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Article
Pathogenic effect of bunt wheat on male reproductive system in Mices.
التأثيرات الامراضية للحنطة المتفحمة على الجهاز التناسلي الذكري في الفئران.

Author: Mustafa A.K. Al-Taie مصطفى عبد الخالق الطائي
Journal: The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine المجلة الطبية البيطرية العراقية ISSN: 16095693 Year: 2010 Volume: 34 Issue: 2 Pages: 9-14
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This study was carried out to study the toxic effect of smut wheat on male reproductive system of mice. The experimental study was performed in the laboratory using 20 mice, which divided into two groups, one group feed on normal diet, the other fed on a mixture of 50% normal diet with 50% smut wheat. A histopathological study was done on the testes of Mice fed on smut wheat for 30 days. The histopathological study revealed thickness of basement membrane of semiriferous tubule of mice, and desquamation of the sertoli cells and spermatogonium from the basement membrane of seminiferous tubule and has adversely effect on male fertility. Key words:buntwheat,malemices,reproductive.

Keywords

:buntwheat --- malemices --- reproductive


Article
Lipid Profile Changes in Women in Reproductive Age Group Using Injectable Medroxypogesterone Acetate Contraception

Authors: Inas Taha Ahmed --- Adellah Hamood Hussein --- Areej Talib
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2015 Volume: 12 Issue: 3 Pages: 802-816
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

To evaluate lipid profile changes in women of reproductiveage group using Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate contraceptive lasting for three months. A prospective study in Al- Imamein Al- Kadhemein medical city from July 2013 to January 2014. The study included a total of 40 healthy multi para women in reproductive age group, visiting family planning clinic in Al- Imamein Al- Kadhemein medical city seeking for contraception.Verbal consent obtained from participants. Baseline serum lipids wasassessed prior to the use of Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate and thenthree months after the use of injection in 10-12 hours fasting women.A detailed questionnaire was designed, to be fulfilled by each clientincluding; all relevant issues: age, general health history, obstetric and gynecological history, menstrual cycle and relevant medical diseases andprevious use of contraception.In this study there was significant increase in serum LDL (p value <0.001) and significant decrease in serum HDL (p value<0.001) after three months of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate injections in comparison to pre-injection group. There was insignificant increase in serum cholesterol (p value >0.05) and no changes in serum triglyceride, also there was no significant changes in BMI three months after injections (p value> 0.05).Depot medroxy progesterone acetate used in women with reproductive age group as injectable contraception, can cause significant changes in lipid metabolism.


Article
Study the effect of number of parturitions on the measurements of reproductive performance of dairy cows

Authors: Mohammad Y. Mahmood --- Noorulden Y. Khudhair --- Yaseen M. Rasheed
Journal: Kufa Journal For Veterinary Medical Sciences مجلة الكوفة للعلوم الطبية البيطرية ISSN: 20779798 Year: 2014 Volume: 5 Issue: 2 Pages: 223-229
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

This study is conducted in Latifiya station for dairy cows in south east of Baghdad. Which have Holstein and Friesian and cross breed among them, from the first of April 2012 until the first of August 2014. Dystocia rate 69.81% recorded and also 26.8% retained placenta with 16% ovarian problem and 53% uterine problems for (386) cows.The cows of research are divided into four group according the number of parturition and four reproduction performance parameters are used.(calving interval) ,(open day) ,(conception from first service) and finally (services per conception).The results are in the first group (2parturitions) (121) cows were 423.7 day for calving interval ,107.1 days open ,27.4% conception from first service and 2.3 services per conception ,the result of second group (3parturitions) (106)cows were ,458.3 day calving interval ,188.1 day open days, 25.3% conception from first service and 2.28 services per conception that statically significant. The result of third group (4 parturition ) (120)cow record 427.6 days calving interval ,156.2 days open ,37% conception from first service ,and2.15 services per conception. with statistical significant difference at p< 0.01. The last group (5 parturitions) (58) cow also record 378.8 days calving interval ,101.8 days open ,49% conception from first services and 1.76 services per conception .The results of last two groups have statically significant at p<0.01 from first and second groups.


