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Article
The Role of Resistin in Patients with Primary Fibromyalgia

Author: Mohammed H. Alosami محمد الاوسامي
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2011 Volume: 53 Issue: 2 Pages: 152-155
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a common rheumatologic syndrome with multiple manifestations and associated with many diseases, it characterized by chronic wide spread muscular pain and tenderness. Resistin is an adipokine discovered in 2001 and considered as a link between obesity and type 2 diabetes by antagonizing and resisting the action of insulin as it name encompass ;resistin (resist insulin) . It is secreted mainly from adipose tissue in mice and from white blood cells besides the adipose tissue in humans. Research reviled that resistin has a role in some inflammatory diseases like Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA).
Objective: The objective of this study is to measure Resistin concentration and to evaluate its role in the pathogenesis of primary FMS.
Patients and methods: Fifty patients with primary FMS were included in this study (37 females and 13 males) the age range of (17-65) years (Mean ± SD) (40.13 ± 12.0) years, and thirty healthy individuals volunteers (21 females and 9 males), whose age and sex matching with FMS patients, age ranging (18 - 63) years, (Mean ± SD) (36.1 ±10.0) years. Resistin concentration was measured in sera of patients and controls by ELISA kit. Anthropometric measurements like body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WCr) were taken, besides other features like sleep disturbance, emotional distress, and fatigue were reported.
Results: Resistin concentration was higher in FMS patients than controls (2.15±0.9) ng /ml vs. (1.57±0.6) ng /ml. This elevation was highly significant statistically (p=0.003).Other measurements in patients group like BMI, WCr were (28.39±5.0) Kg/m2 and (100.34±13.21) cm respectively .These values were highly significant when compared to their control group (p=0.002) and (p=0.008) respectively . Serum resistin level was positively correlated with both waist circumference (r=0.411,p=0.003) and age (r=0.405 ,p=0.004) . Waist circumference was positively correlated with age (r=0.604, p=0.000).Clinical features like sleep disturbance, emotional distress ,and fatigue showed highly significant difference between the two groups . No significant differences were reported with respect to age and sex.
Conclusion: The result of the current study suggest that Resistin might have a role in the pathogenesis of FMS.

Keywords

Resistin --- Fibromyalgia


Article
Serum resistin levels, and other hormonal and biochemical parameters in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

Authors: Haider Al – Shammaa** FIBCOG --- Hedef D. El – Yassin* PhD --- Kamila H. Shamam* MSc
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2009 Volume: 51 Issue: 2 Pages: 200-203
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common cause of anovulation during reproductive life.Resistin can increase ovarian androgen production by directly stimulating ovarian theca cell or indirectly by augmenting pancreatic – B cell production of insulin.Patients and Methods: Sixty patients with PCOS who were non diabetic and not taking any medicine for the last three months were involved in the study .Thirty normal fertile female serves as control group. Fasting blood samples were aspirated from all individuals from 3rd - 6th day of the menstrual cycle to measure resistin, insulin, glucose, LH, FSH, TT3, TT4, Prolactin , Total Testosterone and lipid profile, by ELISA and routine methods.Results: mean serum resistin concentration was increased in women with PCOS compared with the control group (Mean ±SD) (19.83 ± 6.101 vs 9.36 ± 2.17) ng/ml. Serum resistin concentration correlated positively with BMI, which is divided into two subgroups. The first with BMI < 25 kg/m2 and the second with BMI &#8805;25kg/m2 in both control and patient groups. In BMI < 25kg/m2 serum resistin concentration for the control group was (8.90 ± 1.76) and (14.66 ± 2.09 ) for patients group ,while BMI &#8805; 25 kg/m2 serum resistin concentration for the control group was (10.62 ± 1.76) and (21.55 ± 5.40) ng/ml for patients group. Resistin also correlated positively with Insulin, LH, LH/FSH ratio and total Testosteron in women with PCOS but not in control. Fasting insulin level was higher in PCOS group compared with the control group (Mean ±SD) (27.45 ± 4.47 vs 13.27 ± 3.80) mIU/ml.The Fasting serum glucose was also higher in PCOS group compared with the control group (Mean ±SD) (125.27 ± 28.63 vs 92.63 ± 13.99) mg/dl. Total Testosterone level was elevated in the PCOS group compared with the control group (1.04 ± 0.37 vs 0.52 ± 0.25) ng/ml.Total Testosterone correlated positively with BMI, Resistin, Insulin, LH, and LH/FSH ratio.Conclusion: PCOS women with BMI >25 kg/m² were found to have a marked increase level of Resistin ,Insulin , Glucose ,LH ,and Total Testosterone .and a decrease level in their insulin sensitivity i.e increased insulin resistance.These data indicate that abnormal resistin secretion in obese PCOS women may play a role in causing ovarian hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinemia. Therefore fasting serum resistin level could be helpful in diagnosing PCOS patient


