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Article
Acute renal failure in children under two years of age

Author: Nariman Fahmi Ahmed
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2008 Volume: 50 Issue: 2 Pages: 139-144
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Summary:
Background: Acute renal failure (ARF) in children is a catastrophic, life -threatening
event
Aim of the study: the aim of the present study is to find out the etiology and outcome
of patients with acute renal failure below two years of age admitted to the hospital.
Patients and methods: A prospective study was carried out on children below 2
years of age (with exclusion of neonatal period) presented with acute renal shut down
admitted to Children Welfare Teaching Hospital during the period from Jan. 1st
,
2007tojan30th
,2008.
Results: the study group included 100 patients with acute renal failure, 69 males and
31 females with M/F ratio 2.2:1.Age range was between (2 months - 2 years).
Prerenal ARF was the commonest type seen in 67(67%) patients and hypovolemia
due to (gastrointestinal loss) was the prominent etiology it was found in 53(53%)
cases. ARF due to renal and post-renal causes found in 21(21%) and 12(12%) cases
respectively, six (6%) patients only presented with non-Oligouria.
Forty four patients (44%) required peritoneal dialysis, while(56)patients improved on
conservative management only and most of them (53 %) were the pre-renal group.
Ninety two (92%) patients had either complete or partial recovery of their renal
function, eight (8%) patients died from ARF.
Conclusion: prerenal ARF particularly hypovolemia secondary to gastrointestinal
loss was the most common causative group of ARF in our patients, with good
prognosis for the recovery of renal function in most patients. To evaluate and validate
markers of acute kidney injury more prospective clinical studies required.


Article
Chronic Renal Failure in Children Admitted to Children Welfare Teaching Hospital

Author: Nariman Fahmi Ahmed
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2008 Volume: 7 Issue: 1 Pages: 12-17
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Chroic renal failure (CRF) is a devastating medical, psychological, social and economic problem forpatients and their families.AIM OF THE STUDY:The aim of the present study was to determine the etiology, clinical presentations and highlighttreatment modalities used for patients with CRF admitted to children welfare teaching hospital.PATIENTS' AND METHODS:A Retrospective study of all children with CRF admitted to children welfare teaching hospital duringthe period from 1stof jan.2002 to 1st of jan.2007 were included in the study .CRF was defined ashaving glomerular filtration rate less than 80m1 /min/1.73m2.RESULTS:The study group included 50 patients with CRF below 17 years of age,29(58%) males and 21(42%)females. Male: female ratio 1.38:1Their age ranged between (1m -17 year).Twenty (40%) patients were above 10 years of age. In thisstudy the mean glomerularFiltration rate was (29.5 + 18.5m1 /min/1.73m2).Congenital abnormalities were the major cause of CRF, it was found in 18 patients (36%), followedby hereditary conditions in 14 (28%) patients and glomerular diseases in 13 (26%) patients.The most common presenting symptom was anemia. It was found in 16(32%) patients followed byhypertension in 12 patients (24%) and failure to thrive in 12(24%) patients.Twenty-one patients (42%) received peritoneal dialysis, four (8%) received hemodialysis. Renaltransplant was done to 3 patients (6%).CONCLUSION:Congenital abnormalities was to the most common cause of CRF in our patients. Establishing registrysystem that provide detailed information concerning the incidence, causes, and overall outcomes ofmild to severe renal functional impairment acquired during developmental age can clarify further thenatural history of the disease and the factors that influence its course.


Article
8- Educational Article POSTOPERATIVE ACUTE RENAL FAILURE, THE ROLE OF ANESTHESIOLOGISTS…51

Authors: JASIM M SALMAN --- SALAM N ASFAR
Journal: Basrah Journal of Surgery مجلة البصرة الجراحية ISSN: 16833589 / ONLINE 2409501X Year: 2009 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 51-52
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract


Article
Effect of Hemodialysis On Plasma Osmolarity In Patients WithChronic Renal Failure

Authors: Yihia Mousa Al-Sunbly --- Abdul- Aziz A. Aziz --- Yesar M.H. Al-Shamma
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2008 Volume: 50 Issue: 2 Pages: 184-186
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract


Back ground: The study was conducted on fifty patients (27 males and 20 females)
with chronic renal failure (CRF) undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (HD), at
artificial Kidney unit, Al- Hakeem Hospital / Najaf, during the perioed from April
to June 2008.
Patients & methods: Plasma osmolarity ( Posm), plasma creatinine (P cr ) plasma
urea (P urea)>plasma sodium (P Na)and plasma potassium ( P k )were measured for
all patients before and after dialysis.
Results: The paired t -test was used to compare the pre-dialysis values with the
post dialysis values and simple linear correlation to study the relation between (P
Na), and ( Posm), p values less than 0.05 considered not significant. The result of
study showed a significant decrease in the means of P Na , P k, P cr, P urea and Posm
after dialysis in comparison with the pre-dialysis values ( p<0.0001). There was
also a significant positive correlation between P Na and Posm (r=0.30,p<0.05)
Conclusions: HD had a significant regulatory effect on body fluids and electrolytes
ratio,Posm and removal of uremic toxins in patients with CRF, the study also reviled
that Posm may be another useful indicator of body fluids and electrolytes status
among these patients


Article
The Effect of Chronic Renal Failure on Thyroid Hormones

Author: Layla K. Ali
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences المجلة العراقية للعلوم الصيدلانية ISSN: 16833597 Year: 2010 Volume: 19 Issue: 1 Pages: 65-68
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Chronic renal failure (CRF) affects thyroid function in multiple ways, including low circulating thyroid hormone concentration, altered peripheral hormone metabolism, disturbed binding to carrier proteins, possible reduction in tissue thyroid hormone content, and increased iodine store in thyroid glands.The target of study is to find a relationship between chronic renal failure and thyroid function.In addition, we tried to study the effect of CRF on serum creatinine dependent on the level of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) and thyroid stimulating hormones(TSH). Forty patients with chronic renal failure (20 male, 20 female) were enrolled in this study in addition to forty healthy individual as control group (20 male, 20 female). The age ranged from (25 -65) years. T4, T3, TSH, urea, uric acid and creatinine were measured in each of the two groups. The results revealed statistically significant reduction in T3 and T4 while there is elevation in TSH, urea,uric acid and creatinine in the patients group compared to the control group.

يؤثر القصور الكلوي المزمن على فعالية الهرمونات الدرقية بطرق متعددة تتضمن قلة في تركيز هرمون الغدة الدرقية في الدم، تبدل أو تغير ايض الهرمون في الانسجة المحيطية، وإرتباطه بالبروتين الناقل، أحتمالية انخفاض مستوى الهرمونات الدرقية في الانسجة المحيطية والبلازما وكذلك زيادة خزن اليود في الغدة الدرقية. الهدف من الدراسة ايجاد علاقة بين القصورالكلوي المزمن والغدة الدرقية بالاضافة الى دراسة تاثير الفشل الكلوي المزمن اعتمادا على مستويات الهرمونات الدرقية والهرمون المحفز للدرقية. جمعت النمادج من 40 مريضا" مصابا" بالفشل الكلوي بالاضافة الى 40 شخصا" من الاصحاء كمجموعة سيطرة.اعمار المجاميع تتراوح بين (25- 65) سنة . تم قياس هرمونات الغدة الدرقية (ثلاثي يوديد الثايرونين والثايروكسين) ،الهرمون المحفز للدرقية،اليوريا ، حامض اليوريك والكرياتنين .بينت النتائج وجود انخفاض معنوي في كل من ثلاثي يوديد الثايرونين والثايروكسين في حين وجد ارتفاع ملحوظ في كل من الهرمون المحفز للدرقية ،اليوريا، حامض اليوريك والكرياتنين في مرضى القصور الكلوي مقارنة بالاصحاء.


Article
MAGNESIUM, ZINC, AND COPPER IN SERUM, ERYTHROCYTE, URINE AND DIALYZATE FLUIDS OF HAEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS

Author: Sami, N. Najem
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences المجلة العراقية للعلوم الصيدلانية ISSN: 16833597 Year: 2005 Volume: 14 Issue: 1 Pages: 31-35
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Copper (Cu) Zinc (Zn) and Magnesium (Mg) in serum, RBC, urine and dialyzate fluids were studied in 39 patients, who have been undergoing chronic haemodialysis treatment. They were divided in to polyuric , oliguric and anuric depending on their urinary output. Elevated serum and RBC Mg was observed before dialysis, while decreased serum and RBC level was noticed except serum Mg of polyuric patients. Before dialysis elevated serum and RBC Zn were observed. While after dialysis these parameters were increased. Normal RBC Cu value before dialysis was observed. While low serum Cu was noticed. After dialysis serum Cu showed raised value, while RBC level decreased in oliguric and increased in polyuric patients. Zn / Cu ratio found to be high in those patients. All these results were discussed in relation to urine content and also to the dialyzate fluid.

