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Article
Smoking as a Cause of Skin Aging
التدخين كعامل مسبب لشيخوخة الجلد

Authors: د. خليفة عبيد الشرقي --- د. جمال رشيد الراوي --- د. عباس فاضل الشمري
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2010 Volume: 23 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-3
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Article
Serotonin, Endorphin Concentrations and Some Hematological Parameters in Male Narghile Smokers
تراكيز السيروتونين والاندورفين وبعض المتغيرات الدموية لدى الرجال المدخنين للنرجيلة

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Abstract

This study was carried out to evaluate the relationship between narghile smoking and serum concentration of serotonin and endorphin and some blood hematological indices in males. Group of smokers composed of 50 voluntary, and control group composed of 36 healthy voluntary. This study was conducted on adults man that ages between (18-25 years). The markers measured in this study were serum serotonin and endorphin and hematological indices (platelets, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and white blood cells). This study showed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in levels of serum serotonin, endorphin and blood platelets, and a significant increase (P<0.05) in levels of in blood hematocrit and hemoglobin and a non-significant increase of white blood cells (P>0.05) in smokers as compared with healthy persons.

تم اجراء هذه الدراسةِ لتَقييم تأثير تدخين النرجيلة على مستوى السيروتونين والاندورفين وبعض المتغيرات الدموية للرجال. مجموعة المدخنين متكوّنة من 50 متطوع مدخن،ومجموعة قياسية متكوّنة من 36 متطوع سليم. تم اجراء هذه الدراسة على الرجال الذين تتراوح اعمارهم بين (18-25 سنة). في هذه الدراسة تم قياس تركيز السيروتونين والاندورفين وكذلك قياس المتغيرات الدموية (الصفيحات الدموية، اللزوجة ، الهيموغلوبين، وعدد خلايا الدم البيض).بينت هذه الدراسة عن وجود نقصان ملحوظ ( (P<0.05 في تركيز السيروتونين والاندورفين وعدد الصفيحات الدموية وزيادة ملحوظة ( (P<0.05 في نسبة لزوجة الدم وتركيز الهيموغلوبين بينما هنالك زيادة غير ملحوظة ((P>0.05 في عدد خلايا الدم البيض في المدخنين مقارنة بالاصحاء.

Keywords

: Serotonin --- Endorphin --- Narghile --- Smokers


Article
Awareness of hookah smokers regarding its harmfulness among attendee of cafés in Erbil city
توعية مدخني الشيشة بمدى ضررها في حضور المقاهي في مدينة أربيل

Authors: Sangar Muhammad Ahmed --- Nazar Ali Doski
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2016 Volume: 20 Issue: 2 Pages: 1361-1367
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Hookahs are water pipes that are used to smoke specially made tobacco that comes in different flavors. Hookah has many of the same health risks as cigarette smoking. This study aimed to assess the awareness of hookah smokers about its harmfulness and identify the reasons for smoking hookah. Methods: This study was conducted in all venues of cafes and restaurants located geographically in Erbil city during the period from June 27th, 2014 to February 4th, 2015. A questionnaire was used to obtain the smoking pattern, awareness and perceptions of 325 male peoples towards the harmfulness of smoking. Direct interview was used for data collection.Results: A total number of 325 male people participated in this study. Their age ranged from 18-25 years. Most of them were singles, from urban areas and preferred to smoke in café (61.8%). More than one person was using the same hookah. The average duration of smoking was more than 46 minutes. Around half of the participants (49.5 %) were smoking hookah with friends as a group activity and 35.1% had a headache and dizziness during smoking hookah. The overall awareness about the harmfulness of smoking the hookah was poor (56%). Conclusion: The overall awareness about harmful of smoking hookah was poor among attendees of cafes

Keywords

Awareness --- Hookah --- Smokers --- Erbi


Article
Periodontal health status and salivary enzymes level in smokers and non-smokers (comparative, cross sectional study)