Article
Estimation of Salivary Resistin, malondialdehyde and Lipid Profile levels in patients with Diabetes Mellitus
تقدير مستويات رزيستين ، المالون ثنائي الديهايد ومستوى الدهون اللعابية في المرضى الذين يعانون من داء السكري

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Abstract

The present study is designed to verify the changes of resistin, malondialdehyde (MDA), glucose and lipid profile in type2 diabetes mellitus. This study was carried out during the period from November 2013 till January 2014, on 96 subjects: 57 diabetic patients (11 males and 46 females, aged between 33 and 60 years, with a mean age of 40.32) and 39 healthy controls (24 males and 15 females, aged between 40 and 59 years, with a mean age of 47.43), who attended :outpatient, Health care center, and Emergency Department in Tikrit Teaching Hospital.The results showed a significant increase in the salivary glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) resistin, and MDA level in diabetic patients compared to controls, while significant decrease in salivary HDL in diabetic patients compared to controls.

تم تصميم هذه الدراسة للتحقق من التغييرات من رزيسستين ، المالون ثنائي الديهايد ، الجلوكوز ومستوى الدهون في مرض السكري. اجريت الدراسة خلال الفترة من نوفمبر 2013 حتى يناير عام 2014 على 96 شخص : 57 منهم مرضى السكري (11 من الذكور و46 من الاناث، تراوحت اعمارهم بين 33و 60 سنة مع متوسط عمر 40,32) و 39 من الاصحاء (24 منهم من الذكور و 15 من الاناث، تروحت اعمارهم بين 40 و59 عاما مع متوسط عمر 47,43) ، الذين راجعوا :االعيادات الخارجية، مركز الرعاية الصحية، وقسم الطوارئ في مستشفى تكريت التعليمية. اظهرت النتائج زيادة ملحوظة في نسبة جلوكوز اللعاب ، TC, TG رزيستين ومستوى ، المالون ثنائي الديهاي في مرضى السكري مقارنة مع الاشخاص العاديين في حين اظهر انخفاض ملحوظ فيHDL اللعاب في مرضى السكري مقارنة مع الاشخاص الطبيعيين.


Article
An Evaluation of Serum and Salivary Adipokines (Leptin and Resistin) Levels in Periodontal Health and Disease

Authors: Talib Ali Karam طالب علي كرم --- Khulood A. Al-Safi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 4 Pages: 119-124
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: With the start of the current century, increased the interest in the role of the adipose tissue derivedsubstances that named adipokines in the inflammatory diseases of the human being including the inflammatoryperiodontal disease, but scientific evidences were not clearly demonstrate the association between theseadipokines and periodontal pathologies.Materials and Methods: Forty two subjects male only with normal body mass index were selected for the study withan age ranged (30-39 years). Samples were divided into three groups of 14 subjects in each group based on clinicalperiodontal parameters; clinically healthy gingiva (group I), gingivitis group (group II) and chronic periodontitispatients group (group III), from whom saliva and serum samples were collected for estimating the levels of leptin andresistin using Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA).Results: The results showed that the serum level of leptin and resistin were significantly higher in chronic periodontitispatient (9.81 ng/ml, 6.55 ng/ml) respectively as compared to gingivitis and healthy control groups (leptin; 8.10 ng/ml,ng/ml, resistin; 5.85 ng/ml, 5.45 ng/ml) respectively. On the other hand the level of leptin in saliva of patients withchronic periodontitis (0.17 ng/ml) was significantly lower than that of its salivary levels in gingivitis and healthy controlgroups (0.21 ng/ml, 0.29 ng/ml) respectively. Whereas, salivary resistin levels was significantly higher in chronicperiodontitis patient(14.45 ng/ml) when compared to the gingivitis group (11.59 ng/ml) and the health control group(6.43 ng/ml).Conclusions: Concomitant raise in serum leptin, serum resistin and salivary resistin, while a sensible reduction insalivary leptin with conversion from periodontal health state to periodontal disease state. These finding may draw asuggestion on the role of leptin and resistin in the relation between periodontal disease and the systemic health sincethe increase in their level were associated with a various systemic pathologies


