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Article
MATERNAL AND NEWBORN ABO BLOOD PHENOTYPE PAIRS AND GIVING SPONTANEOUS PRETERM BIRTH
فصيلة الدم ABO لكل من الأم والطفل وحدوث الولادة المبكرة التلقائية

Authors: Maha Mohamed مها محمد البياتي --- Wafaa F. Tawfeeq وفاء فائق توفيق --- Ahmed Mehdi Dawah أحمد مهدي دواح
Journal: AL-TAQANI مجلة التقني ISSN: 1818653X Year: 2015 Volume: 28 Issue: 2 Pages: E33-E38
Publisher: Foundation of technical education هيئة التعليم التقني

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Abstract

Preterm birth is defined as delivery of baby before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy. Preterm birth can be classified in to :Extremely preterm birth (<28 weeks) , very preterm birth (28-<32 weeks) and moderate to late preterm birth (32-<37 weeks) .This study tries to detect the association between spontaneous preterm birthand maternal-newborn ABO blood group phenotypes pairs.An analytic prospective cases control study 1:1 for a sample 524 , involve 262 preterm babies (cases) compared with 262 full term babies up to the age of 1 year (control), in this study gathering information done by direct interview with the women using a designed questionnaire form and medical records, the study was conducted during the period extended from the 13th of November 2012 to 1st of April 2013 in four governmental hospitals and four health centers in Baghdad . All women and their babies were distributed according to maternal –newborn ABO blood group phenotypes pairs ,a combination of maternal –newborn A-A,B-B,O-O,AB-AB pairs are used as the reference group .Distribution of women and their babies according to the maternal –newborn ABO phenotypes pairs showed significant association between maternal- new bornA-O pairs and spontaneous preterm delivery with p-value <0.05. Spontaneous preterm birth is associated with maternal- newborn A-O pairs .This finding requires further prospective analytic study with a large sample size to confirm this result.

الولادة المبكرة : هي الولادة التي تتم قبل إتمام الأسبوع الــــ 37 من فترة الحمل وتقسم الولادات المبكرة الى ثلاثة أقسام، وهي :- الولادة المبكرة للغاية وهي اقل من 28 اسبوع ،الولادة المبكرة جدا وتتراوح بين 28->32 أسبوع و الولادة المعتدلة إلى أواخر الولادة وتمتد من 32- اقل من 37 اسبوع.تهدف الدراسة إلى دراسة العلاقة بين الولادة المبكرة التلقائية مع ازدواج فصائل الدم لكل من الأم والطفل ABO.تعد هذه الدراسة دراسة حالات وشواهد مستقبلية بمعدل 1:1 وبحجم عينة مقداره 524 حالة ،تشتمل على 262 حالة ولادة مبكرة تتضمن كل من الأم والطفل ,و 262 حالة لولادة متممة لفترة الحمل لحد السنة الأولى من عمر الطفل وهي مجموعة الشاهد و تتضمن كل من الأم والطفل ايضا. تم جمع جميع البيانات بواسطة اللقاء المباشر بالأم من خلال استمارة الاستبيان المصممة خصيصا لهذا الغرض وأيضا من خلال السجلات الطبية . كماتم اعتماد مجموعة ازدواج الدم لكل من الام والطفلAB→AB , A→A, B→B,O→O,كمجموعة المرجع .وامتدت هذه الدراسة في الفترة ما بين الثالث عشر من تشرين الثاني 2012 إلى الأول من نيسان 2013 .أظهرت نتائج هذه الدراسة أن الولادة المبكرة قد ترافقت مع ازدواج فصائل الدم A→O لكل من الأم والطفل مع قيمة احتمالية اقل من 0.05 وتحتاج هذه النتيجة الى دراسات اخرى وبحجم عينة اكبر للتأكد من هذه النتيجة.