Article
Evaluation of the effect of using NSAIDs on ovulation in women during reproductive age: a case control study
تقييم تأثير استخدام مضادات الالتهاب غير الستيروئيدية على الإباضة لدى النساء خلال سن الإنجاب: دراسة مراقبة الحالة

Author: Saba Shamran
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Medical Journal مجلة القادسية الطبية ISSN: 18170153 Year: 2019 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 109-112
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

AbstractBackground:Unovulation is an important cause of female infertility whether primary or secondary. Prostaglandins play an important role in normal physiology of ovulation. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are often prescribed for treatment of a variety of medical conditions in the field of obstetrics and gynecology. Sufficient controversy about the role of NSAIDs on ovulation exists. Aim of the study:to evaluate rate of ovulation in two groups one was healthy fertile women receiving NSAIDs and the other group include healthy fertile women receiving placebo treatment.Patients and methods:The present case control study included two groups of healthy fertile women. The first groups included 30 women who were given the NSAIDdiclofenac sodium (olfen, Novartis) as 100 mg daily oral dose for 2 months duration and the other group included 30 women who were given placebo treatment for the same 2 months period. In the cycle following the completion of the intended period the following investigations were performed: serum progesterone level at day 10 and day 20 of menstrual cycle and ultrasound examination for identification of ovarian follicle size ate day 10 of the cycle and then at day 20 to confirm or exclude ovulation. The study extended from November 2017 to January 2018 and was carried out at Al-Diwaniyah maternity and child teaching hospital at Al-Diwaniyah province, Iraq. Results:Conclusion:TheNSAID diclofenac sodium interferes significantly with ovulation in women during their reproductive life and should be use with caution in women seeking pregnancy.

نبذة مختصرةالخلفية: الإباضة هي سبب مهم لعقم الإناث سواء الأساسي أو الثانوي. تلعب البروستاجلاندين دورًا مهمًا في فسيولوجيا الإباضة الطبيعية. وغالبا ما توصف العقاقير المضادة للالتهابات غير الستيرويدية (مضادات الالتهاب غير الستيروئيدية) لعلاج مجموعة متنوعة من الحالات الطبية في مجال التوليد وأمراض النساء. يوجد جدل كافٍ حول دور مضادات الالتهاب غير الستيروئيدية في الإباضة.الهدف من الدراسة: لتقييم معدل الإباضة في مجموعتين ، كانت المرأة الخصبة الصحية التي تتلقى مضادات الالتهاب غير الستيروئيدية والمجموعة الأخرى تشمل النساء الخصبات الأصحاء اللائي يتلقين العلاج الوهمي.المرضى والطرق: شملت دراسة مراقبة الحالة الحالية مجموعتين من النساء الخصيات الأصحاء. شملت المجموعات الأولى 30 امرأة تم إعطاؤهن NSAIDdiclofenac sodium (olfen، Novartis) كجرعة فموية يومية 100 ملغ لمدة شهرين ، بينما شملت المجموعة الأخرى 30 امرأة تلقين العلاج الوهمي لنفس فترة الشهرين. في الدورة التالية لاستكمال الفترة المقصودة تم إجراء التحقيقات التالية: مستوى هرمون البروجسترون في الدم في اليوم 10 واليوم 20 من الدورة الشهرية والفحص بالموجات فوق الصوتية لتحديد حجم بصيلات المبيض أكلت يوم 10 من الدورة ثم في اليوم 20 لتأكيد أو استبعاد الإباضة. امتدت الدراسة من نوفمبر 2017 إلى يناير 2018 ونفذت في مستشفى الديوانية للأمومة والطفولة في محافظة الديوانية ، العراق.النتائج:خاتمة: يتداخل TheNSAID ديكلوفيناك الصوديوم بشكل كبير مع الإباضة عند النساء أثناء حياتهم الإنجابية ويجب أن يستخدم بحذر عند النساء اللائي يسعين للحمل.

