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Article
A clinical study of the hepatopulmonary syndrome in Iraqi patients with chronic liver disease

Author: Ziad M. Jureidini
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2011 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 32-38
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Objective To evaluate the frequency, clinical, and laboratory features of HPS and to determine their usefulness in its diagnosis in Iraqi patients with liver disease. Patients and Methods Fifty-two patients with chronic liver disease were evaluated for the presence of HPS using pulse oximetry, arterial blood gas analysis (ABG), and transthoracic contrast-enhanced echocardiography (CEE). Patients with SaO2 of ≤92% and/or a decrease in SaO2 of ≥4% after change from supine to upright position; were further tested with ABG and CEE. Patients who had a PaO2 of ≤70 mmHg together with positive CEE were considered to have HPS. Results Of 52 patients studied, 13 (26.9%) were in Child-Pugh class A, 16 (30.7%) in class B, and 23 (42.3%) in class C. Four patients (7.6%) proved to have HPS; one was in Child-Pugh class B and the other three were in class C (p=0.3574). Among the clinical features assessed as predictors of HPS, dyspnea (p = 0.0027), cyanosis (p < 0.0001), and finger clubbing (p = 0.0514) reached statistical significance. Neither upper GI endoscopy nor biochemical liver tests were statistically different between patients with and without HPS. Conclusions HPS is not rare. Dyspnea is a useful marker for its presence in the appropriate clinical setting. Platypnea, cyanosis, and finger clubbing are much less sensitive but more specific features of the syndrome. No particular pattern of biochemical liver tests is useful in predicting the presence or absence of HPS. There was a trend for HPS to occur in patients with more advanced liver disease.


Article
Assessment of Lung Function among Wool Textile Workers in Al-Nassiriya Industry
تقييم وظيفة الرئتين للعاملين في مصنع الناصرية للمنسوجات الصوفية

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Abstract

Background: Chronic exposure to wool dust is related to specific respiratory symptoms, due to high ambient dust concentration and the observed adverse effects on lung function.Objective: to assess the pulmonary function of wool textile workers.Methodology: A cross-section study which included 689 workers was studied at departments of Al-Nassiriya wool industry south of Iraq. Spirometric assessment was done by measuring forced expiratory volume during first second, forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume during first second / forced vital capacity ratio for each workers by simple spirometry.Results: pulmonary function test was abnormal for 16.6% of the sample, and 74.5% of workers with abnormal lung function were above 40 years of age.Conclusion: The percentage of workers with abnormal lung functions is significantly related to the duration of employment.Abbreviations: FVC: Forced expiratory Volume, FEV1: Forced expiratory Volume in 1 second, COPD: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Key words: pulmonary function test, spirometry

الخلفية:التعرض المزمن لغبار الصوف له علاقة بعلامات الجهاز التنفسي ، بسبب التركيز العالي للغبا ر بمحيط العمل والتأثيرالمعاكس على وظائف الرئة هدف الدراسة: تقييم وظائف الرئة لعمال النسيج الصوفي.طريقة البحث: دراسه مقطعية شملت 689 عاملا في أقسام معمل النسيج الصوفي في الناصرية. تم تقييم وظائف الرئة بقياس حجم الزفير المدفوع خلال الثانية الأولى, والسعة الحيوية لكل عامل بواسطة جهاز كفاءة الرئة. نتيجة البحث:أظهرت الدراسة ان 16.5% من العمال لديهم أختلال وظيفي في الرئتين,منهم 74.5% فوق الأربعين من العمرالأستنتاج: ان هناك علاقة معنوية بين مدة العمل ونسبة العمال اللذين لديهم أختلال وظيفي في الرئتين


Article
Relationship between hyperthyroidism and pulmonary function tests in female patients
العلاقة بين فرط نشاط الغدة الدرقية واختبارات وظائف الرئة في الإناث المرضى

Author: Azza Sajid Jabbar Alkinany عزه ساجد جبار الكناني
Journal: JOURNAL OF THI-QAR SCIENCE مجلة علوم ذي قار ISSN: 19918690 Year: 2013 Volume: 4 Issue: 1 Pages: 59-62
Publisher: Thi-Qar University جامعة ذي قار