Authors: Ban Karem --- Leka'a M. Ibrahim
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 3 Pages: 91-96
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: Smoking is considering a major risk factor for development and progression of periodontal disease.Investigations regarding the association between smoking and periodontal disease have consistently demonstratednegative periodontal effects and greater probabilities of established periodontal disease among smokers incomparison with non smokers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of smoking on periodontalhealth status and on the salivary levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatinekinase (CK), and to correlate the clinical parameters of periodontal health with the biochemical findings in smokersand non-smokers.Materials and methods: Unstimulated saliva sample was collected from 25 smokers and 25 non-smokers forbiochemical analysis of salivary enzymes. Periodontal parameters including: plaque index, gingival index, bleedingon probing, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level were recorded.Results: statistical analysis revealed that ALP in saliva was significantly higher in smoker than the non smoker groupand there was a highly significant difference in the salivary LDH and CK levels between smokers and non-smokersgroups. Plaque index (PLI), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) were higher in smokerscompared with non smokers, while there was decrease in the number of bleeding sites.Conclusions: smokers group revealed more periodontal tissue destruction than non-smokers group represented bydeeper pockets and more clinical attachment level. Salivary enzymes (ALP, LDH and CK) are considered as goodbiochemical markers of periodontal tissue destruction and can be used to evaluate the effect of smoking onperiodontal health status


Article
Correlation between Periodontal Health Status and Salivary Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Levels in Smoker and Non-Smoker Chronic Periodontitis Patients (A Comparative Study)

Authors: Sura D. Jassim سرى جاسم --- Lekaa M. Ibrahim لقاء ابراهيم
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2016 Volume: 28 Issue: 4 Pages: 128-133
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Periodontal diseases are inflammatory diseases affecting the supporting tissues of the teeth. One of the leading environmental factors that are closely related not only to the risk but also to the prognosis of periodontitis is smoking. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of smoking on periodontal health status and to measure the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in smokers and nonsmokers chronic periodontitis patients, also it aimed to test the correlation between the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and the clinical periodontal parameters.Materials and Methods: Five milliliters samples of un-stimulated whole saliva and full-mouth clinical periodontal recordings (plaque index, gingival index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level) were obtained from forty patients of two groups (non smokers with chronic periodontitis and smokers with chronic periodontitis). All subjects were systemically healthy males, with age range (35-50) years. Salivary matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels were analyzed by using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assays.Results: Statistical analysis revealed that probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level were higher in smokers than non smokers, while there were decreases in the numbers of bleeding sites in smoker when compared with non smoker subjects. Salivary matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels were significantly higher in smoker with chronic periodontitis patients than their non smoker counterparts.Conclusion: Salivary matrix metalloproteinase-9, as a biomarker, could reflect the increased periodontal tissue destruction due to the smoking


Article
Patients with asthma and smokers: study compared bacteriological
مرضى الربو والمدخنين: دراسة بكتريولوجية مقارنة

Author: adna neama abdal-rada عدنان نعمه عبد الرضا
Journal: Diyala Journal For Pure Science مجلة ديالى للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 83732222 25189255 Year: 2012 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 33-41
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

The study includes isolation and identification of bacteria from sputum of three groups :the first (85 patients with asthma) ; the second (85 smokers) and the third (50 persons Healthy in appearance); a control group for the period from 1/1/2008 to 1/1/2009 in Baquba Hospital . The results show that Streptococcus pneumonia bacteria are dominant in the first and second groups with ratio %32.9 in comparison with the healthy group% 8 and Streptococcus viridians bacteria which presents %30 in the same group. The bacterial isolations differ in their sensitivity and resistance to some antibiotics; it was found that most of them were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin and Augmentin and resistant toAmpicillin Gentamycin.

تضمنت الدراسة عزل وتشخيص البكتريا في قشع ثلاثة مجاميع ,الاولى (85مرضيا مصابا بالربو ) والثانية(85مدخننا ) والثالثة (50شخصا من الاصحاء ظاهريا ) كمجموعة سيطرة,للفترة الممتدة بين 1/1/ 2008 لغاية 1 /1/ 2009 في مستشفى بعقوبة التعليمي. تشير النتائج الى ان بكتريا Streptococcus pneumonia هي السائدة في المجموعة الأولى والثانية وبنسبة 32,9%, مقارنة بمجموعة الاصحاء والبالغة 8% وتمثيل بكتريا Streptococcus viridians نسبة30% في نفس المجموعة,تباينت العزلات البكتيرية في حساسيتها ومقاومتها اتجاه بعض مضادات الحياة , وجد ان اغلبها حساسا أتجاه المضاد Ciprofloxacinو Augmentinو مقاوما أتجاه Ampicillinو Gentamycin.