Article
The Role of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-&#913;) in The Induction of Preterm Labor

Authors: Taiseer Abdul Ilah AL Hussainy --- Mohammad A. K. Al-Sa’adi --- Mohammad Sabri A. Razzak
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2010 Volume: 3 no.1 Issue: 6 Pages: 779-783
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

Abstract
Background: Microbial colonization and inflammation in the maternal genital tract has emerged as one of the major risk factors associated with spontaneous preterm birth.
Objectives: this study aimed to demonstrate the role of tumor necrosis alpha(TNF-α)in the induction of preterm labor.
Materials and methods: This study was conducted in Babylon Teaching Hospital of Gynecology and Pediatrics from November 2007 to May 2008. A total of 60 pregnant women with preterm labor admitted to Labor Room and 20 control women (10 of them were pregnant at term with bacterial infection, 5 were pregnant at term without bacterial infection, and 5 were normal females not pregnants and not infected) were included in this study. The ages of patients and controls ranged from (17-40) years. Blood samples were collected from both patients and controls to estimate tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α by EASIA (Enzyme Amplified Sensitivity Immunoassay) method.
Results: The results show there is significantly higher (p<0.05) in the level of TNF- α in patients with preterm labor compared to all control groups.
Conclusion: The results clearly indicate the possible role of TNF-α in the induction of preterm labor.
Keywords: preterm labor, TNF-α

Keywords

preterm labor --- TNF-α


Article
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin in Treatment of Preterm Labour

Authors: Ibtissam Yousif AL- Saffar --- Hala Ibrahim Salih
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2010 Volume: 9 Issue: 3 Pages: 288-292
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Preterm labour is a major healthcare problem throughout the world, it is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality, that is not significantly altered by the current drug therapies, most of which are associated with significant maternal or fetal side effects. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG ) in the treatment of preterm labour. METHODS: Fifty-seven women with preterm labour were enrolled in this clinical trial at Al- Yarmouk Teaching Hospital/ department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology – Baghdad /Iraq during the period from April, 1st 2006 till November, 30th 2006, and were assigned to receive a single intramuscular injection of 5000 units of HCG followed by a drip of 10000 units of HCG in 500 ml 5% dextrose over 6 hours. 30 women continued the study and the mean prolongation of the pregnancy was calculated for all of them. RESULTS: The mean prolongation of pregnancy was 32.97 ± 17.6 days and it was highest among gestational ages of 29-30 weeks ( 43.3± 19.85 days ), with the mean gestational age at birth was 35.7 ± 2.8 weeks. All babies born to these women had weight appropriate for their gestational age at birth with a mean birth weight of 2.7 ± 0.64 kg and 60% of babies weighed > 2.5 Kg at birth. CONCLUSION: It was shown through this trial that human chorionic gonadotropin was effective in exhibiting potent tocolysis and prolonging pregnancy in preterm labour without causing adverse effects to the mothers or their babies. This can make a major contribution to the management of this common obstetrical complication.

Keywords

HCG --- preterm labour --- treatment


Article
A Prospective Study of Neonatal Pneumothorax in Holy Karbala

Authors: Firas Shakir Al-Fahham --- Khalid Khaleel –Araji --- Hasan Mohammedridha AL- Qazzaz
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2015 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 2093-2097
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

background: Pneumothorax is the accumulation of air in the space between the parietal and visceral pleura, and is potentially a very serious problem, especially if it occurs in the neonatal population.Patients and Method: A prospective data of sixty newborn infants with pneumothoraces were observed and treated at the Neonatal Care Units in teaching pediatric hospital and gynecological and obstetric teaching hospital in karbala, Iraq, between January 2012 and January 2014 are included in this descriptive study.Patients were evaluated for: sex, gestational age, birth weight; method of delivery; time of pneumothorax development; localization of pneumothorax and the presence of concurrent lung pathology.Diagnosis of pneumothorax done by clinical assessment, and chest X-rays. symptomatic patients were treated with a tube thoracostomy and closed underwater drainage.Results: Sixty neonates with pneumothoraces were included in this study. Sixty three percent of patients were male. Fifty five percent of patients were preterm babies. Fifty three percent were delivered by caesarean section. Seventy seven percent of pneumotoraces were on the right side. Seventy percent cases of pneumothoraces were presented within the first 48 hours of life. Seventy three percent diagnosed as respiratory distress syndrome which is the most common pathology. Mechanical ventilation was performed in 8 patients, including four of the six fatal cases. Tube thoracostomy and closed underwater drainage were performed in 56 patients (93%), while peumothorax resolved spontaneously in four cases. Mortality rate was 10%.Conclusion: pneumothorax may develop during the neonatal period, especially in the presence of risk factors. Treatment is effective, if the disease is recognized and treated as early as possible.

