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Article
Trace Elements in Serum and Seminal Plasma and Their Relationship to Infertility in Iraqi Males

Authors: Basil Y Salah --- Zina A Marrow --- Nahla M Tawfiq
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2007 Volume: 4 Issue: 1 Pages: 11-14
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Environmental chemicals are thought to adversely affect human reproductive function.
Objective : To estimate the concentration of cadmium(Cd) , lead ( Pb ) and Zinc ( Zn ) in serum and seminal plasma among infertile men .
Methods: A sample of 70 infertile men was investigated. The relationship of trace elements concentration in serum and seminal plasma was studied in relation to sperm density, motility and sperm count.
Results: Except for Zinc the concentration of (Pb) and (Cd) were generally higher in serum than in seminal plasma. The mean concentration of (Zn) in seminal plasma was more than 25 times higher than in serum There were no statistical significant differences observed in the serum and seminal plasma levels of trace elements among the normospermic , oligospermic and azoospermic.
Conclusion: It seems that no significant relationship between these trace elements and the clinical classification of the infertile men was noted. Without considering environmental conditions of life and work, way of nutrition smoking and other possible factors, this study does not present great value.
Key words: Trace elements, infertility, seminal plasma


Article
Status of Total L-Carnitine Level in the Seminal Plasma of Iraqi Infertile and Fertile Men: Correlation Study with Semen Quality

Author: Zainab N.H. Anbar
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2011 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 78-80
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSRACT:BACKGROUND:Carnitine is highly concentrated in the epididymis and Spermatozoa, where it may serve as an intramitochondrial vehicle for theAcyl group, a substrate of energy production. This study is aimed to determine any correlation between male infertility and semen quality with Concentration of L- carnitine in human seminal plasma.OBJECTIVE:This case-control study performed at the Institute of Embryo Research and Infertility, University of Al-Naharin, Baghdad. Semen samples of 40 infertile men (azoospermia, n=12, oligoasthenozoospermia, n=16, teratozoospermia, n=12) and 12 fertile men controls were collected.METHODS:The level of total L- carnitine in seminal plasma was determined by high performance liquid chromatography and the results correlated with sperm parameters as sperm count, motility and morphology.RESULTS:The level of L-carnitine was significantly reduced in infertile male groups; azoospermia, oligoasthenozoospermia and teratozoospermia in comparison with that of fertile male controls (P< 0.045, P< 0.023 and P< 0.04; respectively). There was a borderline significant positive correlation between the seminal L-carnitine and the sperm count in fertile group(r=0.63, P< 0.51).CONCLUSION:The results of this study indicated the significance of determination of seminal plasma L-carnitine in evaluation of infertility in men and the importance of recognition of those infertile male who are benefit from administration of carnitine supplement.


Article
INFLUENCE OF CIGARETTE SMOKING ON SEMINAL PLASMA SOLUBLE FAS AS A MARKER OF GERM CELL APOPTOSIS

Authors: Majid H Ahmed ماجد حميد احمد --- Isra'a F Ja'afar اسراء فائق جعفر --- Anam R Al-Salihi انعم رشيد الصالحي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2013 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 12-17
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Background:Male infertility constitutes about 50% of overall causes of infertility and apoptosis is known to have an essential role in the control of germ cell number in testis. Cigarette smoking is common in males at reproductive age. Studying the influence of smoking on apoptosis in male genital tract and its influence on fertility helps in the management of infertility in smokers.Objectives:To assess the influence of cigarette smoking on seminal plasma (SP) soluble Fas (sFas) and the correlation between SP sFas and serum sex steroidal hormones and conventional semen parameters in males of infertile couples.Methods:Seventy male partners of infertile couples (30 smokers and 40 non-smokers) were enrolled in this study. A subject was considered smoker if he had history of smoking of more 10 cigarettes per day for at least one year. Semen analysis was done according to World Health Organization (WHO) 2010. Specific kits were used for the measurement of SP sFas and serum testosterone and estradiol (E2).Results:In smokers' group, SP sFas was significantly (p <0.05) negatively correlated with age and sperm motility and positively correlated with immotile sperm and round cell number.Conclusion:Germ cell apoptosis in smoker males of infertile couples is interrelated with sperm motility.Keywords:Male infertility, Smoking, Apoptosis, Seminal plasma sFas.