Article
Effects of Extracted Phenolic Compounds from Grape Seeds on Leptin, Adiponectin and Resistin Levels in Rats Fed with High Fat Foods
تأثيرات مركبات الفينول المستخلصة من بذور العنب على مستويات الليبتين والاديبونكتين والريزستين في الجرذان التجارب المسمنة بغذاء عالي الدهون

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The current study was constructed to evaluate the efficacy of grape seed extracts (GSE) in management of obesity induced by high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in rats through assessment of the serum leptin, adiponectin, and resistin. Experimental rats were divided into three groups: G:1 (healthy control), G:2 (obese control), G:3 (received100 mg/kg of GSE), after 7 weeks, serum leptin, adiponectin, and resistin levels were measured in all groups. Results in present study showed a significant (P<0.01) increase of serum leptin, and resistin levels in obese rats G2 in comparison to the control healthy rats G1 (39.35±1.07 vs 7.48±0.6), (48.84±3.73 vs 31.43 ± 2.02) respectively. The level of serum leptin, and resistin in obese rats decreased significantly in G3 (P < 0.01) when received GSE 100 mg/kg body weight for 7 weeks in regard to G2 (30.46 ± 0.93 vs 39.35 ± 1.07), (42.23±1.21vs48.84±3.73), whereas significant decrease in serum adiponectin level in obese rats G2 to G1 (4.8793 ± 0.5040 vs 9.245± 0.8794). After treatment with 100 mg/kg GSE, the level of adiponectin decresed in G3 compared with G2 (6.1220 ±0.6330 vs 4.8793± 0.5040).Conclusions: The results show that, the phenolic extracts of grape seed could reduce serum leptin, and resistin levels and increase adiponectin in HFD induced obesity in rats

اجريت هذه الدراسة لتقييم فاعلية مستخلص بذور العنب في علاج السمنة المستحدثة في فئران تجارب تعرضوا لغذاء عالي الدهون وذلك من خلال قياس مستويات كل من الليبتين والاديبونكتين والرزيستين في مصل الفئران.تم تقسيم حيوانات التجربة الى ثلاث مجاميع : المجموعة الاولى ضمت حيوانات سليمة كعينة ضابطة والمجموعة الثانية ضمت حيوانات مسمنة كعيتة ضابطة ايضا اما المجموعة الثالثة فقد كانت حيوانات مسمنة ايضا وتم اعطاؤها مستخلص بذور العنب.بعد مضي ثلاث اسابيع تم قياس مستويات الليبتين والاديبونكتين والرزيستين في مصل الفئران لجميع المجاميع.بينت النتائج ان هناك زيادة ذات مغزى احصائي لمستوى كل من الليبتين والريزستين في الحيوانات المسمنة بالمجموعة الثانية قياسا لعينة الحيوانات السليمة في المجموعة الضابطة الاولى. وقد تناقصت مستويات المصل بصورة معنوية لكل من الليبتين والرزيستين في الحيوانات المسمنة بالمجموعة الثالثة والتي تم اعطاؤها مستخلص بذور العنب مقارنة بالمجموعة الثانية (30.46±0.93 vs 39.35±1.07)، (42.23±1.21vs48.84±3.73).كما كان هناك زيادة ذات مغزى احصائي بمستوى الأديبونكتين في هذه المجموعة التي عولجت بمستخلص بذور العنب بالقياس لمستوى الأديبونكتين بالمجموعة الثانية (6.1220 ± 0.6330 vs 4.8793 ± 0.5040 )..


Article
Resistin , Insulin resistance and BMI in type 2 diabetes mellitus and healthysubjects.