Keywords

pnumothorax --- neonate --- preterm.


Article
Preterms in the Neonatal Care Unit at Babylon Maternity and Children Hospital: Prevalence, Morbidity, Mortality, and Risk Factors

Author: Rehab Faisal Laftah
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2015 Volume: 8 Issue: 2 Pages: 2214-2221
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

background: Prematurity and its complications are the major cause for neonatalmorbidity and mortality. Often, the cause of preterm labor is unknown, but severaletiological risk factors have been identifiedObjective: Regardless the causes for hospitalization, this study was designed to determinethe prevalence, mortality, morbidity (determined by duration of hospitalization and referral topediatric intensive care unit PICU) of preterm baby among patients admitted into the neonatalcare unit, and some of the possible underlying risk factors for preterm births.Method: During a period of seven months from 2 December 2012 to 28 June 2013, anonrandomized sample consisted of 200 neonates that had been admitted into neonatal careunit “NCU” at Babylon Maternity and Children Hospital was involved in this cross sectionaldescriptive study. Same questionnaire was applied for all cases, then patients were dividedinto 2 groups according to gestational age (<37w and ≥37). Test of proportion and chi-squarewere used to determine significant differences between the groups.Results: Prematurity and its complications are responsible for 72/200 (36%) of neonatalhospitalization and 3/6 (50%) of neonatal death. Females constitute 35/72 (48.61%) ofpreterms and 44/138 (34.37%) of terms with p value < 0.05. 8/48 (16.66%) of preterms and7/95 (7.36%) of terms need referral to PICU with p value > 0.05. Regarding hospitalization,preterms had longer duration than term neonates (p value <0.05). 51/187 (27.27%) of neonatehad been discharged on their parents’ responsibility, and 20/51 (39.21%) was preterm.Multiple gestation is a risk factor for death in preterm babies, while obstetrical factors had acorrelation with the occurrence of preterm births (p value <0.05), with premature rupture ofmembrane being at the top of the list.Conclusion: Prematurity and its complications are the major causes for neonatalhospitalization and death and need longer duration of hospitalization than terms. For pretermbirth, females are at greater risk and the presence of obstetrical factors increase itsoccurrence

Keywords

preterm --- neonatal --- prevalence --- Babylon.


Article
Salivary progesterone as predictors of spontaneous preterm birth in comparism with cervical length

Author: Shatha sami Hussein
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 3 Pages: 64-68
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: Preterm labour still one of important causes of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Many researches on preterm labor were conducted in order to decrease the incidence, prevent complications, and improve survival rate for infants. Objective: To assess if salivary progesterone can be used sa a predictive marker for preterm labour and to compared it to the use of cervical length measurement. Study design: This Prospective observational study Setting: The study was performed at AL-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (Baghdad – Iraq) for the period from February 2015 to February 2016 Patients and methods: The study involved 60 pregnant women between 28 weeks-34weeks gestation were divided into two groups; group A 30 patients with uterine contraction or history of previous preterm .group B 30 patient as control, cervical length of all patients was measured by transvaginal ultrasound ,saliva sample(washings) also collected and the level of progesterone in the saliva was measured by ELISA and the results were compared. Results: statistical analysis of data showed that there was a significant relationship between salivary progesterone levels and preterm birth Sensitivity, specificity , predictive values (positive and negative) of progesterone were 96.7,90.0,90.6,96.4 respectively Conclusion: salivary progesterone can be used as a predictor of preterm delivery in high risk group.