Article
Evaluation of Anti-sperm Antibodies in Relevance to Testosterone Levels in Serum and Seminal Plasma in Infertile Men

Authors: Mohammad O. Selman --- Hayder A. L. Mossa --- Maryam H. Khaleefah
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2018 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 22-28
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Background: Immunological infertility is expected to be the reason of infertilityin 9-36% of the concerned twosomes. The major cause of immunologicalinfertility is the creation of anti-sperm antibodies (ASA), which influence thecapability of insemination of spermatozoa. It has been detected that anti-spermantibodies (ASA) are present either systemically in blood or locally in seminalplasma of approximately 10% of infertile male patients. Immunity to sperm cancause infertility; humoral antibodies directed against sperm did not necessarilyimpair fertility unless the circulating antibodies are also present within the reproductivetract and on the living sperm surface. Hormonal imbalance and spermautoimmunity have been considered as two systems that play in near associationand affect each other. Testosterone is the Steroid hormone necessary for the developmentand maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics as well as initiationand maintenance of Spermatogenesis .It was known that males with abnormalseminal fluids have lower concentrations of the testosterone hormone.Objectives: To study the serum & seminal plasma antisperm antibodies levels in relevance tolevels of testosterone in serum and seminal plasma accordingly to sperm function parametersin different groups of infertile patients.Subjects,Materials and Methods: Blood and semen samples were collected from (80) subjects(60) infertile patients (20Asthenozoospermic, 20 Oligozoospermic,20Azoospermic) and 20Normozoospermic subjects .The anti-sperm antibody and testosterone levels were measuredby using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA).Results: The Antisperm antibodies were positive in serum of normozoospermic, asthenozoospermic,oligozoospermic and azoospermic men respectively are about 10%, 5%, 20%,5%and in the total group was 10% positive. The ASA in seminal plasma of normozoospermicmen, asthenozoospermic men, oligozoospermic men and azoospermic men respectively are0%, 0%, 5%, 5% and in the total groups 2.5%.These findings lead to no possibility to makeclear correlations with the studied hormones. There was significant increase (P<0.05) in thelevels of testosterone in serum and seminal plasma in comparison between normozoospermicand infertile men subgroups. There was significant decrease (P<0.05) in the levels of progesteronein serum and seminal plasma in comparison between normozoospermic men andinfertile men subgroups, the highest levels were observed in asthenozoospermic subgroup.The study showed that 10 patients (12.5%) out of 80 patients showed a positive ASA positivein serum or seminal plasma of all groups. The result was considered positive if the value was≥60 RU / ml .On these basis and regarding that screening criteria the positive ASA groupshowed the association with the low levels of testosterone in both types of the samples(serumand seminal plasma), these results was exhibited a high significant difference when comparedwith negative ASA group.Conclusion: Determination of the relevance of the levels of testosterone and anti-sperm antibodiesin the serum and seminal plasma, which in turn is important to determine the type ofinfertility especially the immunological type.


Article
Evaluation of testosterone hormone and zinc Levels among infertile males in Kirkuk province/ Iraq
تقييم مستويات هرمون التستوستيرون والزنك بين الذكور المصابين بالعقم في محافظة كركوك / العراق