Keywords

NSAIDs --- ovulation --- reproductive age


Article
4.REPRODUCTIVE HORMONAL ASSAY OF A SAMPLE OF IRAQI OBESE MALES

Authors: Imad M. Abdul-Rahman عماد محمود عبد الرحمن --- Atheer J. Abdul-Ameer اثير جواد عبد الامير
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2019 Volume: 17 Issue: 2 Pages: 114-119
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:The World Health Organization considered obesity as a medical condition that may lead to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems. While much of the focus on the impairments caused by obesity is on somatic health, recent data suggest that reproductive health may also be impacted.Objective:To quantify the relation between obesity and the reproductive hormones.Methods:This cross-sectional study was carried out at nutrition clinic in three teaching hospitals and one obesity clinic in a medical college in Baghdad. The body mass index (BMI) calculation, blood sugar, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, testosterone, prolactin, follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) were measured.Results:Ninety-five adult obese males participated in this study. Serum testosterone had significant negative correlation with BMI, weight, serum cholesterol, and serum triglyceride while serum LH had significant positive correlation with BMI (p value was 0.013), weight (p value was 0.027), and serum triglyceride (p value was 0.049).Conclusion:Male obesity has significant effect on serum level of testosterone and LH.Keywords:Obesity, reproductive hormonesCitation:Abdul-Rahman IM., Abdul-Ameer AJ. Reproductive hormonal assay of a sample of Iraqi obese males. Iraqi JMS. 2019; 17(2): 114-119. doi: 10.22578/IJMS.17.2.4


Article
Effect of cottonseed oil on reproduction performance of male mice.
تأثير زيت بذور القطن على الاداء التناسلي لذكور الفئران البيض

Authors: Mohammad Baqir M-R. Fakhrildin محمد باقر محمد رشاد --- Sabah A.R.Al-Obaidi صباح عبد الرضا العبيدي --- Inaam Noori Ali انعام نوري علي
Journal: Baghdad Science Journal مجلة بغداد للعلوم ISSN: 20788665 24117986 Year: 2011 Volume: 8 Issue: 1عدد خاص بمؤتمر علوم الحياة Pages: 340-347
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Oil extract of cottonseed was orally administered to male mice at doses 0%, 20% and 40% daily for 6 weeks to study their effects on male reproduction performance. The results showed that testicular weight was significantly (P<0.05) decrease, highly significant (P<0.01) decrease in the diameters of seminiferous and epididymal tubules and thickness of proliferated of spermatogenic and epithelial cells layers were revealed highly significant (P<0.01) decrease as compared to the control. Administration 20% and 40% cottonseed oil to male mice for 6 weeks caused a significant (P<0.05) and highly significant (P<0.01) decrease respectively in serum testosterone concentration as compared to the control. Dose 20% oil caused significant (P<0.05) reduction in the level of serum FSH and LH, while 40% oil caused highly significant (P<0.01) decrease in the level of serum FSH and LH. Finally, cottonseed oil caused histological changes in the testicular tissues which comprise different grades of degenerations in the spermatogenic layers, large numbers of germ cells were detached and sloughed in the lumen and absence of sperms from some of seminiferous tubules in addition to widening of interstitial spaces due to presence of edema and congestion of blood vessels. Objective of the present study was to knowledge the effect of cottonseed oil on male reproduction performance of mice which comprise different parameters such as measurement of reproductive organs weight, diameters of seminiferous and epididymal tubules, reproductive hormones and histological changes.