Article
Serum uric acid in smokers

Authors: Bassam E Hanna بسام --- Luma M Tohala لمى توحلة --- Jamal M Hamed جمال
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy المجلة العراقية للصيدلة ISSN: 16802594 / EISSN 22642522 Year: 2010 Volume: 9 & 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 36-43
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Objectives: To demonstrate the possible effect of smoking on serum uric acid level. Methods: The study was conducted during the period from March to June 2008 in Mosul city as a case control study. Participants: Subjects enrolled in this study were divided into two groups; nonsmokers and smokers composed of 47 and 40 apparently healthy male volunteers respectively with the same dietary habit, no pastmedical history of diabetes mellitus , hyperuricemia and gout , renal, lung or heart diseases or drug history affecting uric acid level. Smoker group is subdivided into heavy , moderate and mild smokers. Fasting blood and random urine samples were obtained from both groups for measurement of uric acid and creatinine. Calculation of both urine uric acid/urine creatinine ratio and fraction excretion of uric acid were done.Results: No significant differences in the age , serum creatinine , spot urine uric acid/urine creatinine ratio and fraction excretion of uric acid between two groups where as serum uric acid was significantly lower in smokers. In smokers there are significant negative correlations of the average number of cigarette smoked/day and the duration of smoking with serum uric acid level. Heavy , moderate and mild smokers showed no significant differences in the age , urine uric acid/urine creatinine ratio , fraction excretion of uric acid , serum creatinine and serum uric acid except a significant lower serum uric acid value in the heavy smoker compared with moderate and mild smokers .Conclusion: The significant low serum uric acid level in smokers is due to the reduction of endogenous production as a result of chronic exposure to cigarette smoke that is a significant source of oxidative stress and as this reduction is proportionate with the duration and number of cigarette smoked/day and as low uric acid predispose to cardiovascular diseases as proved by other studies, therefore, its recommended for smokers to stop or reduce smoking with the use of serum uric acid as a routine test for follow-up as it is inexpensive , simple to reflect antioxidant level.

أهداف البحث: لعَرْض التأثيرِ المحتملِ للتدخين على مستوى الحامض البوليِ في مصل الدم.الطرق:-أجريت الدراسة في الفترةِ مِنْ آذار ولغاية حزيران من عام 2008 في مدينه الموصل بطريقة مقارنة الحالات ألمرضيه مع ألمجموعة الضابطة.المشاركون: قسم المشاركون في البحث إلى مجموعتين: غير مدخنين ومدخنين تتكون من 47 و 40 على التوالي مِن الذكور المتبرعين الأصحاء بنفس النمط الغذائي وبدون تاريخ مرضي سابق لداء السكري, ارتفاع مستوى الحامض البولي أو داء الملوك, أمراض الكلى, الرئة أو القلب أو تاريخ دوائي يوثر على مستوى الحامضِ البوليِ. مجموعة المدخنين قسمت بدورها إلى شديدي , معتدلي و لطيفي التدخين . من كلتا المجموعتين تم استحصال عينات دم في حالة الصوم وعينات عشوائية للإدرار لقياس تركيز الحامض البولي والكرياتنين . تم حساب نسبة الحامض البولي /الكرياتينين في الإدرار وطرحِ كسرِ الحامضِ البولي . النَتائِج: عدم وجود اختلافات معنوية في العُمر , كرياتينين مصل الدم, نسبة الحامض البولي /الكرياتينين في الإدرار وطرحِ كسرِ الحامضِ البولي بين المجموعتينِ بينما هنالك انخفاضا معنويا في تركيز الحامض البوليِ في مصل الدم في المدخنين. في المدخنين هنالك ارتباط سلبي معنوي بين العدد المتوسط للسجائر المدخنة / يوم ومدّة التدخين وبين تركيز الحامض البوليِ في مصل الدم. أظهر شديدي , معتدلي و لطيفي التدخين عدم وجود اختلافات معنوية في العُمر , نسبه الحامض البولي /الكرياتينين في الإدرار, طرحِ كسرِ الحامضِ البولي , كرياتينين مصل الدم و تركيز الحامض البوليِ في مصل الدم باستثناء وجود انخفاضا معنويا في تركيز الحامض البوليِ في مصل الدم لشديدي التدخين مقارنة بمعتدلي و لطيفي التدخين. الاستنتاجات :- إن سبب المستوى المنخفض للحامض البوليِ في مصل الدم في المدخنين يعود لانخفاض الإنتاجِ الذاتيِ كنتيجة للتعرّضِ المُزمنِ إلى دخانِ السيجارةِ الذي هو مصدرُ هامُّ لإجهاد الاكسدة ولكون هذا الانخفاض متكافئُ مع مدة وعدد السيكائر باليوم و يُهيّئُ للإصابة بأمراض الأوعية القلبيةِ كما أثبتته الدراسات الأخرى، لذا ما يوصّى به للمدخنين للتَوَقُّف أَو تَخفيض التدخين وإستعمالِ قياسِ الحامض البولي لمصل الدم كاختبار روتيني للمتابعة كونه بسيط و رخيص لعَكْس مستوى مانعِ التأكسد.