Authors: Muhammad A. Alshawni --- Omeed O. Darweesh --- Kamaran Y. Muhammadamin
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2011 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 34-39
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objectives: Male Infertility is often caused by problems with sperm production or motility. Zinc in human semen seems to play an important role in the physiology of spermatozoa .This study was designed to demonstrate the relationships between concentrations of zinc and testosterone in serum and seminal plasma and sperm quality among infertile men.Methods: One hundred four infertile males, aged (19-44) years, were selected from Infertile Clinic-Azadi Teaching Hospital- Kirkuk Province. Forty known fertile males were selected as normospermic control group. Semen samples were analyzed according to WHO criteria. Serum and seminal plasma zinc concentrations were estimated by atomic absorption technique. Serum testosterone was measured by MiniVIDAS apparatus.Results: The mean value of serum testosterone was significantly lower in infertile males (4.87±0.15 ng/ml) as compared to control group (6.41±0.16 ng/ml); (P< 0.01), significant correlations were observed between serum testosterone with seminal plasma zinc level in oligospermic subjects (r=0.44) and with serum zinc level in azoospermic subjects (r=0.37), (P< 0.01); (P< 0.05) respectively. Serum and seminal plasma zinc levels were lower in infertile men (7.75±0.18 µmol/L); (0.83±0.02 mmol/L) when compared with normospermic control group (14.09±0.27 µmol/L); (1.41±0.01 mmol/L) respectively (p<0.01),Conclusion: Zinc may contribute to fertility through its positive effect on spermatogenesis. Also there was significant decrease in serum and seminal plasma zinc levels in oligospermic and azoospermic infertile males with significantly low androgen. It indicates that the zinc may have a role for steroidogenesis.


Article
Correlation of Seminal Fluid -Immunologic Inflammatory Markers with Cotinine Concentration in Smokers -Unexplained Infertile- Males
ارتباط الواسمات الألتهابية المناعية بتركيز الكوتنين في السائل المنوي عند الرجال المدخنين المصابين بالعقم الغير مفسر

Author: Naael Hussein Ali
Journal: kufa Journal for Nursing sciences مجلة الكوفة لعلوم التمريض ISSN: 22234055 Year: 2016 Volume: 6 Issue: 3 Pages: 85-94
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Objective: To determine the causing correlation of the cigarettes smoking (measured by cotinine level in the seminal plasma) on the immunologic inflammatory markers (PMN-elastase, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and leukocytospermia) in seminal fluid (SF) of unexplained infertile men.Materials and Methods: Tow hundred-thirty six unexplained infertile men, one hundred fourteen smoking and ninety six non-smokers were included in the study. They were being found without evident cause for infertility after initial workups. Other ninety fertile healthy non-smokers men were enrolled in the study as a control group. Seminal immunologic inflammatory markers (PMN-elastase, pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-8 and IL-6, and leukocytospermia) were measured in seminal plasma (SP) of all participants. Cotinine level in SP was measured as well (by using ELISA), and correlated with inflammatory markers in all three hundred- twenty six specimens. Results: The differences of seminal plasma inflammatory markers and cotinine level were significant between the three groups of the study, and significantly correlated (P<0.05) with inflammatory markers.Conclusion: The resulted substantial negative impact on sperm motility and morphology, and the correlation of cotinine level with immunologic inflammatory markers in SP, strongly indicate the presence of immunologic reaction in genital tract of the smokers. That may lead to silent genital tract inflammation. Which is, may be, the main cause for their unexplained infertility.Recommendation: It would be sensible to advise infertile men to abstain from smoking cigarettes.

الهدف: لتبيان الارتباط التسببي لتدخين السجائر(مقاس بتركيز مستوى الكوتنين في بلازما المني) بالواسمات الالتهابية المناعية في بلازما السائل المنوي (اليستيز الخلايا المحببة متعددة النوى والسايتوكاينات ما قبل الالتهاب و الخلايا البيض في المني) في السائل المنوي للرجال المصابين بالعقم الغير مفسر.المنهجية: مائتان وستة وثلاثون رجلا مصابا بالعقم الغير مفسر منهم مائة و اربعون مدخنين وستة وتسعون غير مدخنين . تسعون رجلا خصيبا يبدو بصحة جيدة وغير مدخن اعتبروا المجموعة الضابطة. تم قياس الواسمات الالتهابية والمناعية في السائل المنوي (اليستيز الخلايا المحببة متعددة النوى وأنترلوكين -8 وأنترلوكين-6 و الخلايا البيض في المني) و مستوى تركيز الكوتنين في السائل المنوي( بإستخدام الأليزا) عند المشتركين كافة والبالغ عددهم ثلاثمائة ومائتان وستة عينة. النتائج: الفروقات بين الواسمات الالتهابية المناعية وتركيز الكوتنين كانت فروقات معنوية عند مجاميع الدراسة الثلاثة والارتباط ذات معنوية احصائية بمستوى(اقل من 5%).الاستنتاج: التأثير السلبي للكوتنين على حركة وشكل الحيامن وارتباط ذلك بشكل معنوي احصائيا بالواسمات المقاسة يدل دلالة قوية على وجود رد فعل مناعي في القناة التناسلية للرجال المدخنين. مما ادى ذلك الى التهابات المجاري التناسلية الغير ظاهر (دون السريري) الأمر الذي كان سببا في حالة العقم الغير مفسر لدى هؤلاء الرجال. التوصيات :يجب نصح الرجال العقيمين بالابتعاد عن دخان السجائر سلبيا او ايجابيا.