جرعت ذكور الفئران البيض فمويا بزيت بذور القطن وبتركيز 0% و20% و40% ولمدة ستة اسابيع يوميا لدراسة تأثيراته على الاداء التناسلي. اظهرت النتائج حصول انخفاض معنوي في وزن الخصى مقارنة مع السيطرة. سجلت ابعاد النبيبات المنوية والبربخية نقصان عالي المعنوية مقارنة مع السيطرة. كذلك سمك طبقات الخلايا الجرثومية والخلايا الطلائية اظهرت نقصان عالي المعنويةمقارنة مع السيطرة. اعطاء جرعة 20% و 40% من زيت بذور القطن لذكور الفئران ولمدة ستة اسابيع سببت نقصان معنوي وعالي المعنوية بصورة متتابعة في تركيز الشحمون الخصوي مقارنة مع السيطرة. سببت جرعة 20% من زيت بذور القطن نقصان معنوي فس مستوى الهرمون اللوتيني والهرمون المحفز لنمو الجريبات بصورة متتابعة بينما سببت جرعة 40% نقصان عالي المعنوية في مستوى هذين الهرمونين . اخيرا سبب زيت بذور القطن تغييرات نسجية في نسيج الخصية متمثلة بـدرجات مختلفة من الانحلال للطبقات الجرثومية وانفصال وانسلاخ اعداد كبيرة من الخلايا الجرثومية وسقوطها في تجويف النبيبات المنوية وفقدان السبيرمات من بعض النبيبات بالاضافة الى توسع المسافات البينية بسبب الودمة واحتقان الاوعية الدموية. هدفت الدراسة الحالية معرفة تأثير زيت بذور القطن على الاداء التناسلي لذكور الفئران متمثلا بمعايير مختلفة كقياس وزن الاعضاء التكاثرية وابعاد النبيبات المنوية والبربخية والهرمونات الذكرية والتغييرات النسجية.


Article
Adolescent Girls' Awareness towards Reproductive Health in Baghdad City
وعي المراهقات حول الصحة الانجابية في مدينة بغداد

Author: Shatha A. Mohammed Ali
Journal: nursing national Iraqi specility المجلة العراقية الوطنية للعلوم التمريضية ISSN: 18122388 Year: 2013 Volume: 26 Issue: 2 Pages: 9-15
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Objective: is to determine the level of awareness concerning the reproductive health among adolescent girls in Baghdad City.Methodology: A cross sectional study was performed in order to assess the level of awareness regarding reproductive health among 180 adolescent school girls in the age 12-18 years from five secondary schools in Al-Seder Sector in Baghdad city, the data was collected by direct interview using constructed questionnaire to obtain socio-demographic characteristics and level of awareness related to reproductive health. The study started from September 2012 to January 2013.Results: the results show that the highest percentage of girls (47.7%) was in age (17-18) year's age, (54.5%) at 4th class secondary school. The primary school is the educational background of their mothers (40.5%), (41.6%) of the respondents who have large family size. Television and internet were the first source of information (40.9%) of respondents. Good awareness regarding menstruation was recorded for (45.5%) of respondents, also good awareness regarding pubertal body changes among (51.1%) of respondents. Poor awareness recorded among respondents regarding both gynecological problems (45.6%) and (AIDS) (60.5%).Recommendations: the present study recommends that priority should be given to provide health education to increase the level of awareness regarding reproductive health for adolescent girls in Baghdad City especially that is related to gynecological problems and AIDS.

الهدف: تهدف الدراسة إلى تحديد مستوى وعي المراهقات فيما يتعلق بالصحة الإنجابية في مدينة بغداد .المنهجية: دراسة مقطعية أجريت لغرض تحديد مستوى وعي المراهقات فيما يتعلق بالصحة الإنجابية حيث اختيرت 180 مراهقة في عمر 12-18 سنة من خمس مدارس ثانوية من قطاع مدينة الصدر في بغداد, وقد جمعت العينة بطريقة المقابلة المباشرة باستخدام استبانه معدة لجمع المعلومات الاجتماعية والديموغرافية ومستوى الوعي الخاص بالصحة الإنجابية,وقد بدأت الدراسة للفترة من تشرين الأول عام 2012 ولغاية كانون الثاني عام 2013النتائج: أظهرت نتائج الدراسة أن النسبة الأعلى من البنات (47,7%) أعمارهم بين(17-18) سنة و( 54,5%) في الصف الرابع الإعدادي,وأن الدراسة الابتدائية هي الخلفية العلمية لأمهات (40,5%) منهم, وان (41,6% ) من العينة من عائلة كبيرة الحجم. التلفاز والانترنت كان المصدر الأول للمعلومات عند (40,9%). لقد سجلت الدراسة أن (45,5%) من العينة لديهم وعي جيد فيما يخص الدورة الحيضية وكذلك التغيرات الجسمية عند البلوغ عند (51,1%) منهم, كما سجل البحث تدني الوعي للعينة فيما يخص كل من المشاكل النسائية ( 45,6%) و مرض الايدز( 60,5%).التوصيات: توصي الدراسة إلى أن تكون الأولوية للتثقيف الصحي لزيادة مستوى الوعي فيما يخص الصحة الإنجابية عند المراهقات في مدينة بغداد وخصوصا ما يتعلق بالمشاكل النسائية ومرض الايدز.