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Abstract

This is a comparative study carried out into two groups of females of age range 25-60years:20 healthy and 21 female patients with hyperthyroidism group, who were attending Alsadar teaching outpatient hospital, Basra City, Iraq. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of hyperthyroidism on the pulmonary function tests. Pulmonary function tests such as FEV1, FVC, FEV1%, PEF and estimated lung age were all measured for all subjects involved in this study .The measurements were done by using a Spirolab III spirometer. It’s found highly significant declines (p<0.01) in FEV1, FVC and FEV1% in hyperthyroid female patients .While there was a significant decline in PEF at the level 0.05 of significance. The estimated lung age showed highly significant increase (pنفذت هذه الدراسه على مجموعتين من الاناث ضمن المدى العمري 25-60 سنه ,مجموعه الاصحاء ومجموعه المرضى المصابين بفرط نشاط الغده الدرقيه المرتادين العياده الخارجية لمستشفى الصدر التعليمي والتي تهدف الى تحديد تاثير فرط نشاط الغده الدرقية على وظائف الرئة .اختبارات وظائف الرئه FEV1,FVC,FEV1%,PEF وعمر الرئه جميعها قد قيست للمرضى المشمولين بالدراسة .تم القياس بواسطة استخدام ال spirometer .وجدت انحدارات عاليه المعنويهp<0.001) (ل FEV1,FVCوFEV1% في المريضات .وفرق معنوي في PEFعند مستوى المعنويه 0.05.عمر الرئه التقديري اظهر زيادة معنوية عاليه في المريضات .(P<0.01). ان المريضات بفرط نشاط الغدة الدرقية اظهرن تدهور في جميع وظائف الرئة المدروسة.


Article
Evaluations of vertical P‐wave axis in the diagnosis of

Author: Abdul Hameed Al-Qaseer
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2014 Volume: 13 Issue: 2 Pages: 46-52
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: Emphysema is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease thatresult in an abnormal permanent enlargement of air spaces distal to theterminal bronchioles. This leads to presence of increased air between theheart and the ECG recording electrodes that may alter ECG findings inpatient with emphysema.Aims: To evaluate the vertical P‐wave axis in the diagnosis of emphysemaand assessment of its severity.Patients and Methods: This is a case ‐ control study conducted at AlYarmouk Teaching Hospital and The Medical City in Baghdad during theperiod from the 1 st of February 2012 to 31 st of January 2013. A total of 100emphysematous patients compared with other well matched 100 nonemphysematous patients as a control group.The diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema was based on clinical history ,physical examination , chest radiographs finding, High resolution chest CTscan and pulmonary function test. Full history including age, sex,occupation, history of smoking was taken and complete physicalexamination was done on both groups, ECG and PFT done for allemphysema patient and control group and P‐wave axis calculated.Results: Demographic characteristics of emphysema patients & nonemphysema controls were comparable apart from significant associationbetween smoking and emphysema (P < 0.001). Our emphysematouspatients show that mean P‐wave axis were significantly (P < 0.01) higherthan that of control group. There is 86% of emphysema patient withvertical (>60 °) P‐wave axis in comparison to 9% of control group.There isa significant inverse correlation between P wave axis and FEV1 thatdecrease in FEV1 is associated with increase in P wave axis and vice versa.Those with FEV1 less than 50% significantly have higher P wave axis meanConclusions: This study revealed clearly that p‐wave axis deviation to theright is the most characteristic ECG change that occur in emphysema.Moreover, There is a significant inverse correlation between P wave axisand FEV1.