Authors: Hashim M. Hashim --- Hedef D. Al-Yassin --- Zainab A. Al-Shamma
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2008 Volume: 50 Issue: 3 Pages: 377-382
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background : Obesity and insulin resistance have been quite well recognized as fundamental
and leading causes of major health issues such as diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and
cardiovascular diseases. Abdominal obesity, particularly visceral adiposity is considered to
play a major role in causing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus , T2DM
The resistin is considered one of the causes of insulin resistance which lead to
hyperinsulinemia and a decrease in the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (Quicki)
which has been recently reported to be a useful marker of insulin resistance in patients with
T2DM.
Objective : The aim of the present study is to find the relationship between resistin and
obesity as modulated by T2DM.
Subjects and methods : The study involved 50 patients with T2DM with age range of 30 -70
years , and 30 healthy subjects ( control group ) of matching age and sex.
Ten mLs of blood were collected from each patient and normal control subject after an
overnight fast . One mL. was kept in an EDTA tube for mesureement of glycated Hb ( HbA1c)
and the rest was allowed to clot , centrifuged and serum was divided into aliquots . Some
was kept at (- 20
o
C ) for measurement of resistin and insulin ( by enzyme linked
immunosorbant assay , ELISA) and the rest for measurement of glucose , urea and creatinine (
by the available routine laboratory tests ) at the same day of collection.
Results showed a significant rise in serum resistin in the obese diabetic patients as compared
to the non obese patients. There are significant correlations between resistin and each of insulin
resistance ( Quicki ) and degree of obesity (BMI) .
Conclusion : Resistin & insulin resistance are significantly affected by BMI in diabetic
patients only and not in the control group which implies that the obese control subjects didn’t
have insulin resistances enough to show any change in resistin level. This confirms the
synergistic effect of the obesity and diabetes on resistin level, while no effect of the disease per se could be detected from the present study.


Article
The Impact of Resistin and IL-6 On Type I Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) and Its Duration in Children

Authors: Mahjob AL-Nedawy --- Ban A. Majaad --- Hadef D. El-Yassin --- Manal k. Resheed AL-Ani
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2010 Volume: 9 Issue: 2 Pages: 181-188
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Type I diabetes mellitus is characterized autoimmune destruction of β- cells . IL-6 is a cytokine (one of a class of immune system regulators ) it plays a role, in acute phase inflammatory response to cellular injury.Human Resistin gene is expressed in pancreatic islets , pre- adipocytes and bone marrow and is of relevance for inflammation processes.OBJECTIVE:To investigate serum concentration of resistin and pro inflammatory IL-6 in T1DMchildren and to study the impact of the duration of disease on these parameter. In order to shed some light on the mechanism of initiation and propagation of β-cell damage in those patients.SUBJECTS AND METHODS:Sixty diabetes children ( 33 males and 27 females), aged (1.3-13) years (mean± SD) (5.6±2.8) years , consecutively admitted to the AL-Mansour Teaching Hospital for children , were enrolled in this study. All had T1DM . Duration of disease varied from ( 0.13- 84) months . Age matching group of thirty healthy volunteer children , (18 females ,12 males) was included as a control without any family history of diabetes. Resistin and IL-6 were measured ( by enzyme linked immunosorbant assay , ELISA) .RESULTS :Fasting serum Resistin levels were lower in patients compared to controls although the correlation was not significant .However serum resistin levels were higher in females compared to males in both groups ( patients and controls) with a significant correlation between the groups of the same gender .Duration of the disease had no impact on either gender.On the other hand IL-6 showed a significantly higher serum level in patients than control.Un like Resistin , the duration of disease had a great impact on IL-6 serum levels as shown in text.CONCLUSION : Resistin levels in patients with (T I DM) non significantly lower than in control individuals , that’s meaning T I DM), as disease did effect the levels of serum Resistin sub clinically by the treatment with insulin leading to hyper insulinemia .Resistin antagonizes insulin action, leading to decrease in patients more than controls . Resistin levels tended to have higher in females than male ,however this trend did not reach statistical significant in total population due to sex hormone . The highly significant positive correlation between the levels of IL-6 and duration is due to persistente production and elevation for long time of patients with T1DM indicating of ongoing β- cell destruction .But Resistin was non dependent on the duration of the disease because human resistin gene is expressed in pancreatic islets cell.


