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Article
Correlation between Streptococci Mutans and salivary IgA in relation to some oral parameters in saliva of children

Authors: Lamia I. Sood --- Minan Y. H. Al-Ezzy --- Ameena R. Diajil
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2014 Volume: 26 Issue: 1 Pages: 71-79
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Saliva plays an important role in oral health. Several salivary proteins are involved in the antimicrobialdefence mechanism and are able to eliminate or inhibit bacterial growth in the oral cavity. Secretory IgA (SIgA) isone of the principal antibodies present in saliva, could help oral immunity by preventing microbial adherence,neutralizing enzymes and toxins.The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between salivary Streptococcus Mutans (SM) count and S IgAin stimulated whole saliva in children with primary dentition compared to those with permanent teeth in relation tosome oral hygiene parameters.Material and methods: Stimulated whole saliva was collected from 50 children (25 with primary dentation and 25 withpermanent teeth). Salivary flow rate and pH was measured. Oral hygiene index (OHI) and gingival inflammation wasassessed using classical method. S IgA level was measured using an immunoassay kit and SM count was determinedby culture media.Results: Mean salivary flow rate, pH and S IgA were significantly higher among children with permanent teethcompared to those with primary dentition.Compared to primary dentition, permanent dentition was associated with a significantly reduced mean plaqueindex, increased mean gingival index and reduced mean salivary SM count.Although plaque index showed a statistically significant positive correlation with SM count, gingival index showed aweak negative correlation with bacterial count.S IgA, PH and flow rate showed a statistically significant moderately strong negative correlation with bacterial count.Conclusion: This study showed a clear correlation between count of SM in stimulated whole saliva and both SIgA andplaque index


Article
Study of salivary IgA concentrations, salivary flow rate in patients with β –thalassemia major in Missan Governorate

Authors: Jamal M. Diwan --- Zaheda J. Mohammad
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 3 Pages: 55-57
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Beta-thalassemia major is the most common monogenic known disorder in the Middle East,characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypesranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic Individuals. This study aimed to evaluate salivary flow rateand salivary IgA in β-thalassemia major patients. Since many oral and systemic conditions manifest themselves aschanges in the flow and composition of saliva the dental practitioner is advised to remain up-to-date with this issue.Materials and methods: The study samples consist of (60) subjects, patients group composed of (30) patients with β –thalassemia major, age rang (5-23) years and (30) healthy locking subject of both sexes as control group, with agerange from (5-25) years.Results: Most patients were in the first and second decade of life (90%) this indicate a reduced life expectancy inthose patients, laboratory investigations for salivary IgA concentrations revealed a significant increase in means ofthis marker in compare with control group and this difference is statistically significant, (p= 0.05) at P value ≤0.05.Regarding the salivary flow rate there was a statistically significant decrease in mean of salivary flow rate inpatients group as compared with control group (P= 0.013).Conclusions: Beta-thalassemia major affects salivary flow rate and SIgA concentration


Article
An Assessment of Oral Health in Hypertensive Patients Treated with HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Statins)