Article
The Role of Forced Expiratory Flow at 25-75 Measurement as A Predictor of Positive Reversibility Test in Asthmatic Patients with Normal Pulmonary Function Test

Author: Safaa Jawad Kadhem
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2016 Volume: 13 Issue: 1 Pages: 59-65
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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In the mild asthmatic attacks, partially treated asthma, early stages of bronchial asthma and in between the asthmatic attacks, sometimes we find patients with a history suggestive of asthma and normal PFT (FEV1 +FEV1/FVC > 80% of the predicted value).This study investigated the value of FEF 25-75 measurement as a predictor of the presence of a reversible airway obstruction (RAO) in adult patients with clinical features of asthma and normal pulmonary function test.64 patients with clinical features suggestive of asthma and normal pulmonary function test were included in the study. These patients were subdivided into three groups, group 1 were those with normal pulmonary function test and FEF 25-75>70%, group 2 were those with normal pulmonary function test and FEF 25-75< 70%>55% and group 3 are those with normal pulmonary function test and FEF 25-75<55%.each of the study group was compared with 35 sex and age matched healthy volunteers. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC and FEF25 – 75 were measured before and 10-20 minutes after salbutamol administration (by nebulizer).Of the 64 subjects, the percentage of subjects with RAO (FEV1 increase after bronchodilator >12 %) was lower (11%) in the group 1 (27 subjects) and higher (44%) in the subjects of the group 2 (23 subjects) and highest (52%) in the subject of group 3 (14 subjects ). FEF25-75 percent predicted is a good predictor of the presence of reversible airways obstruction in asthmatic patient with normal PFT.


Article
STUDY THE EFFECTS OF OBESITY AND BODY FAT DISTRIBUTION ON THE SPIROMETRIC PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS

Authors: Walaa M. Mejbel ولاء محمد مججبل --- Abbas F. Abdul-Wahab عباس فاضل عبد الوهاب
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2016 Volume: 14 Issue: 1 Pages: 50-55
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Background:Obesity is one of the most frequently found health risks with increasing in its prevalence all over the world. Several measures of obesity like body mass index, waist circumference and percent of body fat had been used in many studies as predictor of pulmonary function tests.Objectives:To evaluate the effect of anthropometric measurements on pulmonary function tests, and explore the association between body fat percent and pulmonary function tests.Methods:A total of one hundred subjects were recruited from both sexes (fifty with normal and fifty with high body mass index). Body mass index, waist circumference and percent of body fat were measured for each subject.Results:This study shows a significant reduction in spirometric parameters (except for FEV1/FVC ratio) in high body mass index groups compared to those with normal body mass index in both sexes, with a significant negative correlation between percent of body fat and waist circumference with spirometric parameters in high body mass index groups had been identified.Conclusion:Obesity has a restrictive rather than obstructive pattern of lung impairment. Excess body fat and abdominal obesity have anadverse affect on lung function.Keywords:Pulmonary function test, BMI, WC, BF%

Keywords

Pulmonary function test --- BMI --- WC --- BF%


Article
Assessment of Asthma Severity by History and Lung Function Study in School Age Children

Authors: Zuhair M. Al Musawi --- Akeel Mahdi --- Majeed Matrood --- Haidar A. N. Abood
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2017 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 2607-2612
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Background: The assessment of childhood asthma severity is important for the diagnosis and determining the initial level or step of the treatment of childhood asthma. It can be performed either by history alone for children less than five years old or by history and pulmonary function test for older children.Objective: to evaluate and compare the utility of history and lung function test in the assessment of asthma severity in childrenPatients and Method: Across-sectional study was conducted in Karbala teaching hospital of pediatrics, during the period from October 1, 2013 - April 30, 2014. The study included 50 children of both genders diagnosed with asthma (diagnosis made by consultant pediatrician). A questionnaire was designed for the assessment of asthma severity by history which included symptoms frequency over the preceding 4 weeks respectively. The lung function test was only done in children 6-year-old and more. All children in our study had performed lung function test.Results: The mean age of studied group was 9.6 ± 2.5. The result of asthma severity assessment based on history was as follow: 14/50 patients (28%) had intermittent asthma, 36/50 (72%) had persistent asthma of different degrees, mild in 11/50 (22%), moderate in 19/50 (38%) and severe persistent asthma in 6/50 (12%). While according to lung function test, 12/50 patients (24%) had intermittent asthma, 15/50 (30%) had mild persistent, 19/50 (38%) had moderate persistent and the remaining 4/50 patients (8%) had severe persistent asthma. There was no significant statistical difference in severity assessment between the two methods (P > 0.05).Conclusions: Our study shows good correlation between history and lung function test regarding classification of childhood asthma severity. History is an excellent tool for the assessment of childhood asthma severity when lung functions test is unavailable or difficult to be done in younger children.