Article
Effect of smoking on sex hormones, inflammatory markers and semen parameters in infertile men
تاثير التدخين على الهرمونات الجنسية ودالات الالتهاب ومعايير المني في الرجال العقيمين

Authors: انعم رشيد الصالحي --- ماجد احمد --- اسراء السامرائي
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2012 Volume: 2 Issue: 3 Pages: 9-15
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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BackgroundInfertility is a common social and health problem. Male factor is a major cause in 30% of infertile couples. Smoking is common at reproductive age and its effect on fertilitiy is still in controversy. Studying its effect on fertility helps in the management of infertility.ObjectivesTo assess the effect of smoking on serum sex steroidal hormones as well as on seminal plasma (SP) IL-2, IL-6 and conventional semen parameters in infertile men and their correlations between each other.MethodsSeventy male partners of infertile couples (30 smokers and 40 non-smokers) were involved in this study. The man was considered smoker if he had history of smoking of more than 10 cigarettes per day for at least one year. Semen analysis was done according to world health organization (WHO) 2010. Specific kits were used for measurement of serum testosterone, serum estradiol II, SP IL-2, and SP IL-6.ResultsThe median of SP IL-2 was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in smokers than in non-smokers group and positively correlated with SP IL-6 in them. In addition, IL-2 was negatively correlated with semen volume, sperm motility and morphology, while IL-6 was negatively correlated only with sperm motility. However, there was no significant difference of serum sex hormones level or on semen parameters between smokers and non-smokers.ConclusionCigarette smoking affect cytokine levels in the seminal plasma but has no effect on serum sex hormones level or semen parameters.


Article
The using of antisperm antibody assay as a predictive diagnostic test of male infertility
وباستخدام مضاد للنطفة من الأجسام المضادة فحص كاختبار تشخيصي التنبؤي العقم عند الذكور

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Assessment of male infertility is the first step in resolving this worldwide problem . The aim of the present study is to investigate the predictive value of using ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay) test for serum and seminal plasma Antisperm antibodies (ASA) as a complementary tool to assist in diagnosis of infertility . This study was carried out between January 2013 and November 2013 including one hundred (100) selected infertile men who attended to fertility Center in Al-Sadr Medical City . The study also included twenty (20) healthy volunteer fertile as a control . The results showed that the incidence of serum and seminal ASA in infertile men is significantly (p<0.05) higher than that in control fertile men. the incidence of serum and seminal ASA is significantly (p<0.05) higher in normozoospermic patients than that in control fertile men . There was a high significant negative correlation (p<0.01) between the concentration of serum and seminal ASA in infertile men and each of : sperm motility, progressive motility, while a high significant positive correlation (p<0.01) is seen between serum and seminal ASA in infertile men and sperm agglutination, and a significant positive correlation (p<0.05) with seminal WBC count . The study concluded that ELISA ASA assay can be routinely used as a complementary test to diagnose infertility .

