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Article
Periodontal health status in relation to physicochemical characteristics of saliva among pre-menopausal and postmenopausal women in Baghdad city-Iraq

Author: Alhan A.Qasim
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 3 Pages: 121-124
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Menopause can bring oral health problems and also associated with significant adversechanges in the orofacial complex. After menopause, women become more susceptible to periodontaldisease due to deficiency of estrogen hormone. Current study aimed to evaluate the periodontal healthstatus in relation to salivary constituent including pH, flow rate and some elements (Magnesium, Calciumand inorganic phosphorus) of pre and post-menopause women.Materials and Methods: Periodontal health status of 52 women aged 48-50 years old (26 pre-menopauseand 26 post-menopause) were examined including (gingival index, plaque index, calculus index, probingpocket depth and clinical attachment level). Salivary sample was collected for two women groups, pHand flow rate was recorded, and also biochemical analysis was assessed for some salivary elementsinclude (Magnesium, Calcium and inorganic phosphorus). Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis.Results: Salivary pH and flow rate of post-menopause women were found significantly lower than those ofpre-menopause women, where as the mean of gingival index, probing pocket depth and attachmentlevel indices significantly higher in post-menopause women. The level of salivary magnesium ion wassignificantly higher in pre-menopause women; also the level of calcium and inorganic phosphorus waslower in post-menopause women with non-significant difference.Conclusions: This study has shown that the importance of preventive dentistry increases with aging in women


Article
Depression status in relation to caries experience and salivary physiochemical characteristics among 15 years old students in Al-Swera city – Wassit Governorate-Iraq

Authors: Huda S. Khiala --- Ban S. Diab
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 2 Pages: 158-162
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Depression is a common mental disorder that presents with depressed mood;it can become chronic orrecurrent and affect dental health .Thus this research aimed to assess the prevalence and severity of dental cariesamong students with different grade of depression in relation to physicochemical characteristics of stimulated wholesaliva.Materials and methods: The total sample involved for depression status assessment is composed of 800 students forboth gender aged 15 years old that were selected randomly , This was performed using children depressioninventory (CDI) index that divided the students into four groups of depression(low or average grade, high averagegrade, elevated grade and very elevated grade). The diagnosis and recording of dental caries was by using decay,Missing, Filled surface index (DMFs); and according to the criteria ofManji et al (1989), Salivary samples was collectedfrom 30 student with very elevated grade of depression and 30 from low or average grade under standardizedconditions, then analyzed for measuring salivary flow rate and viscosity, in addition to estimation salivary elementsthat includes total protein, zinc, copper, chromium and Lithium.Results: the data of the present study showed that the percentage of Caries free students was higher among veryelevated grade (8.60%) followed by low or average grade (8.52%), the less was among elevated grade ofdepression (5.04%).Concerning caries experience, the highest result was among elevated grade of depressionfollowed by low or average grade, the lower result was among high average grade. While the sever grade of dentalcaries (D4) was found to be highly significant differ among different grade of depression, The data analysis of salivaryelements found that the protein was higher in very elevated grade than low or average grade while other elementsshow the opposite result with significant concerning copper and zinc among very elevated grade that showsignificant difference. DMFs correlated negatively with salivary flow rate among low or average grade and veryelevated grade; while concerning salivary viscosity, the correlation was direct with DMFs. With highly significant invery elevated grade, Salivary elements show positive relation with not significant except copper that show negativerelation with significant.Conclusion: The results of the current research revealed that depression status had an adverse effect on salivaryphysicochemical characteristics and dental status including caries experience


Article
Assessment of salivary elements (Zinc, Copper and Magnesium) among groups of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and chronic periodontitis and its correlation to periodontal health status

Authors: Alyamama Mahmood اليمامة محمود --- Maha Shukri مها شكري
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 3 Pages: 87-92
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Periodontal diseases are common in the society and some researchers suggestedan associationbetween rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontal diseases. The aims of study were to determine the periodontalhealth status in patient with RA and chronic periodontitis and compare it with those having chronic periodontitiswithout RA anddetermine the level of salivary elements Copper(Cu),Zinc( Zn) and Magnesium( Mg) in patients withrheumatoid arthritis and patients have no rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and compare with the control group.Andcorrelate between these salivary elements with the periodontal parameters Plaque index (PLI), gingival index (GI),bleeding on probing (BOP), probing pocketdepth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL).Materials and Methods: In this study, the samples were recruited from patientsreferred todepartment ofRheumatology at Baghdad hospital. Seventy five female patients participated in this study, twenty five of themrheumatoid arthritis patient andhad chronic periodontitis; twenty five were with chronicperiodontitis and have noarthritis; Twenty five patients wereperiodontally and systemically healthy (control group). Patients were with agerange 40-50 yearswith no other systemic diseases. The smokers and patients taking medication affectingperiodontium status were excluded from the study.Also the patients had normal weight and length. Periodontalparameters were measuredin all groups at four surfaces.Salivary elements (Zn, Cu and Mg) also measured in thisstudy.Results: Patients with RA had higher prevalence of sites presenting dental plaque, a higher rate of gingivalinflammation and bleeding on probing,greater probing depth, and greater attachment loss compared with controland high level of Copper and low level of Zinc and Magnesium.Conclusion: The results suggest higher potentiality for moderate to severe periodontitis involvement among RApatients, with higher levels of Copper (Cu), and low level of Zinc (Zn) and Magnesium (Mg).