Article
Early detection of periodontitis among young adult cigarette smokers and non-smokers using cone beam computed tomography

Authors: Maisam A. Kadhem ميسم كاظم --- Basima GH. Ali باسمه علي --- Shifa H. Al-Naimi شفاء النعيمي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2014 Volume: 26 Issue: 2 Pages: 116-121
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease that affects the supporting tissues of the teeth; Smoking is animportant risk factor for periodontitis induces alveolar bone loss and cause an imbalance between bone resorptionand bone deposition. The purpose of this study is to detect and compare the presence of incipient periodontitisamong young smokers and non-smokers by measuring the distance between cement-enamel junction and alveolarcrest (CEJ-Ac) using Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT).Material and methods: The total sample composed of fifty two participants, thirty one smokers and twenty one nonsmokers(age range 14-22 years). Periodontal parameters: plaque index (PLI), gingival index (GI) were recorded forall teeth except the third molar while the radiographic analysis using CBCT was recorded on the Ramfjord teeth, theunit of measurement was from cement-enamel junction to alveolar crest distance (CEJ-Ac distance) per site inmillimeters.Results: The results obtained were a non significant difference for PLI, a significant difference of mean of GI betweenyoung smokers and non smokers. There was a highly significant difference in the general mean of CEJ-Ac distancebetween both groups. There was a significant difference between maxillary and mandibular teeth, a non significantdifference between right and left sides among young smokers and non smokers.Conclusion: The CBCT device plays an important role in detection the incipient form of periodontitis among youngsmokers and non-smokers, so we concluded that there is a highly significant difference in the general mean CEJ-Acdistance between young smokers and non smokers with increase distance in the maxillary teeth than that in themandibular teeth


Article
Prospective Study of Upper Gastro Intestinal Tract Endoscopy Finding and its Relation to Smoking in Baquba Teaching Hospital
دراسة مستقبلية حول منظار القناة المعدية المعوية العليا وعلاقتها مع التدخين في مستشفى بعقوبة التعليمي

Authors: Shukr Mahmood Yaseen ا.م. شكر محمود ياسين --- Shahad Kareem Ahmed شهد كريم أحمد
Journal: Diyala Journal of Medicine مجلة ديالى الطبية ISSN: 97642219 Year: 2015 Volume: 8 Issue: 2 Pages: 46-54
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

Background: The associations of smoking with endoscopic finding abnormalities were established especially in peptic ulcer that found of clear relation between smoking and peptic ulcer. Objective: The aims of this study were to understand the relation and association of ulcers with smoking, in addition to disorders finding like inflammations (esophagitis, doudenitis, gastritis), cancer and other cases .Patients and Methods: This study comprised of 1231 out patients admitted to Baquba teaching hospital in endoscopic finding unit of Baquba city-Iraq during the period between January 2014 to January 2015, 643 patients were males and 588 were females, ranging in age from 7 to 87 years, According to smoking habits, the patients were divided into three categories: non-smokers, current smokers, ex-smokers. The diagnostic endoscopic findings were concentrated only of the disorders lesions in GIT of ulcerations, inflammations, cancers, and other cases. In addition to normal findings who were established endoscopy without diagnoses of disorders. Results: The result showed increased of percentage (31.6%) of duodenal ulcer in male smokers and Gastritis in female (25.8%) of smokers. The frequency of duodenal, gastric ulcers and gastric cancer that showed high level in smoker's male ulcer and non-smokers female ulcer compared with another disorders value of smokers, non- smokers and ex-smokers. Duodenitis, gastritis, esophagitis was high percentage in female non- smokers recorded (p<0.05) between smokers with non-smokers. Gastric cancer showed high percentage in male smokers (n=7) and female non- smokers (n=7) recorded (p<0.05) between smokers with ex-smokers and non- smokers. Other cases, showed high percentage (n=69) in non-smokersConclusion: Significance relationships between smoking with ulcer and gastritis, especially by duodenal ulcer in male smokers and gastritis in female smokers, the reasons is effecting of smoking.

