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Article
A comparative study between the effects of two different antihypertensive drugs on the salivary flow rate and salivary compositions

Author: RafiL H. Rasheed رافل رشيد
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2005 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 43-46
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: This study investigated the possible abnormalities and variations in salivary flow rate and compositions in two groups of patients under the effects of two different types of antihypertensive drugs (Atenolol and Captopril) one on hand compared with third group of normotensives (As control) on the other hand.Results: It was obvious that there is marked reduction in the salivary flow rate in those taken the antihypertensive drugs in comparison with control group of normotensives. Significantly elevated levels of potassium, phosphorus, and proteins had been realized as first result of this study which might be explained due to the continuous adrenergic over stimulation of salivary gland in hypertensives under taking Atenolol, magnesium in saliva appear reduced in treated hypertensives with Captopril than with Atenolol. Whereas there is dropping in the level of sodium in the two groups than in the control.


Article
The influence of menopause on unstimulated salivary flow and subjective oral dryness inrelation to other oral symptoms and salivary gland hypofunction

Author: Sahar H. Alani سحر حمدان
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: special issue 2 Pages: 78-80
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate unstimulated salivary flow rate and oral symptoms inmenopausal women.Materials and Methods: A total of 200 individuals including 100 women in their menopause (case group) and 100men in the same age range (control group) participated in this analytic descriptive investigation. None of thepatients were being treated for any systemic disease or taking any medication. Unstimulated salivary flow rate wasmeasured using the spitting method and the prevalence of oral symptoms was evaluated by filling out aquestionnaire. The results were analyzed with ANOVA, chi-square and Student’s t-test (P<0.05).Results: The average of unstimulated salivary flow rate was 0.127 ml/min (SD=0.057) in women and 0.214 ml/min(SD=0.105) in men. The prevalence of dry mouth was 50% versus32%, difficulty in eating dry foods 31% versus 8%,burning sensation in oral mucosa 3% versus 0%, taste reduction, 4% versus 2% and bitter or metallic taste 16% versus8% in female and male subjects, respectively.Conclusion: A significant difference in salivary flow rate and prevalence of oral symptoms was found between thetwo groups (P<0.05). Reduced salivary flow rate and a high prevalence of oral symptoms in menopausal womenmay be related to the hormonal alterations that occur during this period

Keywords

menopause --- salivary flow


Article
Salivary uric acid, total protein and periodontal health status variation in relation to the body mass index (A Clinical and Biochemical study)

Authors: Abdullatif A.H. Al-Juboury عبد اللطيف الجبوري --- Fakhri A. Al-Kaisi فخري القيسي --- Hadeel M. Akram هديل اكرم
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2011 Volume: 23 Issue: special issue Pages: 117-120
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Obesity is the fastest growing health-related problem in the world. It plays an affecting role in thebiochemistry of many serious systemic diseases like diabetes and CVD. Periodontitis appeared to have a reciprocalrelationship with both, obesity on one hand side and the serious systemic diseases on other hand.Aim of study: is to investigate the effect of obesity and periodontitis on the salivary flow and its uric acid and total protein.Material and method: Eighty one male, aged 30-40 y, systemically healthy, no smokers, having chronic periodontopathicinflammation(gingivitis and / or periodontitis), grouped in three according to BMI, each of 27; GI; normal weight, G2; preobese,and G3; obese. PL.I, GI, BOP, PPD, CAL were clinically recorded at the same hour of unstimulated salivacollection. Probing depth and attachment levels were arranged in scales.Result: Obese group showed significantly high scores of all periodontal data over other 2 groups. Pre-obese showed alsosignificant high scores on the normal weighted. Uric acid was insignificantly low in obese than other 2 groups, while thetotal protein, in obese was significantly higher than other 2 groups, as the salivary flow did. The differences in uric acidand total proteins values were insignificant between normal weights and pre-obese. A significant positive correlationhave been found among periodontal parameters, scale 1 PPD/CAL salivary flow, uric acid, total protein and obesity.Conclusion: Obesity is not only enhancing the severity of periodontopathy, but also modifies the chemical Constituents ofsaliva.


Article
Influence of age and gender on salivary flow rate in completely edentulous patients

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Abstract

The denture retention and stability are dependent on saliva flow rate and quality,patients with dry mouth may have problems with the stability or comfort of maxillarycomplete dentures.Dry mouth is a common feature in the elderly, but is not clear what proportion ofincidences is related to functional disturbances and whether age persue and Genderplay a role. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of age on unstimulated(Resting) whole and stimulated saliva flow rates. It was determined in 100unmedicated, healthy individuals wearing complete dentures. The subjects weredivided into two age groups: group A(< 70 years), group B(> 70 years). A significantdecrease in the secretion rates of unstimulated whole saliva in relation to age wasobserved in the study population (p< 0.001).Females had significantly lower mean flow rates than males for unstimulated(resting) whole saliva.