Article
6.EFFECT OF PROGESTERONE IN LOWERING MATERNAL PLASMA CORTICOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE IN PATIENTS WITH PRETERM LABOR

Authors: Enas M. Yaseen ايناس محمد ياسين --- Athraa Fadhil Abd ايثار فاضل عبد
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2019 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 32-42
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Preterm labor is a major obstetrics problem because it associated with high morbidity and mortality to the born baby. Many studies were done to study different aspects of its risk factors, diagnosis and treatment to decrease its incidence, bad sequel to the fetus and recurrence.Objective:To evaluate the role of progesterone in lowering CRH level in plasma of patient with preterm labor.Methods:This study is a case control study. Forty-five pregnant women with preterm labor were included in the study and basal plasma Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) level was done for each patient. All patients were given oral tocolytic drug, with an initial bolus of 20 mg Nifedipine followed by 10 mg three times daily. They received betamethasone injection (12 mg) 24 hours after hospitalization. Then after stabilization of each patient with random selection, 25 patients were included in group (1) and were given progesterone injection. Twenty patients were included in group (2) or control group because no progesterone injection was given to them. After 24 hours of admission to the hospital, plasma CRH level was measured for both groups with evaluation of the outcome of each patient with preterm labor.Results:Progesterone is more effective in lowering CRH level in patients with preterm labor. In study of 45 cases of preterm labor, the mean CRH level of group (1) decreased from 33.41 ng/ml to 22.12 ng/ml, while the mean level of it in group (2) increased from 27.44 ng/ml to 28.54 ng/ml. Conclusion:Progesterone treatment is effective in lowering CRH level in patients with preterm labor. This would have a positive effect in prolonging the pregnancy period in these patients.Keywords:Preterm labor, progesterone, CRHCitation;Yaseen EM, Abd AF. Effect of progesterone in lowering maternal plasma corticotropin-releasing hormone in patients with preterm labor. Iraqi JMS. 2019; 17(1): 32-42. doi: 10.22578/IJMS.17.1.6

Keywords

Preterm labor --- progesterone --- CRH


Article
Silent Herpes Simplex virus infection in women with preterm premature rupture of membranes

Author: Shatha F.Abdullah
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2010 Volume: 52 Issue: 4 Pages: 409-411
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: genital herpes simplex virus infection in pregnancy poses a major risk to the fetus and it has been associated with bad obstetric out come causing preterm labor, intrauterine growth retardation and spontaneous abortion. This study was conducted to determine if premature rupture of membranes before 37 weeks of gestational age are observed with subclinical shedding of herpes simplex virus (HSV).Patients and methods: Cervical swabs were taken from 75 women with a history of preterm premature rupture of membranes before 37 weeks of gestation, and 20 women with normal obstetrical history for the presence of HSV antigen using Enzyme linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) method.
Results: HSV antigen was detected in 37 swabs(49.3%) which revealed a significant association with preterm premature rupture membranes(PPROM) compared to control group(P<0.05).The majority of HSV infected women were asymptomatic 34(91.9%), and 23(56.1%) of the cases was associated with history of recurrent PPROM, compared to those women with history of single PPROM.Conclusion: The risk of maternal transmission of HSV to the fetus or newborn is a major health concern and the high rates of undiagnosed or asymptomatic HSV infections complicate the issue of prevention. With advent of serologic test that can reliably detect the virus in asymptomatic patient. Maternal HSV screening now is mandatory.

Keywords

HSV --- preterm PROM --- maternal herpes.