خلفية الدراسة: ارتباط التدخين مع تشوهات خاصة في القرحة الهضمية باستخدام المناظير كشفت عن وجود علاقة واضحة بين التدخين والقرحة الهضمية.الهدف من الدراسة: لفهم العلاقة بين القرحة و التدخين، بالإضافة إلى اضطرابات الجهاز الهضمي (كالتهاب المريء، التهاب الاثنى عشر و التهاب المعدة) والسرطان وحالات أخرى. المرضى وطرائق العمل: شملت الدراسة الحالية من 1231 من المرضى الذين تم إدخالهم إلى المستشفى بعقوبة التعليمي - وحدة المنظار - مدينة بعقوبة - العراق ,خلال الفترة ما بين كانون الثاني 2014 إلى كانون الثاني 2015، 643 مريضا كانو من الذكور و 588 من الإناث، تتراوح أعمارهم من 7 - 87 سنة ، وفقا لعادات التدخين، تم تقسيم المرضى إلى ثلاث فئات: غير المدخنين، المدخنين الحاليين، والمدخنين السابقين. وتم التشخيص باعتماد المنظار, من اضطرابات في الجهاز الهضمي من تقرحات، والتهابات وأمراض السرطان، وغيرها من الحالات. بالإضافة إلى الحالات العادية التيلم يكشفالتنظير عن وجود اضطرابات.النتائج: اوضحت النتائج ارتفاع في معدلات عدد المصابين بالقرحة خاصة قرحة الاثني عشر (31.6٪) لدى المدخنين من الذكور والإناث غير المدخنات وارتفاع في نسبة التهاب المعدة (25.8٪) من المدخنين. كشفت الدراسة الحالية ان التهاب الاثني عشر، وقرحة المعدة وسرطان المعدة كانت بمستوى عال في الذكور المدخنين و الاناث غير المدخنات مقارنة مع الحالات الأخرى.بخصوص التهابات الاثنى عشر والتهاب المرئ والمعدة ضمن مجموعة الدراسة (غير المدخنين, المدخنين الحاليين والمدخنين السابقين). نسبة عالية سجلت لدى المدخنين الذكور وغير المسجلة للإناث وبفرق ذو دلالة احصائية ,وبين المدخنين مع غير المدخنين. أظهر سرطان المعدة نسبة عالية لدى المدخنين الذكور (7) والإناث غير المدخنات (7) و بين المدخنين مع المدخنين السابقين وغير المدخنين. حالات أخرى، أظهرت نسبة عالية (69) في غير المدخنينالاستنتاجات: علاقة ذو دلالة احصائية وجدت بين التدخين مع القرحة , والتهاب المعدة ولاسيما من جانب قرحة الاثني عشر لدى المدخنين من الذكور والتهاب المعدة في المدخنات، والأسباب هو ممارسة التدخين


Article
Uses of periodontal status for assessment of alveolar bone loss by clinical and radiographic analysis in smokers and non smokers

Authors: Mona Alsafi منى الصافي --- Ra'ed M. A. Al- Delayme رائد الدليمي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 4 Pages: 100-102
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The measurement was done by liner measurement from CEJ to AC by choosing the virnia. Theradiographic land marks the CEJ and AC mere identified. CEJ can be defined as the bounder between the enameland the cementum of root. The study were carried on in Oral Surgery and Radiology department in dentistry schoolof Alyarmouk University CollegeMaterial and Methods: Forty patients with in20-24 years of age were selected for this study that attended to Surgeryand Radiology department in dentistry school of Alyarmouk University CollegeResults: The plaque index: in group 1 (the smokers) in both plaque index 1.023 + 0.308 GI = 1.004 +0.091. Comparedwith group 2 (nonsmokers) = 1.264 +2.407 in PI and GI = 1.023 +1.445.Conclusions: Dental Plaque, Gingival Index, Bleeding on Probing and Probing Pocket Depth was highly elevated insmokers group compared with non- smokers group

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