قيست تراكيز المغنيسيوم والخارصين والنحاس في مصل وكريات الدم الحمر وإدرار ومحلول الغسيل الناتج لدى تسعةوثلاثين مريضا عولجوا بالإنفاذ الدموي واللذين قسموا حسب كمية الإدرار المطروحة إلى غزيري وقليلي وعديمي الإدرار, ظهرارتفاع في تركيز المغنيسيوم في مصل وكريات الدم الحمر قبل المعالجة في حين انخفض تركيز ه بعده ا, عدا مصل غزيريالإدرار, ارتفع تركيز الزنك في المصل وكريات الدم الحمر قبل وبعد المعالجة, وبقي تركيز النحاس طبيعيا في كريات الدم الحمرقبل المعالجة في حين انخفض تركيز ه في المصل , وارتفع بعد المعالجة بينما انخفض في كريات الدم الحمر في مرضى قليليالإدرار, وارتفع لدى مرضى غزيري الإدرار, وارتفعت نسبة الزنك إلى النحاس في جميع المرضى . نوقشت جميع النتائج علىضوء محتوى الإدرار ومحلول الغسيل من هذه العناصر.


Article
DEPRESSION IN A GROUP OF PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE ATTENDING HEAMODIALYSIS UNIT IN TEACHING HOSPITAL IN BAGHDAD

Authors: Makhoola H Kassim --- Uday AJ Khalid عدي عبد الجبار خالد
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2012 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 55-59
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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BackgroundDepression is the most common psychopathological condition among patients with chronic renal disease yet it is still under recognized and underestimated. Depression adversely affects the already disturbed quality of life of patients with chronic renal disease.ObjectivesTo determine the rate of depression in a sample of chronic renal failure patients attending haemodialysis unit in teaching hospital in Baghdad and examine the sociodemographic variables of such patients.MethodsThis is a cross-sectional study done at Al-Kadhimiya Teaching Hospital, during a period of 2 months from 4th of January 2009 to 4th of March 2009. The total of 50 random cases with chronic renal failure coming for haemodialysis were interviewed by semi structured schedule for psychiatric diagnosis. Results were reviewed by simple descriptive and inferential statistical measures.ResultsThe rate of depression in this sample of patients with chronic renal failure was 40%.There was no statistically significant relation between any of the demographic variables and depression.ConclusionThe rate of depression in this study is high. Results were compared with other studies in light of circumstances of this study.Key wordsDepression, chronic renal failure, haemodialysis


Article
Acute Renal Failure in Children Below 12 Years Causes, Clinical Presentation and Management

Author: Bushra Jalil Salih
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2009 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 33-39
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Acute renal failure (ARF) is a common condition in hospitalized patients, characterized by a rapid fall in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), carries a high morbidity and mortality, often preventable, so rapid recognition and treatment may prevent irreversible loss of nephrons.OBJECTIVE:To find out the cause of acute renal failure in children and to study the clinical presentation and management modalities and sequel.METHODS:A prospective study done in Central Teaching Hospital for children from January 2006 to December 2006. 120 patients aged 1month- to 12 years who were diagnosed and treated as cases of acute renal failure were collected & analyzed. And the distribution of patients according to (age, sex, type of presentation, laboratory finding, type of management and sequel) were done.RESULTS:From hundred twenty patients, there were 77 male and 43 female with 1.7:1 ratio distributed into 93 infant, 14 preschool and 13 school age group .The main type of presentation was acidosis ,oliguria & dehydration. The main causes were gastroenteritis, sepsis and obstructed uropathy in infancy and preschool children, glomerular disease in school age group. 97 need conservative treatments and 23 need urgent peritoneal dialysis (PD) with mortality rate 5.15%, 30.51% respectively.CONCLUSION:Acute renal failure occurred more in infancy and most of them were prerenal acute renal failure can be handled with conservative treatment; peritoneal dialysis is a good choice for treatment of acute renal failure not resolved by conservative therapy.