Article
Effects of Aluminum chloride on some hormones levele and reproductive organs of male rats (Rattus norvegicus)
تأثير كلوريد الألومنيوم في مستوى بعض الهرمونات و الاعضاء التناسلية لذكور الجرذان المختبرية

Author: Rasha Salih Nuhair رشا صالح نهير
Journal: JOURNAL OF THI-QAR SCIENCE مجلة علوم ذي قار ISSN: 19918690 Year: 2015 Volume: 5 Issue: 2 Pages: 3-8
Publisher: Thi-Qar University جامعة ذي قار

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Abstract

This study was conducted at the Veterinary Medicine, University of Basrah to investigate the effect of Aluminium Chloride on some hormones and histological changes in the laboratory Male Rats (Rattus norvegicus). Rats sexually mature (16 weeks age) and 250±50 gm weighing, were used, they were divided into Four groups, each one consisted of 8 male rats in , Three groups were dosed Orally with 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg B.W. aluminium in the form of HgCl2 for 21 days consecutive . An equivalent volume of distal water was administered to the fourth group which was set as the control group. Levels of the LH, FSH and Testosterone hormones were evaluated . in addition to histo – pathological changes of the Epididymis and testis. Results of this study indecate a significant decrease (P≤0.05) of FSH, LH and Testosterone hormones concentrations in treated groups compared with control groupe. The histopathological changes in Testis and epididymis were obvious in all treated groups comparison with control.

اجريت الدراسة لمعرفة تاثير كلوريد الالمنيوم في مستوى بعض الهرمونات الجنسية والاعضاء التناسلية الذكرية في الجرذان المختبرية. استخدم في التجربة الحالية (32) ذكرا بالغا, قسمت عشوائيا الى اربعة مجاميع متساوية بواقع 8 لكل مجموعة اعطيت المجموعة الاولى الماء المقطر لمدة 21 يوم واعتبرت كمجموعة سيطرة ,جرعت المجموعة الاولى والثانية والثالثة ب(25و50و100 ملغم/كغم ) على التوالي بكلوريد الالمنيوم لمدة 21 يوما. اظهرت النتائج وجود انخفاض معنويا (P≤0.05) في مستوى تركيز الهرمون اللوتيني, الهرمون المحفز لنمو الجريب وهرمون التيسيتيرون في الحيونات المعاملة مقارنة مع مجموعة السيطرة . كما بينت نتائج الفحص المجهري للأنسجة أن هناك تغيرات في خصى وبربخ الجرذان المعاملة بكلوريد الالمنيوم, اذ شملت عدم وجود النطف والارومات النطفية في خصى وبربخ الذكور المعاملة مقارنة مع مجموعة السيطرة .


Article
STUDY THE EFFECTS OF TREATING EXPERIMENTAL VAGINAL CANDIDIASIS WITH THYME , OREGANO OIL AND NYSTATIN ON PITUITARY-GONADAL AXIS IN FEMALE RABBITS
دراسة أثار علاج الإصابة التجريبية بالمبيضات المهبلية بزيت الزعتر والمردقوش والنستاتين على محور الغدة النخامية والقند في إناث الأرانب