Authors: Amir A. M. Al-Joboury --- Rafil H. Rasheed
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 4 Pages: 85-89
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Hypertension is a chronic medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is elevated, it'sclassified as either primary (essential) hypertension or secondary hypertension, and it increases the risk of ischemicheart disease, peripheral vascular disease and other cardiovascular diseases. Several classes of medicationscollectively referred to as antihypertensive drugs like beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, angiotensinconverting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, renin inhibitors and statins (HMG-CoA) reductaseinhibitor. Statin medication may have some beneficial effects when subjects have dental plaque or signs ofperiodontitis as gingival bleeding. The purpose of this study were to assess the oral health in hypertensive patients aretreated with statins in terms of salivary flow rate, pH and oral health indices.Materials and Methods: Ninety saliva specimens collected from three groups of subjects (thirty healthy patients"control" Group I), thirty hypertensive patients treated with anti-hypertensive medications without taking statins(Group II) and thirty hypertensive patients treated with anti-hypertensive medications with statins (Group III).Unstimulated saliva was collected from each patients and participants for assessment of salivary flow rate andsalivary pH.Results: Salivary flow rate is reduced in Group II and III patients compared with Group I. Significant low salivary flowrate observed in Group III patients (hypertensive treated with statins) compared with Group II (hypertensiveuntreated with statins) and Group I (healthy subjects); The median value of gingival index is significantly higher inGroup II compared with corresponding value in Group I, while it attended a significant low value in Group IIIpatients; There is no significant difference in DMF score between Group I and Group III, while a significant high scoreobserved in Group II compared with Group I ; The percent of carries restoration in patients of Group II is significantlylow compared with corresponding value of Group I . Although the percent of carries restoration in patients ofGroup III is less than corresponding value of Group I but it does not reach significant level.Conclusions: Patients using statins therapy are more likely have an improvement in gingival index, DMF score andcarries restoration. The salivary flow rate is reduced in patients treated with statins medications, statins therapy havea beneficial effect on the oral cavity


Article
The Effect of Pregnancy on Unstimulated Salivary Calcium and Magnesium Concentration
تأثير الحمل على تركيز الكالسيوم اللعابي غير المحفز وتركيز المغنيسيوم

Author: Ali Sultan Al-Refai
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2009 Volume: 13 Issue: 1 Pages: 43-48
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objectives: Gingivitis is the most prevalent oral problem associated with pregnancy, in addition to several salivary changes. This study was designed to find the effect of pregnancy on salivary chemical factors (calcium and magnesium concentrations)and flow rate, and compare the results with that of non-pregnant women.Methods: The samples consist of (118) females with age ranged from (20– 40) years (84 pregnant and 34 control, non-pregnant women). After collection of un stimulated saliva, the concentration of calcium and magnesium, and salivary flow rate were measured.Results: The means of salivary flow rate, calcium and magnesium concentrations of pregnantand non-pregnant women were statistically non significant. There were non-significant difference between the means of each parameter with the age group of pregnant women and the gestation age. Non-significant difference between the means of each parameterwith the trimester of pregnancy.Conclusion: All factors showed non-significant differences between pregnant and non -pregnant women.


Article
The relation of salivary antioxidants to dental caries among overweight and obese adult aged 30-40 year-old at textile factory in Mosul city

Author: Baydaa A. Yas بيداء ياس
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2011 Volume: 23 Issue: special issue Pages: 141-145
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Overweight and obese people are at higher risk for systemic diseases as well as oral diseases like dentalcaries. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship of salivary antioxidants (albumin, vitamin E, and vitamin C)in addition to salivary flow rate and magnesium level with dental caries severity among overweight and obese adultaged 30-40 year-old at Textile Factory in Mosul City.Material and method: The sample for this study consisted of all subjects aged 30-40 year-old (thirty five subjects) atthe Textile factory in Mosul city. Body weight can be measured by using the Body Mass Index (BMI). Dental caries wasrecorded by lesion severity through the application of D1-4 MFS index. Salivary flow rate was measured after collectionof unstimulated saliva then salivary samples were analyzed for the measurement of salivary antioxidants (albumin,vitamin E, and vitamin C) and magnesium level.Results: Salivary vitamin E and C levels were higher among overweight and obese subjects respectively comparedwith non-obese though statistical differences were not significant. Albumin level was significantly higher amongoverweight than non-obese subjects. In addition Obese and overweight subjects revealed reduced salivary flow ratecompared with non-obese but with no significant difference; whereas salivary magnesium level was elevatedamong obese compared to non-obese individuals though statistical difference was not significant. Regarding cariesseverity, obese and overweight subjects revealed higher dental caries severity (i.e. DMFS, MS, DS, D3 and D4 meanvalues) compared with non-obese.Conclusions: Overweight and obesity could be risk factor for increasing dental caries severity thus educational andpreventive programs that include dietary counseling (for lowering body weight and caries severity as well), oralhygiene practices, and regular visits for the dentist are needed