Article
Serum Resistin and Anthropometric parameter in lean and Overweight Insulin –Dependent Diabetic

Author: Lecturer Manal k. Resheed AL-Ani *, Ph.D
Journal: KUFA MEDICAL JOURNAL مجلة الكوفة الطبية ISSN: 1993517X Year: 2009 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 294-305
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Background: Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a multifactorial syndrome due to a body's inability to synthesis insulin. In patients with type 1 DM, the beta cells are attacked by the immune system (specifically by macrophages and T lymphocytes) and killed, so insulin can no longer be synthesised. Resistin is a newly identified adipocyte secreted hormone belonging to a cysteine-rich protein family. Human resistin gene is expressed in pancreatic islets , pre- adipocytes and bone marrow. It is of relevance for inflammation processes as well as for lipid metabolism. The body mass index BMI a measured of relative weight, adjusted for height. Resistin serum levels were found to be related to body mass index (BMI) in human subjects. Waist circumference is minimally related to height, so correction for height (as in waist to height ratio) dose not improve its relation with intra- abdominal fat or ill healthObjective: The aim is to determin the role of Resistin in lean and overweight .Subjects and methods: sixty diabetic children ( 33 males and 27 females), aged (1.3-13) years (mean± SD) (5.6±2.8) years , were enrolled in this study. All had T1DM with no serious long- term complications and C-reactive protein for all patients was negative. All patients used short- and intermediate-acting subcutaneous insulin injections (two daily injections) and no other medication. Duration of disease varied from ( 0.13- 84) months . A matching group of thirty healthy volunteer children with age range of (1.3-13 ) years, (18 females ,12 males) were included as a control without any family history of diabetes. Serum Rresistin was measured by( enzyme linked immunosorbant assay , ELISA) . Anthropometric determined are measured as BMI and WHR. BMI (weight in kg divided by the square of the height in meters), Waist and hip circumferences were measured to determine waist-hip ratio (WHR) following standardized procedures .Results: Resistin values showed no significant difference when comparing both groups (patients and controls). A significant decrease in the level of fasting serum Resistin was found in overweight patients when compared to control, while no such significance was shown for serum Resistin in lean patients when compared to controls. However a significant correlation was found when comparing serum Resistin and BMI in controls but the correlation was not significant in patients.Conclusion : Resistin levels was found to be highly associated with obesity in healthy controls with a significant elevation in overweight when compared to lean sunjects. However the opposite was found in patients under treatment with insulin. The latter was found to have a depleting effect on Resistin gene expression.


Article
Effects of Metformin &/or Glimepiride on Resistin Level and Related Biochemical Markers in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
تأثیر المتفورمین و/أو لغلیمیبیراید على مستوى الریزستین والمؤشرات الحیویة ذات العلاقة لمرضى السكري النوع الثاني

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Abstract

Abstract:Resistin is a novel adipocyte-secreted hormone proposed to link obesity with diabetesin mice and may play a similar role in human. The aim of our study was to examine therelationship of serum resistin level to insulin resistance, and related parameters. Also toevaluate the effect of metformin &/or glimepiride on resistin level and glycemic control inType 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM).This is an open-label, randomized study carried out on 50 newly diagnosed type 2diabetic patients and 20 healthy subjects. Patients were randomly divided into three groupsand assigned for treatment with either metformin or glimepiride or both for 12 weeks. Thecomparisons were conducted between pre- and post-treatment for fasting serum glucose(FSG), glycocylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting serum insulin (FSI), insulin resistance (IR),body mass index (BMI) and serum resistin level.At week 12, FSG, HbA1c and IR were significantly decreased in all groups. Resistinlevel decreased only in glimepiride group. Serum insulin levels show no significant change.Metformin significantly decreased while glimepiride significantly increased BMI. In ourstudy serum resistin level did not correlate with markers of adiposity or diabetes.Circulating resistin is unlikely to play a major role in obesity, insulin resistance, or energyhomeostasis in human and only glimepiride monotherapy showed an effect on resistin levelafter 3 months of treatment.