Author: Bushra F. Hasan, Abdulrazak N. Khudair and Jassim M.A.Alkalby
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: Print:18138497 E; 24108456 Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 300-320
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Essentiaol oil of thymus vulgaris and origanum vulgare were extracted by hexane and analyzed to the component by GC-MAS Gas chromatography. in vivo study was done on seventy two healthy mature non pregnant female rabbits. Animals were divided into nine groups of eight animals for each one. the first group was injected by 0.1ml physiological saline vaginally and served as a negative control group. All other eight groups were immune suppressed by drenching each animal with (5 mg/kg) dexamethasone once daily for 7 days ,group 2 considered as a dexamethasone control group. Other seven groups were infected vaginally with Candida albicans by (1.5)×〖10〗^8 candida cells/ml once daily for 7 days group 3 considered as vaginal candida (positive) control. The sixth groups then treated once daily for 14 days with ( 0.1) ml of oils according to each group:- group 4 was treated with thyme oil orally, group5 treated with thyme oil vaginally ,group 6 treated with oregano oil orally, group 7 treated with oregano oil vaginally, group 8 treated by oral nystatin, Group 9 treated vaginally with nystatin. Blood was drawn from animals at the end of the experiment all experimental animals were sacrificed and pituitaries; ovaries and uteri were collected and fixed in 10% formalin for histological technique. result explained that candidiasis caused significant increase in progesterone, LH and FSH also decreased in estrogen compared to control. Treatment with thyme or oregano oils by two routs showed decrease in progesterone and an increase in estrogen than candidiasis group. So FSH and LH decreased in groups treated with two oils compared to candidisasis group but not reached to normal level. Nystatin decreased all reproductive hormones. results showed improvement of organs structures in treated with thyme or oregano oils


Article
Effects of Cadmium on sperm parameters, histological and hormonal changes in testes of mature rats.

Author: Ban T. Saeed
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2013 Volume: 3 Issue: 6 Pages: 38-43
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal toxicant, present widely in our environment and workplaces.It is well known that cadmium causes adverse effects on male reproductive organs and reproductive functions in experimental animals.Objective:This experiment was designed to findouttheeffectofcadmiumonsomehistologicalandhormonalparameters of the reproductive system of adult male rats.Methods:thirty mature albino male rat were used (Rattus rattus norvegicus albinus), as a mammalian model. these animals were divided into two groups, 15 rat / group after labeling them. The control group (G1) was orally administrated with distilled water during the 4 weeks period of the experiment and the experimental group (G2) was orally administrated with 20 ml cadmium chloride (200 mg/1L body weight) during the 4 weeks. First of all, the rat were anesthetized, after that blood aspiration using anesthetic cardiac puncture and the serum was separated and store at -20ºC until assessment of FSH , LH and testosterone hormones. After that, the weight of reproductive organs (testis,epididymus and seminal vesicle) was recorded. These organs were fixedwith10%formalsalineforhistologicalstudy.Results:The statistical analysis shows a significant(P<0.05)decreaseintheweightofthe testesandseminalvesicles when compared with control group. The results of the sperm parameters show a significant(P< 0.05) decrease in sperm concentration and a highly significant(p≤0.01)decreaseinspermmotilityin treated group as compared to control . The result of testicular sections in treated group shows a decrease in thickness of germ cells layer, widening of the central seminiferous tubules lumen and prominent germ cells population necrosis. Multiple vacuoles were seen within the tubules. Sertoli cells were abnormal in number and shape as compared to control. A peritubular fibroticchangehadbeenseen also in the testicular sections. The result also shows a highly significantdecreaseindiametersof seminiferous tubules, primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes, spermatids and increase in interstitial space when treated with cadmium compared with control group. The Levels of serum hormones shows a significant(P<0.05)decreaseinthelevelsoftestosteroneandLHhormonesmeanin the treated group ,while highly significant(p≤0.01)increaseintheFSHhormonemeaninthetreatedgroup when compared to the levels mean of the hormone in the control group..Conclusion:In conclusion, these findingssuggestthatcadmiumadministrationwith20mlcadmiumchloride (200mg/1L body weight) for 4 weeks during the adulthood induced damage in the reproductive organs and lead to impair the functions of sperm parameters and cause histological and hormonal alterations.

Keywords

cadmium --- rats --- reproductive organs --- testis.

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