Article
Interpretation of Oral Involvement in Patients with Sjögren's Syndrome by Using Salivary Markers

Author: Hajer I. Abdulla هاجر ابراهيم عبد الله
Journal: Tikrit Journal for Dental Sciences مجلة تكريت لعلوم طب الاسنان ISSN: 20731213 Year: 2013 Volume: 2 Issue: 2 Pages: 89-95
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the salivary and lacrimal glands that leads to functional impairment. Hypofunction of salivary glands is the main cause of oral pathological changes and is associated with alterations in the constituents of the saliva.This study aimed to test the hypothesis that proteomic approaches markers (notably peptides) are involved in the oral manifestations observed in Sjögren's syndrome (SS).A total number of 71 participants were admitted in the study; 21 of them have Sjögren's syndrome (Group I), 43 non- Sjögren's syndrome cases referred or attended the dental clinic seeking for certain management (Group II) and 7 apparent healthy subjects without dental problems (Group III). Stimulated saliva was collected from each patients and participants for biochemical analysis including assessment of salivary protein and peptides.Salivary flow rate was significantly (p<0.01) reduced in SS patients by 33.4% and 24.1% of corresponding Group II and Group III respectively. The salivary protein concentrations (total albumin and peptides) per milliliter saliva fluid were increased in SS patients. Saliva peptides (2.09±1.01 mg/ml) level was significantly (p<0.05) higher than Group II (1.708±0.649 mg/ml) and Group III (1.339±0.517 mg/ml).Hypofunction of salivary glands in SS is associated with significant changes in the saliva constituents particularly the peptides.


Article
Obturation of internally prepared cavities (simulating internal resorption) with three different techniques
امتلاء التجاويف المعدة داخليًا (محاكاة الارتشاف الداخلي) بثلاث تقنيات مختلفة

Authors: Raid F. Salman --- Media A. Saeed
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2011 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 21-28
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objectives:There is controversy as to which instrumentation and/or obturation techniques to choose for the treatment of the internal resorption defects. This in vitro study compared the instrumentation and obturation quality of simulated internal resorption cavities (IRC) with 3 different techniques.Methods:Ninety extracted human roots were used and sectioned transversely 5 mm from the apex and hemi-circular cavities were prepared in both sections. The sections were glued back together using superglue and embedded in plaster mold, thus obtaining root canals with cavities simulating internal resorption. The samples were randomly divided into 3 groups of 30 roots and instrumented by pro-taper rotary files, hybrid technique, or step-back technique, then each group subdivided into three subgroups of 10 roots and obturated with cold lateral condensation, warm vertical compaction, or injectable thermo-plasticized technique. After obturation, the samples were radio-graphed in Bucco-lingual and Mesio-distal view. After that, the plaster molds were removed, and the samples were then sectioned at the previous level and the quality of the obturation of the IRC were viewed under stereomicroscope.Results: There was highly significant difference between pro-taper rotary files compared with hybrid and step-back techniques. The results of obturation techniques radiographically and by stereomicroscope showed that there was highly significant difference in between injectable thermo-plasticized compared with other two techniques.Conclusion:The pro-taper rotary files and injectable thermo-plasticized technique gave the best results for treatment of simulated internal resorption cavities (IRC).