Article
12-INFLUENCE OF BODY MASS INDEX ON THE INCIDENCE OF PRETERM LABOUR

Authors: Khilud Salim Al-Salami --- Zaineb T Alyasin --- Ragad Nasir HussainSAINN
Journal: Basrah Journal of Surgery مجلة البصرة الجراحية ISSN: 16833589 / ONLINE 2409501X Year: 2009 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 72-77
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Nutritional status of the women has been considered as an important prognostic indicator ofpregnancy outcome and risk of preterm birth. Few studies have evaluated the patterns of bodymass index in developing regions where malnutrition and poor weight gain as well as maternalobesity have significant influences on the pregnancy outcome. This study aims to show theeffect of pregnancy body mass index on the incidence of preterm labour.This is a prospective descriptive study of 200 women attended Basrah Maternity and ChildHospital who were diagnosed with preterm labour were recruited in the study. Patients wereclassified into categories that were based on their body mass index (BMI) according to thenational institute of health guidelines. Rate of spontaneous preterm birth were determined.Women with body mass index <19 kg/m2 had 34.5% of spontaneous preterm labour, with BMI19-24.9 kg/m2 had 28.5% of spontaneous preterm labour, while those with BMI 25-29.9 kg/m2had 21% of spontaneous preterm labour, women with BMI 30-34.9 kg/m2 had 14% ofspontaneous preterm labour and with BMI >/35kg/m2 had 2%of spontaneous preterm labour.Risk of spontaneous preterm labour tend to progressively decrease with increasing body massindex.Thinner women who have preterm delivery tend to deliver at earlier gestational age than womenwho were obese 42.3% of non obese women deliver before 30 weeks of gestation compared to25% of the obese, 44% of non obese deliver at gestational age 30-40 weeks compared to 28.25of the obese.In conclusion, high body mass index is associated with a lower rate of spontaneous pretermbirth.

Keywords

BODY MASS INDEX --- PRETERM --- LABOUR


Article
The Incidence of Listeriosis among Abortion and Preterm Labour in Bghdad
نسبة الإصابة بمرض (الليستريا) في حالات الإجهاض و الولادة المبكرة في بغداد

Authors: Riadh M. Salih رياض محمد --- Bashar Y. Fatoohi بشار يوسف --- Miamy Abdul-Hassan ميامي عبد الحسن
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2005 Volume: 18 Issue: 3 Pages: 254-265
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Abstract:Objective: To find the incidence of Listeriosis among abortion and preterm labor.Setting: Department of obstetric and Gynecology in AL –Yarmouk teaching Hospital & Al-Habibia Maternity Hospital, in cooperation with the Department of Pathology ,College of Veterinary Medicine ,Baghdad University .Design: Tests for isolation of L. Monocytogenes from (200) women, (50) of them presented with abortion either incomplete or inevitable abortion or other (50) women presented with preterm labour and comparising them with (100) women with term labor as control. Isolation done by culture of placental tissue, maternal blood, cord blood and amniotic fluid in routine and selective culture media, then taking suspected colonies for gram stain. If gram stain positive then tested for catalase if positive catalase test, taken for biochemical test and for examination for haemolysis .Then tested for Api Listeria test which is identifiable test for Listeria. Then inject these colonies into experimental mice to confirm that it is virulent and taking biopsy from different organs of mice for histopathological study, also taking pieces from placental tissue for histopathological study.Results: The results showed (3) positive cases of listeriosis one of them for woman presented with inevitable abortion and she was (22) weeks pregnant. The second positive case for women presented with preterm labor and she was (24) weeks pregnant. While the third +ve case was for woman presented with preterm labor & was (28) weeks pregnant.Conclusion: Listeriosis is dangerous disease, is present in Iraqi pregnant woman, from this study we concluded the presence of listeriosis among Iraqi pregnant patients which may contribute to miscarriage, preterm labor & still birth, inspite of its rarity and to find the true incidence, larger number of patients are needed to be studied.