Article
Correlation between Streptococci Mutans and salivary IgA in relation to some oral parameters in saliva of children

Authors: Lamia I. Sood --- Minan Y. H. Al-Ezzy --- Ameena R. Diajil
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2014 Volume: 26 Issue: 1 Pages: 71-79
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Saliva plays an important role in oral health. Several salivary proteins are involved in the antimicrobialdefence mechanism and are able to eliminate or inhibit bacterial growth in the oral cavity. Secretory IgA (SIgA) isone of the principal antibodies present in saliva, could help oral immunity by preventing microbial adherence,neutralizing enzymes and toxins.The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between salivary Streptococcus Mutans (SM) count and S IgAin stimulated whole saliva in children with primary dentition compared to those with permanent teeth in relation tosome oral hygiene parameters.Material and methods: Stimulated whole saliva was collected from 50 children (25 with primary dentation and 25 withpermanent teeth). Salivary flow rate and pH was measured. Oral hygiene index (OHI) and gingival inflammation wasassessed using classical method. S IgA level was measured using an immunoassay kit and SM count was determinedby culture media.Results: Mean salivary flow rate, pH and S IgA were significantly higher among children with permanent teethcompared to those with primary dentition.Compared to primary dentition, permanent dentition was associated with a significantly reduced mean plaqueindex, increased mean gingival index and reduced mean salivary SM count.Although plaque index showed a statistically significant positive correlation with SM count, gingival index showed aweak negative correlation with bacterial count.S IgA, PH and flow rate showed a statistically significant moderately strong negative correlation with bacterial count.Conclusion: This study showed a clear correlation between count of SM in stimulated whole saliva and both SIgA andplaque index


Article
Study of salivary IgA concentrations, salivary flow rate in patients with β –thalassemia major in Missan Governorate

Authors: Jamal M. Diwan --- Zaheda J. Mohammad
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 3 Pages: 55-57
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Beta-thalassemia major is the most common monogenic known disorder in the Middle East,characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypesranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic Individuals. This study aimed to evaluate salivary flow rateand salivary IgA in β-thalassemia major patients. Since many oral and systemic conditions manifest themselves aschanges in the flow and composition of saliva the dental practitioner is advised to remain up-to-date with this issue.Materials and methods: The study samples consist of (60) subjects, patients group composed of (30) patients with β –thalassemia major, age rang (5-23) years and (30) healthy locking subject of both sexes as control group, with agerange from (5-25) years.Results: Most patients were in the first and second decade of life (90%) this indicate a reduced life expectancy inthose patients, laboratory investigations for salivary IgA concentrations revealed a significant increase in means ofthis marker in compare with control group and this difference is statistically significant, (p= 0.05) at P value ≤0.05.Regarding the salivary flow rate there was a statistically significant decrease in mean of salivary flow rate inpatients group as compared with control group (P= 0.013).Conclusions: Beta-thalassemia major affects salivary flow rate and SIgA concentration


Article
An Assessment of Oral Health in Hypertensive Patients Treated with HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Statins)

Authors: Amir A. M. Al-Joboury --- Rafil H. Rasheed
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 4 Pages: 85-89
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Hypertension is a chronic medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is elevated, it'sclassified as either primary (essential) hypertension or secondary hypertension, and it increases the risk of ischemicheart disease, peripheral vascular disease and other cardiovascular diseases. Several classes of medicationscollectively referred to as antihypertensive drugs like beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, angiotensinconverting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, renin inhibitors and statins (HMG-CoA) reductaseinhibitor. Statin medication may have some beneficial effects when subjects have dental plaque or signs ofperiodontitis as gingival bleeding. The purpose of this study were to assess the oral health in hypertensive patients aretreated with statins in terms of salivary flow rate, pH and oral health indices.Materials and Methods: Ninety saliva specimens collected from three groups of subjects (thirty healthy patients"control" Group I), thirty hypertensive patients treated with anti-hypertensive medications without taking statins(Group II) and thirty hypertensive patients treated with anti-hypertensive medications with statins (Group III).Unstimulated saliva was collected from each patients and participants for assessment of salivary flow rate andsalivary pH.Results: Salivary flow rate is reduced in Group II and III patients compared with Group I. Significant low salivary flowrate observed in Group III patients (hypertensive treated with statins) compared with Group II (hypertensiveuntreated with statins) and Group I (healthy subjects); The median value of gingival index is significantly higher inGroup II compared with corresponding value in Group I, while it attended a significant low value in Group IIIpatients; There is no significant difference in DMF score between Group I and Group III, while a significant high scoreobserved in Group II compared with Group I ; The percent of carries restoration in patients of Group II is significantlylow compared with corresponding value of Group I . Although the percent of carries restoration in patients ofGroup III is less than corresponding value of Group I but it does not reach significant level.Conclusions: Patients using statins therapy are more likely have an improvement in gingival index, DMF score andcarries restoration. The salivary flow rate is reduced in patients treated with statins medications, statins therapy havea beneficial effect on the oral cavity