Article
The association between some salivary factors and dental caries in group of school children and adolescents in Erbil city
العلاقة بين بعض العوامل اللعابية وتسوس الأسنان في مجموعة من أطفال المدارس والمراهقين في مدينة أربيل

Author: Shukria Mohammed AL-Zahawi
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2011 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 64-70
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objectives: The protective function of saliva against dental caries achieved through its physico-chemical properties The purpose of this comparative study was to evaluate the relationship between some risk factors such as salivary flow rate, pH, oral hygiene (plaque index), buffering capacity, salivary level of lacto bacilli, streptococcus mutans and candida, with dental caries also aimed to determining which salivary factors correlate significantly to dental caries experience in children and adolescents.Methods: In this study, salivary factors were measured in resting saliva. Resting saliva was collected to determine flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, microorganism level of lactobacilli, streptococcus mutans and candida of (400) healthy school student, (200) children (6-12) years and (200) adolescents (13-16) years in twenty schools in Erbil city of different socioeconomic status. Their teeth were examined to measure the caries experience using decay, missing, and filled teeth index (DMFT), and oral hygiene (plaque index) level using (Silness and Loe 1964) method.Results: The mean DMFT in children was (5.35), while the mean DMFT in adolescents was (5.54). The mean oral hygiene in children was scored (1.21), while the mean oral hygiene in adolescents was (1.19). The factors showing significant relation ship to dental caries in children were flow rate, pH, oral hygiene (plaque index), lactobacilli, streptococcus mutans and candida, while the salivary factors showing a significant relation ship to dental caries in adolescent were pH, oral hygiene and count of lactobacilli.Conclusion:Evidence from the current research support a central role of the salivary flow rate, pH, oral hygiene, count of salivary streptococcus mutans, lactobacilli and candida albicans in the increasing of dental caries in children. While in adolescent there was relation between dental caries and salivary pH, oral hygiene and count of lactobacilli.


Article
The Dental Caries Experience in Relation to Salivary Flow Rate, SIgA and Mutans Streptococci Bacteria in Smoker and Non-Smoker Patients

Authors: Ansam Zuhair Najm --- Abbas S. Al-Mizraqchi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2019 Volume: 31 Issue: 1 Pages: 52-59
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Dental caries is a localized, progressive destructive, largely irreversible microbial based disease of multifactorial nature; these factors include (host, microbes and food) they influence differently on the initiation and progression of dental caries.The aims of the study: was to evaluate the effect of smoking on salivary flow rate, secretory immunoglobulin (SIgA) level and viable count of mutans streptococci (M.S) bacteria in oral cavity and their relation to dental caries experience.Material and method: The samples were collected from 80 male students ranging in ages from 18-22 years old. Where they divided in to two groups, 40 non-smokers (control group) and 40 smokers (study group). Unstimulated salivary samples were collected. Salivary flow rate was estimated and viable count (CFU/ml) of mutans streptococci was determined. The diagnosis and recording of dental caries were done according to WHO, 1987 criteria and the level of SIgA was determined by ELISA.Result: the result revealed that the salivary flow rate and SIgA level were lower in smoker group than non-smoker, while the means value of dental caries experience Decay, Missing and Filling tooth (DMFT) and (CFU/ml)of M.S were higher in oral cavity of smoker group than non-smoker group.Conclusion: the smoking has negative effect on salivary flow rate, SIgA and increase the viable bacterial count of M.S and dental caries in smoker patients.


Article
Salivary Zinc Level Determination in Patients with Benign Migratory Glossitis

Author: Abbas F Al-Taee
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2012 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 329-336
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To determine and compare the salivary zinc level concentration (SZLC) and salivary flow rate (SFR) in patient with benign migratory glossitis (BMG) and in control normal subjects, also to evaluate any relationship among these variables in each group. Materials and Methods: The study was con-ducted on 42 individuals who were allocated into two groups: patients group was comprised of 22 pa-tients who did have (BMG) and 20 healthy subjects. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected and both SFR and SZLC were determined. Zinc analysis was performed with an atomic absorption spectropho-tometer. Results: The mean SFR in patients and control groups were 0.5459(ml / min) and 0.6840(ml / min) respectively, whereas the mean SZLC for patients was 0.09764(ppm) and 0.13830 (ppm) for con-trol group. SFR was not differ significantly between both groups (p > 0.099), also SZLC was not sig-nificantly differ in both groups too (p > 0.169). Conclusions: This clinical study could not establish significant association between BMG and both SZLC and SFR.

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