الخلاصة:الریزستین ھرمون یفرز من الخلایا الشحمیة تم اكتشافھ حدیثا، وقد أظھرت دراسات أجریت على نماذج منالقوارض أنھ یربط السمنة ومقاومة الجسم للانسولین بالسكري من النوع الثاني، ولكن أھمیتھا بالنسبة للانسان لاتزال مثیرةتمنع تعبیر الریزستین في الخلایا الشحمیة، (PPARγ) للجدل وتحتاج إلى توضیح. أظھرت دراسات أخرى ان ناھضاتوبالتالي مفسرة طرق عمل بعض محفزات الانسولین.تم تصمیم ھذه الدراسة لتقییم العلاقة بین مستوى الریزستین ومؤشرات السكري والبدانة لدى مرضى سكري منالنوع الثاني تم تشخیصھم حدیثا بالمرض. كذلك لمعرفة تأ ثیر العلاج بالمیتفورمین والغلیمیبیراید على مستوى الریزستینوبقیة المؤشرات. أجریت ھذه الدراسة على 70 شخص من الذكور، منھم 20 شخصا من الاصحاء و 50 مریضا حدیثيالاصابھ بالمرض تم توزیعھم إلى ثلاث مجموعات، 20 مریضا تمت معالجتھم بعقار المیتفورمین، و 10 مرضى تمتمعالجتھم بعقار الغلیمیبیراید، و 20 مریضا تمت معالجتھم بالمیتفورمین والغلیمیبیراید. تلقى جمیع المرضى علاجھم لمدة 3أشھر، وجمعت عینات الدم منھم قبل البدء بالعلاج وبعد 3 أشھر وذلك بعد صیام لمدة 12 ساعة على الأقل لقیاس التغییر


Article
An Assessment of Salivary Leptin and Resistin Levels in Type Two Diabetic Patients with Chronic Periodontitis (A Comparative Study)

Authors: Deelan Amanj Sabir --- Maha Abdul-Aziz Ahmed مها عبد العزيز احمد
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 4 Pages: 107-114
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitusand chronic periodontitis hold a close relationship that has been the focus ofmany researches. Currently there is an appreciation to the role of adipose tissue-derived substances "the adipokines"in immune-inflammatory responses; also, there is an interest in using the simple non-invasive saliva in diagnosing andlinking oral and general health problems. The current study aims to determine the periodontal health status in thechronic periodontitis patients with and without poorly or well controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus, measure the salivarylevels of two adipokines "leptin and resistin", pH and flow rate and then correlate between these clinical periodontal,biochemical and physical parameters in each study and control groups.Materials and Methods: Seventy five males were recruited for the study, with an age range of (35-50) years. Thesubjects were divided into four groups: two non-diabetic groups: one of them with healthy periodontium andsystemically healthy (Control, 15 subjects) and the other with chronic periodontitis (20 patients) and two type 2diabetic groups: well controlled (20 patients) and poorly controlled (20 patients) both of them with chronicperiodontitis.Unstimulated whole salivary samples were collected from all of the participants; salivary flow rate andpH were measured and then biochemically analyzed for assessment of resistin and leptin levels.Clinical periodontalparameters included: the plaque index, the gingival index, the bleeding on probing, the probing pocket depth andthe clinical attachment level had been recorded for all subjects at four sites per tooth except for the third molars.Results: The results of clinical periodontal examination revealed that the group of chronic periodontitis with poorlycontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus had the worst periodontal health status. The biochemical analysis demonstratedthat the lowest level of salivary leptin was foundin the chronic periodontitis with poorly controlled type 2 diabetesmellitus group. In addition, the highest level of salivary resistin was demonstrated in chronic periodontitis with wellcontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus group. When the salivary flow rate and pH were measured, it was found that theywere decreased in the study groups as compared to the control group. A non-significant moderate negativecorrelation between salivary leptin with pH in the control group was found. While, salivary resistin demonstrated ahigh significant moderate positive correlation with the gingival index in the non-diabeticchronic periodontitis groupand a non-significant moderate negative correlation with salivary flow ratein the control group. Finally, the studyfound that the correlation between salivary leptin and resistin was non-significant weak negative in each of the studyand control groups.Conclusion: It can be concluded that poorly controlled type 2 diabetic patients have more periodontal tissuedestruction and less salivary flow rate than well controlled type 2 diabetic patients and non-diabetic patients all ofthem with chronic periodontitis. Salivary Resistin and Leptin hormones may be useful biochemical markers ofperiodontal tissue destruction and this will provide better opportunities in early diagnosis, monitoring and efficientmanagement of periodontal diseases and T2DM.

Keywords

T2DM --- CP --- resistin --- leptin and saliva

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