الملخص:اجري هذا البحث في قسم النسائية و التوليد في مستشفى اليرموك التعليمي و مستشفى الولادة في الحبيبية للفترة ما بين شباط 2002 الى شباط 2003 ، تتضمن هذه الدراسة البحث عن الإصابة بمرض اللستيريا في (50) امرأة في حالة إجهاض و (50) امرأة في حالة ولادة مبكرة ، و مقارنتها بـ(100) امرأة في حالة ولادة في أوانها و ذلك عن طريق اخذ عينات من المشيمة و عينات من دم جميع النساء المشمولات بهذه الدراسة و عينات من السائل الامينوسي و من دم الحبل السري في حالة الولادة المبكرة ، و الولادة التي في أوانها للزرع الجرثومي ثم تم بعد عملية الزرع اخذ مسحات من هذه الجراثيم لصبغة الگرام حيث إن بكتريا الـ لستريا مونوسايتوجينس موجبة بصبغة الگرام حيث تظهر هذه البكتريا تحت المجهر على شكل عصيات او عصيات كروية مختلفة الإشكال، و تكون مُحلِّلة للدم (نوع بيتا).و أيضا تم اخذ جزء من هذه المستعمرات لإجراء اختبارات الكيمياء الحياتية عليها و لاختبار الـ اپي الخاص باللستريا.ثم حقنت هذه البكتريا في فئران الاختبار تحت الجلد للتأكد من مقدار حدة الجرثومة. ثم أخذت عينات من أعضاء مختلفة من هذه الفئران للفحص النسيجي، كذلك أخذت عينات من المشيمة للفحص النسيجي.كانت النتيجة وجود (3) إصابات بمرض اللستريا الأولى كانت لامرأة حامل في الأسبوع الثاني و العشرين و كانت قد أدخلت إلى المستشفى بعد أن شخصت إنها في حالة إسقاط محتم و كانت المرآة غير مصابة بإمراض مزمنة كالسكر أو ارتفاع ضغط الدم و لم يكن لديها ولادة مبكرة سابقاً و لم يكن لديها حالة ولادة طفل مشوه سابقا، .... الخ و لكنها كانت مصابة بنحول و حمى و الم بالعضلات و بعد إدخالها إلى المستشفى أجهضت و كان الجنين متوفى (وفاة حديثة). أما الإصابة الثانية فكانت لامرأة حامل في الأسبوع الرابع و العشرين و كانت في حالة ولادة مبكرة و لم يكن لديها ولادة لطفل مشوه سابقا و لا لديها أمراض مزمنة كالسكر أو ارتفاع ضغط الدم و أمراض الكلى و القلب و لم تكن حامل لأكثر من جنين واحد و ليس لديها تشوهات بالرحم أو توسع في عنق الرحم، أو تقدم المشيمة أو انفصال المشيمة أو لديها ولادة مبكرة سابقاً. و كانت المرآة في حالة حمى و الآم في المفاصل و الرأس و تم تشخيصها على إنها مصابة بالأنفلونزا و قد ولدت جنين ميت (وفاة حديث).أما في الإصابة الثالثة فكانت المرآة حامل بالأسبوع الثامن و العشرين و أيضا لم تكن مصابة بجميع الأمراض التي ذكرناها في أعلاه و كانت في حالة ولادة مبكرة و كانت أيضا مصابة بالإسهال مع حمى و أيضا ولدت جنين ميت (وفاة حديث أيضا).في الدراسة أعلاه وجدنا أن الحالات قليلة جدا ربما يعود ذلك لعدد النساء المشمولات بالدراسة حيث ان العدد قليل و ريما يعود لان مرض اللستريا هو مرض غير واسع الانتشار حسب الدراسات التي اطلعنا عليها خلال أجراءنا لهذه الدراسة و أيضا وجدنا أن جميع المصابات كُنَّ مصابات بحمى و جميعهن أجهضن او ولدن اجنة ميتة و الإصابة كانت في فترة الحمل ما بين (22-28) أسبوع.و كانت نسبة الإصابة في حالة الإجهاض 2% و في حالة الولادة المبكرة 4%.

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