تعد عملية تقييم العقم عند الرجال الخطوة الأولى في طريق حل هذه المشكلة العالمية . إن الهدف من هذه الدراسة هو البحث عن الأهمية التنبؤية لفحص الإليزا (الامتزاز المناعي المقترن بالإنزيم) للأجسام المضادة للنطف في كل من المصل والبلازما المنوية باعتباره من الفحوصات المساعدة في تشخيص العقم . تم إجراء هذه الدراسة للمدة من كانون الثاني 2013 إلى تشرين الأول 2013 ، إذ تضمنت الدراسة إجراء فحص السائل المنوي والفحوصات المناعية لعينة مكونة من (100) من الرجال العقيمين الذين يراجعون مركز الخصوبة في مدينة الصدر الطبية في محافظة النجف الأشرف ، كما شملت الدراسة (20) شخصاً من الرجال الخصبين (مجموعة السيطرة) . أظهرت النتائج وجود ارتفاع معنوي (p<0.05)في نسبة الأجسام المضادة وتركيزها في كل من المصل والبلازما المنوية في الرجال العقيمين مقارنة مع الرجال الخصبين ، كما بينت الدراسة أن نسبة الأجسام المضادة في مجموعة (أسوياء النطف) مرتفعة ارتفاعاً معنوياً (p<0.05) مقارنة مع الرجال الخصبين . كما بينت النتائج وجود علاقة عكسية ذات دلالة إحصائية عالية المعنوية (p<0.01) بين كل من تركيز الأجسام المضادة في المصل والمني وبين كل من تركيز النطف وحركة النطف والحركة التقدمية للنطف ، كما أظهرت النتائج وجود علاقة طردية ذات دلالة إحصائية عالية المعنوية (p<0.01)بين تركيز الأجسام المضادة في المصل والمني وبين نسبة التلازن في النطف ، وأوضحت النتائج أيضاً وجود علاقة طردية معنوية(p<0.05) بين تركيز الأجسام المضادة في المصل والمني وبين عدد خلايا الدم البيض في المني . استنتجت الدراسة أن فحص الإليزا (الامتزاز المناعي المقترن بالإنزيم) يمكن أن يستعمل في المختبرات كأحد الفحوصات المساعدة في تشخيص العقم عند الرجال .


Article
Effect of magnetically treated water on enzymes and total protein in seminal plasma of Holstein bulls born in Iraq
دراسة تاثير استعمال الماء المعالج مغناطيسيا على الانزيمات والبروتين الكلي للبلازما المنوية لثيران الهولشتاين المولودة في العراق

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Some enzymes of seminal plasma such as, Glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, Glutamic Pyruvic transaminase, Acid phosphatase and Alkaline phosphatase are essential for metabolic processes which provide energy for viability, motility and fertility of spermatozoa. These enzymes are used as good indicators of semen quality as they measure the plasma membrane stability of spermatozoa, so the aims of study are to estimate the enzymes level and total protein in seminal plasma of Holstein bulls. In present the available knowledge there is no study in Iraq regarding the effect of using magnetically treated water on enzymes and total protein in seminal plasma of Holstein bulls born in Iraq to improve the Artificial Insemination programs. Sixteen bulls were divided equally into two groups depending on their age. Young (17-19 months) and adult (29-32 months), then randomly distributed into two equal sub groups (control and treatment) through February until June months. Treatment group was given magnetically treated water which passed through magnetic device with strength of 2000 gauss; control group was given normal water without magnetism. Results show that there is a monthly variation in levels of enzymes, in the group drinking magnetic water effect significantly (P<0.05), all enzymes of seminal plasma of Holstein bulls in Iraq, with no effect on total protein.

