-76
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Background:Thyroid hormones are essential for brain development. Transient hypothyroxinemia early in life may increase the risk of neurodevelopment disabilities in preterm infant .Objectives:to study thyroid function among preterm infants & factors that may affect the results .Methods: This study was done on 50 preterm infants in Al-Zahraa teaching hospital from the period of 1st of March to 1st of November 2012. Thyroid function test was done to those neonates within the first 3 days of life. All the patients complain of complications of prematurity. Factors related to the neonate as gestational age ,birth weight , sex and complications of prematurity were studied in relation with the results of thyroid function test.Also factors related to the mother as diabetes mellitus, hypertension& family history of thyroid disease & mental retardation was taken into consideration.Results:Thirty seven (74%) of neonates have normal thyroid function test, one neonate (2%) has hypothyroidism, 2 (4%) neonates have transient hypothyroxinemia and 10 (20%) neonates have transient moderate elevation of TSH (10-30μU/ml).The preterm with hypothyroidism have family history of mental retardation. and the hypothyroid state could be related to familial cause rather than prematurity. Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS version 17.Conclusion:Although the study shows no statistical relation between gestational age &complications of prematurity with thyroid function test results, thyroid screening for premature infants especially those with complications should be taken into consideration for better outcome.Recommendation: we recommend neonatal screening for thyroid function especially for preterm infants.

الهدف: هرمون الغدة الدرقية مهم لنمو وتطور الدماغ وخاصة لدى الاطفال الخدج وذلك لأنهممعرضون لمضاعفات مستقبلية في تطور الجهاز العصبي .أجريت هذه الدراسة لمعرفة وظائف الغدة الدرقية لدى المرضى من الاطفال الخدج والعوامل المؤثرة عليها.المنهجية:أجريتدراسة مقطعية على خمسين طفل خديج (مولود قبل 37 أسبوعمن العمر الحملي ) في مستشفى الزهراء التعليمي للفترة من الأول من آذار ولغاية الأول من تشرين الثاني 2012 .تم اختيار العينة بشكل عشوائي.أخذت عينة من الدم في اليوم الثالث من العمر لغرض فحص وظائف الغدة الدرقية . كان جميع المرضى يعانون من مضاعفات الولادة المبكرة مثل عسر التنفس الولادي ,اليرقان , تسمم الدم الجرثومي,نقص السكر في الدم ومضاعفات أخرى. تمت دراسة وظائف الغدة الدرقية لدى هذه العينة وتأثير العمر الحملي ومضاعفات الولادة المبكرة عليها . وكذلك تمت دراسة تأثير العوامل المتعلقة بالأم على وظيفة الغدة الدرقية لدى الرضيع مثل داء السكري وارتفاع ضغط الدم وتاريخ العائلة مثل وجود أمراض الغدة الدرقية لدى العائلة وقصور النمو أو الاختلال العقلي .النتائج:أظهرت الدراسةإن طفل واحد (2%) لديه نقص في عمل الغدة الدرقية وكان هذا الطفل لديه تاريخ عائلي للتخلف العقلي .وكان (4%) من الاطفال لديه نقص مؤقت في هرمونالثايروكسين و(20%)من الاطفال لديه ارتفاع معتدل للهرمون المحفز للغدة الدرقية(TSH)أما باقي الاطفال (74%) فكانت نتيجة وظائفالغدة الدرقية طبيعية, وكان جميع الاطفال في الدراسة لديه مضاعفات كتسمم الدم الجرثومي وعسر التنفس الولادي ونقص السكر في الدم واختلاجات عصبية ساهمت في اختلال في عمل الغدة الدرقية .الاستنتاج: يجب اخذ وظيفة الغدة الدرقية بنظر الاعتبار لدى الاطفال الخدج وذلك لضمان تطور طبيعي وحياة طبيعية في المستقبل.التوصيات: ننصح بإجراء فحص وظائف الغدة الدرقية لكل الاطفال حديثي الولادة وخاصة الخدج .


Article
Coronary angiographic findings in patients with positive family history of premature coronary artery disease

Author: Abdulameer Aboodib
Journal: Muthanna Medical Journal مجلة المثنى الطبية ISSN: 2226146x Year: 2016 Volume: 3 Issue: 2 Pages: 117-121
Publisher: Al-Muthanna University جامعة المثنى

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Abstract

A family history of premature coronary artery disease is an independent and established risk factor for CAD. A total sample of 657 Iraqi patients with coronary artery disease who submitted to routine coronary angiography in our cardiology center, only 72 patients with a positive family history of premature coronary disease were enrolled in this study. Hypertension and left anterior descending artery occlusive disease were more prevalent in 64% of patients with a positive family history of premature CAD (64 %). When comparison had been made between male and female with a positive family history of premature CAD. Smoking and single vessel disease were more frequently encountered in male patients (p value =0.001 and 0.05 respectively). In conclusion and recommendations: screening of first degree relatives of patients with a positive family history of premature CAD and intensive management of other cardiac risk factors particularly hypertension and smoking are required.

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