Article
Association Between Chronic Renal Failure and Thyroid Hormone

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Abstract

The levels of serum urea , creatinine ,total thyroxin (TT4) , Tri-iodothyronine (TT3) , free T4 (fT4) , freeT3 (fT3) and Thyrotropin (TSH) were measured in the serum of 80 Patients with varying grades of chronic renal failure (CRF) ; and 40 healthy individuals . They were divided into 3 groups as : Group 1 Containing 40 healthy individuals as Control group; Group 2 containing 40 Patients on Conservative management ; and Group 3 Containing 40 Patients on Regular haemodialysis therapy. Groups 2 and 3 showed significant increased in urea and creatinine compared with control group ( P< 0.001) and significant decreased in TT4(P < 0.01) , TT3(P < 0.001) , fT4( P < 0.01) and fT3( P< 0.001) , whereas TSH values were not significantly altered . Conclusions: Uremia is accompanied with endocrine disorders , due to impaired degradation of hormones , because of failed kidney functions and to the interference of the uremic environment with extra renal degradation or synthesis and secretion of certain hormones . The aim of the study was to investigate the association between chronic renal failure and thyroid function. Key words: chronic renal failure , thyroid hormones

تم دراسة مستويات كل من اليوريا والكرياتينين والثايروكسين الكلي TT4 والثايروكسين الحرfT4 وثلاثي ايوديد الثايروكسين الكلي TT3 وثلاثي ايوديد الثايروكسين الحر fT3 وهرمون الثايروتروبين TSH الهرمون المحرض للدرقية وقياسها في مصل م 80 مريضا يعانون من درجات متفاوتة بالفشل الكلوي المزمن (CRF) ومقارنتهما بـ 40 شخصا من الاصحاء , حيث قسمت الدراسة الى ثلاث مجاميع : مجموعة (I) شملت 40 شخصا كمجموعة سيطرة, مجموعة (II) شملت 40 مريضا في مرحلة العلاج التحفظي ,مجموعة (III) شملت 40 مريضا في مرحلة الغسل الدموي.اظهرت المجموعة الثانية والثالثة ارتفاع معنوي في مستويات اليوريا والكرياتينين عند مقارنتهما بمجموعة السيطرة وبمستوى معنوية )0,001>(p, وانخفاضا معنوي في مستوى TT4 عند مستوى معنوية (0,01>p)، وانخفاضا في مستوى TT3 بمستوى معنوية(0,001>(p, وانخفاضا في مستوى fT4 عند مستوى معنوية (0,01>p) عند مجموعة العلاج التحفظي و(0,001>p) عند مجموعة الغسل الدموي, و انخفاض معنوي في مستوى fT3 عند مستوى معنوية (0,001>p), بيمنا قيم TSH لم تتغير معنويا . وكان الهدف من هذه الدراسة ايجاد العلاقة بين الفشل الكلوي المزمن و وظيفة الغدة الدرقية .


Article
Radiographic findings of oral and dental aspects of chronic renal failure of Iraqi patients under hemodialysis therapy

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Background: Chronic renal failure can give rise to a wide spectrum of oral manifestations, affecting the hard or softtissues of the mouth. The majority of affected individuals have disease that does not complicate oral health care. Themain aim of this study is to assess the response to therapy and to determine the radiographic manifestations in teethand jaws of individuals with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis and to find possible preventive andtherapeutic strategies.Materials and methods: Thirty male patients with chronic renal failure who were continuously receiving therapy withongoing hemodialysis were included in this study and were divided into two subgroups according to the period oftherapy (those who had renal dialysis for less than a year, and 1 to 2 years). All patients were requested forpanoramic (OPG) radiographs with standardized parameters according to user manual of the machine thenquantify the frequency of abnormal dental and periodontal radiographic findings in both arches i.e. the alveolarbone resorption, presence of hypercementosis of the roots, lamina dura reduction or loss and dental condition, thenthe data were analyzed statistically by comparison with control normal subjects.Results: It has been established that the duration with the increase the abnormality in dental and periodontalradiographic findings as alveolar bone resorption, presence of hypercementosis of the roots, lamina dura reductionor loss, as well as other dental diseases.Conclusion: Panoramic radiographic view used in this study considers as a good monitor for jaw and dental changesassociated with patients affected with chronic renal failure treated with hemodialysis, and the results showed strongcorrelation between duration of hemodialysis and all studied variables. Clinicians should use oral health assessmenttools to determine individual treatment and approaches to promote the oral health of patients undergoinghemodialysis and improve their quality of life

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