هناك العديد من الانزيمات في البلازما المنوية مثل، GOT وGPT وACT وALP التي تعد ضرورية لعمليات التمثيل الغذائي لتوفير الطاقة ومن ثَمَ حركة النطف وقابليتها على الاخصاب، كما أنّ تقدير تلك الانزيمات لها دور في تقييم كفاءة نوعية السائل المنوي مثل المحافظة على غشاء النطفة من التلف. إن المعلومات المتوفرة لدينا تدل على عدم وجود دراسات في العراق حول هذا الموضوع لذا فإن الدراسة تهدف إلى معرفة مستويات تلك الانزيمات والبروتين الكلي في البلازما المنوية ومدى تاثير شرب الماء المعالج مغناطيسيا على تلك الانزيمات لما لها من أثر مهم في تطوير برنامج التلقيح الاصطناعي في العراق. أجريت الدراسة على 16 ثور هولشتاين مولود في العراق، قسمت حسب العمر الى مجموعتين متساويتين صغيرة (17-19 شهرا) وكبيرة (29-32 شهرا) كما ان كل مجموعة عمرية قسمت عشوائيا إلى مجموعتين متساويتين وهما مجموعة السيطرة (مجموعة شرب الماء العادي)، ومجموعة المعاملة (مجموعة شرب الماء المعالج مغناطيسيا 2000 غاوس). أظهرت النتائج بأنّ هناك اختلافاً شهرياً في مستويات الانزيمات، وإن معاملة الماء مغنطيسياً أثر معنويٌّ (P<0.05) على جميع الإنزيمات في البلازما المنوية للثيران، لكنه لم يكن له تأثير معنويا على البروتين الكلي للسائل المنوي لتلك الثيران


Article
Effect of use vitamin E and Zn on seminal plasma enzymes and their effect on trace minerals of shami male Goat
تأثير استخدام فيتامين هـ والزنك في انزيمات البلازما المنوية واثرها على العناصر المعدنية في ذكور الماعز الشامي في العراق

Author: Zeaid Amad Hamid Taqi Zeny زيد عماد حميد تقي زيني
Journal: Kufa Journal for Agricultural Sciences مجلة الكوفة للعلوم الزراعية ISSN: 20727798 23128186 Year: 2016 Volume: 8 Issue: 2 Pages: 257-265
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

The studay was designed to investigated the efeect of Vitamin E and Zn are two of the important feed elements that affect on semen quality and reduce the free radical or poor sperm quality . Nine shami male goats of similar age (2.5 year) and body weight 37 kg were divided randomly into three groups each of three 1 st first group T1 serves as a control second group T2 given vitamin E 200 IU /Animal/ week orally and third group T3 given Zn 75 mg/Animal/ week orally for 45 days. The semen was collected every15days (15,30,45) and the following parameter was measured in semen plasma AST,ALT and Fructose, Na+, k+, Zn. The result showed a significant increased (p_>0.05)in T2 and T3 in Measures AST,ALT and Fructose significantly (p_>0.05).there was a significant (p_>0.05) decreased in the level of Na+ and k+. However the level of Zn was increased significantly(p_>0.05).The result showing that vitamin E and zinc doses to improved seminal plasma in shami male goat.

فيتامين هـ والزنك هما من العناصر الغذائية المهمة التي تؤثر على نوعية السائل المنوي وتقلل الجذور الحرة واثارها الضارة او فقر نوعية السائل المنوي. تسعة من الماعز الشامي بعمر متشابه 2.5 سنة وبوزن متقارب 37 كغم قسمت عشوائيا على ثلاثة مجاميع اعتبرت الأولى سيطرة ت1 والثانية ت2 أعطيت فيتامين ه 200 وحدة دولية/ حيوان / اسبوعيا – الأسبوع والثالثة ت3 أعطيت الزنك 75 ملغم / حيوان / اسبوعيا ولمدة 45 يوما حيث جمع السائل المنوي كل15 يوما اي في الايام (15و30و45), تم قياس مستوى انزيمات AST,ALT والفركتوز وكل من العناصر المعدنية Na+, k+, Zn في بلازما السائل المنوي و اظهرت النتائج وجود فروقات معنوية (أ <0,05) في المجموعتين الثانية والثالثة في قياسات انزيمات AST,ALT والفركتوزوفي مستوى الصوديوم والبوتاسيوم ظهرت فروقات معنوية بينما الزنك ازداد معنويا (أ <0,05).النتائج بينت ان فيتامين هـ والزنك حسنت البلازما المنوية لذكور الماعز الشامي.

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