Article
The Association of Salivary Calcium, Inorganic Phosphorus, Zinc and Copper in Children and Early Childhood Caries: A case-control study

Authors: Alaa S. Hussein --- Ban Ali Salih --- Mohammed Gh. Al-Nasir
Journal: Journal of Oral and Dental Research مجلة طب الفم والاسنان ISSN: 23106417 Year: 2017 Volume: 4 Issue: 2 Pages: 110-119
Publisher: Iraqi Association for Oral Research الجمعية العراقية لبحوث طب الفم

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Abstract

Background Dental caries in children is the most common disease worldwide. It remains the most prevalent chronic disease in young children in some developing countries. Objectives This study was carried out to evaluate the levels of calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphorus (P), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) in the saliva of pre-school children aged 4-5 years and to evaluate their plausible association with Early Childhood Caries (ECC). Materials and Methods Sixty children were divided into two groups; thirty children with ECC and thirty children without dental caries experience. Two milliliters of unstimulated whole saliva were collected from each child using spitting method. The Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAP) was used to measure the levels of Ca, Zn, and Cu in saliva while Molybdenum Vanadate method was used to estimate the level of salivary P. Descriptive statistics, bivariate, and Pearson’s correlation analysis were done. Results Children with ECC demonstrated a higher Ca levels than caries-free children with a highly signifcant difference (P<0.001) whereas higher levels of P, Zn and Cu were found in caries-free children compared to children with ECC. A positive correlation to ECC was observed in salivary Ca while the correlation was negative in salivary P, Zn, and Cu. Conclusions Considerable variations in the levels of salivary elements between ECC and caries free children were noted. The correlation between salivary P, Zn, and Cu and ECC was negative and more studies are needed to determine the maximum effcacy of these elements in preventing ECC in children.


Article
Physicochemical characteristic of unstimulated and stimulated saliva with different chewing gum stimulation

Authors: Alhan A. Qasim الحان قاسم --- Eman K. Chaloob ايمان جلوب
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 2 Pages: 94-98
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Gum chewing is a common habit in many countries. Both sucrose containing and sugar-free gumstimulate salivary flow, increase in saliva flow lead to more frequent replenishment and greater supply ofantibacterial factors, saline, buffers, minerals and other beneficial constituents, increase pH and buffer capacity ofwhole saliva. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of different chewing gums on the salivaryconstituents including some elements (Magnesium, Calcium, Copper and Zinc)(chemical),PH and flowrate(physical)characteristic.Materials and Methods: Saliva samples was collected from dental students/college of dentistry 23 age stimulated bythree types of chewing gum (mastic, Arabic, sugar) and control group (unstimulated saliva), pH and saliva flow ratewas recorded for four groups. Biochemical analysis was assessed for some salivary elements, (Magnesium, Calcium,Copper, and Zinc) and its relation with different chewing gum and control group. Student's t-test, ANOVA and LSDtest was used for statistical analysis. Also mean and standard deviation was recorded.Results: Mean value of pH was found to be high in three types of chewing gum with highly significant differencecomparing with control group. A significant difference in flow rate was found between control and sugared gumgroup. Mg and Ca ione was found to be highly significant between mastic gum group and other three groups , aswell as highly significant difference was recorded among four groups of saliva in Cu ione, while no significantdifference was showed between Zn ione and four groups.Conclusion: Chewing gum include natural (mastic and Arabic) and sugared was increases salivary pH. Use ofchewing gum especially mastic and Arabic can enhance the remineralizing potential of the mouth, probably bystimulating salivary flow which may lead to rise salivary elements


Article
Oral health status in relation to selected salivary elements among a group of gasoline stations workers

Authors: Ammar F. Hamza Al-Saeed --- Ahlam T. Mohammed
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 3 Pages: 125-129
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Gasoline constituents and its derivatives had many hazardous effects on the general health of humans.Thus, gasoline stations workers may be affected by different types of related diseases.This study was conducted toassess selected salivary elements and their relation with dental caries, oral hygiene status and periodontal diseasesamong gasoline stations workers in comparison with individuals have no regular exposure to gasoline.Materials and methods: The study group consists of thirty male subjects with an age range (33-39) years who workedin different gasoline stations in different areas of Baghdad city and thirty persons that matching in age and genderand not exposed to gasoline were selected as a control group. Dental caries was recorded by lesion severitythrough the application of D1-4 MFS index of (Manji et al). Plaque index of Silness and Loe and calculus index ofRamfjord were used for recording oral hygiene status. Periodontal diseases were evaluated by using the gingivalindex of Loe and Silness and periodontal pocket depth of Carranza. Stimulated salivary samples were collected andchemically analyzed to determine the concentration of salivary calcium, phosphorous, iron, copper and lead ions.Results: Caries experience (DMFS) was higher among the study group compared with the control group withsignificant difference (P<0.05) for DS and highly significant difference (P<0.01) for D2. The mean values of plaque,calculus and gingival indices were significantly higher (P<0.01) among the study group than the control group andthe mean value of periodontal pocket depth was significantly higher (P<0.05) among the study group. The levels ofsalivary calcium and phosphorous were lower among the study group compared with the control group with nosignificant difference between them; whereas iron, copper and lead levels were higher among the study group thanthe control group with highly significant differences (P<0.01) for both copper and lead.Conclusion: Dental caries and periodontal diseases revealed higher percentage of occurrence among the studygroup and salivary elements were found to have little effects on the oral health status. Therefore, special oral healthpreventive and educational programs are needed for them

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