Article
Comparison of Pulmonary Function Test between Smokers and Nonsmokers at Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq

Author: Media Qader Hasan, Karwan Hawez Sulaiman
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2019 Volume: 16 Issue: 2 Pages: 123-127
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Introduction: Cigarette smoking has extensive effects on pulmonary function. Pulmonary function testing is a routine procedure for theassessment and monitoring of respiratory diseases. The pulmonary functions were compared between apparently healthy smoker and nonsmokerpersons in this study. Materials and Methods: This case–control study was conducted among apparently healthy smoker and nonsmokerstudents and staff of the university between the first of April and the end of June 2018. A total number of 131 persons were taken, in which71 of them were nonsmokers (controls) and 60 were smokers (cases). The reference ranges for the pulmonary functions were used followingthe below criteria: forced vital capacity (FVC): normal (80%–120%) and reduced (<80%); FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in one second):normal (≥75) and reduced (<75); FEV1/FVC: normal ≥80 and reduced <80. Results: The study showed that smoker persons had a lower levelof FVC (84.38 vs. 94.75; P = 0.026) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) (67.08 vs. 84.18; P < 0.0001) compared to nonsmoker persons.Whereas, there was no significant difference in FEV1 (the first second of forced expiration) (80.42 vs. 86.86; P = 0.139) and the FEV1/FVCratio (96.13 vs. 94.48; P = 0.589) between smokers and nonsmokers, respectively. The mean pack‑year smoked by the smokers was 34.89.Conclusions: Cigarette smoking has a significant adverse effect on FVC and peak expiratory flow rate, while it was not confirmed to have anadverse effect on other pulmonary function tests.


Article
Impact of School Bag on Pulmonary Functions among Elementary School Children in Al-Hilla City-Iraq

Authors: Hasan Alwan Baiee --- Saraa Alaa
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2015 Volume: 12 Issue: 4 Pages: 1101 -1108
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Backpacks are used by school children to carry their materials. Heavy backpacks associated with several adverse effects on the health of children and may interfere with their school achievement.The objective to assess the effect of school bags on pulmonary functions of school children in Al- Hilla city.This is a descriptive school based cross sectional study which was carried out on a convenient sample of 220 healthy pupils, from the fifth and sixth grades, from four randomly selected primary schools during the period from February through May, 2015.Written and verbal consents were obtained from the pupils and their parents .Data were collected through interviewing the participants by using a structured questionnaire contained sociodemographic and school bag related information. Pulmonary function test was performed using an electronic portable spirometer (discovery-2 USA), after measuring the weight and height of the participants.Pulmonary function parameters were significantly reduced after carrying backpack (p value < 0.001) except the FEV1/FVC was increased after carrying the backpack .The results indicate that there was a significant reduction of the ventilatory functions of primary school children after carrying the backpack. Preventive measures are needed to protect school children.


Article
Effects of Occupational Exposure on Lung Function Tests in Old Process Plant Units workers, North Oil Company, Iraq

Authors: Abdulwahed H. Muhammad --- Ahmad S. Helal
Journal: Journal of Petroleum Research & Studies مجلة البحوث والدراسات النفطية ISSN: 22205381 Year: 2018 Issue: 21 Pages: E16-E27
Publisher: Ministry of Oil وزارة النفط

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Abstract

Occupational exposure to petroleum vapors has been shown to affect functioning of different systems of the body. The present study was taken up to assess the Pulmonary Function Tests. Method: A total of 356 male old process plant units' workers in north oil company, Kirkuk, Iraq, were assessed for lung function status. Respiratory function test was according to the American Thoracic Society (ATS) recommendations, Questionnaire performed and respiratory functions viz. (FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC% and PEF) were recorded by a portable electronic spirometer. Results: There was a statistically significant decrease in FEV1, FVC, and PEF in this study of exposured state compared to the normal state which was normal. FEV1/FVC% ratio was within normal limit. Conclusion: Most findings point towards adverse effects of petroleum vapors on lung function, mainly on lower airways with restrictive pattern of disease.

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