Article
The Effect of Pregnancy on Unstimulated Salivary Calcium and Magnesium Concentration
تأثير الحمل على تركيز الكالسيوم اللعابي غير المحفز وتركيز المغنيسيوم

Author: Ali Sultan Al-Refai
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2009 Volume: 13 Issue: 1 Pages: 43-48
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objectives: Gingivitis is the most prevalent oral problem associated with pregnancy, in addition to several salivary changes. This study was designed to find the effect of pregnancy on salivary chemical factors (calcium and magnesium concentrations)and flow rate, and compare the results with that of non-pregnant women.Methods: The samples consist of (118) females with age ranged from (20– 40) years (84 pregnant and 34 control, non-pregnant women). After collection of un stimulated saliva, the concentration of calcium and magnesium, and salivary flow rate were measured.Results: The means of salivary flow rate, calcium and magnesium concentrations of pregnantand non-pregnant women were statistically non significant. There were non-significant difference between the means of each parameter with the age group of pregnant women and the gestation age. Non-significant difference between the means of each parameterwith the trimester of pregnancy.Conclusion: All factors showed non-significant differences between pregnant and non -pregnant women.


Article
The relation of salivary antioxidants to dental caries among overweight and obese adult aged 30-40 year-old at textile factory in Mosul city

Author: Baydaa A. Yas بيداء ياس
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2011 Volume: 23 Issue: special issue Pages: 141-145
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Overweight and obese people are at higher risk for systemic diseases as well as oral diseases like dentalcaries. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship of salivary antioxidants (albumin, vitamin E, and vitamin C)in addition to salivary flow rate and magnesium level with dental caries severity among overweight and obese adultaged 30-40 year-old at Textile Factory in Mosul City.Material and method: The sample for this study consisted of all subjects aged 30-40 year-old (thirty five subjects) atthe Textile factory in Mosul city. Body weight can be measured by using the Body Mass Index (BMI). Dental caries wasrecorded by lesion severity through the application of D1-4 MFS index. Salivary flow rate was measured after collectionof unstimulated saliva then salivary samples were analyzed for the measurement of salivary antioxidants (albumin,vitamin E, and vitamin C) and magnesium level.Results: Salivary vitamin E and C levels were higher among overweight and obese subjects respectively comparedwith non-obese though statistical differences were not significant. Albumin level was significantly higher amongoverweight than non-obese subjects. In addition Obese and overweight subjects revealed reduced salivary flow ratecompared with non-obese but with no significant difference; whereas salivary magnesium level was elevatedamong obese compared to non-obese individuals though statistical difference was not significant. Regarding cariesseverity, obese and overweight subjects revealed higher dental caries severity (i.e. DMFS, MS, DS, D3 and D4 meanvalues) compared with non-obese.Conclusions: Overweight and obesity could be risk factor for increasing dental caries severity thus educational andpreventive programs that include dietary counseling (for lowering body weight and caries severity as well), oralhygiene practices, and regular visits for the dentist are needed


Article
A cross-sectional tri-level study of the obesity effects on the salivary uric acid and total protein of gingivitis Iraqi subjects

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Abstract

Background: Obesity is the fastest growing health-related problem in the world. It plays an affecting role in thebiochemistry of many serious systemic diseases like diabetes and CVD. Periodontitis appeared to have a reciprocalrelationship with both, obesity on one hand side and the serious systemic diseases on other hand. The aim of study: isto investigate the inter linking between obesity and gingivitis by screening the salivary uric acid and total protein.Material and method: Control healthy periodontal and systemically-normal weight,27 male, ( CG), gingivitis–normalweight, systemically healthy(GN) 16 male, Gingivitis-overweight-systemically healthy(GOV) 14 male).and Gingivitisobese-systemically healthy(GO)12 male, aged 30-40 y, no smokers, Their weight measured according to BMI.Clinical data were recorded according to PL.I, GI, BOP, at the same hour of unstimulated saliva collection.Results: Obese subjects showed increased PL.I, G.I, BOP scores and high significant increase of salivary total protein.BOP; showed significant increase in bleeding sites as the Body Mass Index goes up. Uric acid showed, always,negative correlation with the totality of gingival inflammation parameters, they were significant only with normalweight subjects.Conclusion: Total protein. Appeared significantly positive correlated to gingivitis more than to the obesity. While Uricacid correlated insignificantly negative with the gingivitis but not to the increased body weight.The increased bodyweight also positively correlated to the gingival inflammation, these results could say that gingivitis modifies the salivarychemicals while the obesity enhances gingivitis

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