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Article
Effect of Smoking during Pregnancy on Birth Weight, Placental Weight, and Time of Third Stage of Labor

Author: Tariq A. Al‑Shemmeri
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2018 Volume: 15 Issue: 4 Pages: 381-384
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Background: Cigarette smoking of the mother during pregnancy is a well‑known cause associated with adverse reproductive outcomes, includingincrease in the incidence of placenta previa, abruption‑placentae, and double the risk of infant mortality from all causes. Objective: This studyaims to demonstrate the effect of smoking, whether active or passive, on the newborn body weight, placental weight, and the time of the thirdstage of labor. Materials and Methods: This prospective study involves sixty patients, their ages range between 20 and 32 years, all of themunderwent vaginal deliveries, and the lowest accepted packed cell volume (PCV) was 32%. The participants were classified into four groups:active smokers, passive smokers, mixed smokers, and the rest who are nonsmokers, representing the control group. The following data werecollected from every: age, gravidity and parity, and number of cigarettes per day, and for each female, the newborn body weight, placentalweight, the time of the third stage of labor, and PCV of the mother were estimated. Results: Among these sixty patients who involved in thestudy, 3% were active smokers, 31% were passive smokers, 27% were mixed smokers, and 39% were nonsmokers; the mean newborn bodyweight of nonsmokers (control group) was 3252 g; active smokers, 2430 g; passive smokers, 2819 g; and mixed smokers, 2407 g. The meanplacental weight in nonsmokers was 527 g; active smokers, 640 g; passive smokers, 551 g; and mixed smokers, 599 g. The time of the third stageof labor in nonsmokers was 6.9 min; active smokers, 12 min; passive smokers, 5.8 min; and mixed smokers, 6.6 min. Conclusions: Cigarettesmoking by pregnant women leads to a low birth weight and larger placenta and may interfere with the time of the third stage of labor.


Article
Smoking and its relation to caries experience and salivary lactobacilli count

Author: Athra M. Al-Weheb عذراء الوهب
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2005 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 92-95
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Smoking has many harmful effects on the body. The aim of this studyis to investigate the effect of cigarettes smoking on count of lactobacilli ,the dental caries, and salivary factors.Subjects and Methods: 15 male smokers and 15 male non-smokers aged(24-29) years were chosen from post graduate students in College of Dentistry, they were interviewed about smoking behavior.Stimulated salivary sample was analyzed for lactobacilli count ,salivary flow rate and salivary pH was determined.Results: Measurment of dental caries was expressed by DMFT/DMFS.Results There was a significant relation between lactobacilli and DMFT/DMFS in smokers group with no significant differences concerning salivary flow rate and salivary pH between the two groups .Conclusion: Long term use of tobacco smoking affect the dental caries but not the salivary flow rate or salivary pH


Article
Semen Quality of Infertile Couples--Comparison Between Smokers and Non-Smokers

Author: Ammar Fadil Abid
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2010 Volume: 9 Issue: 3 Pages: 293-296
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:The effect of cigarette smoking on spermatogenesis is unclear. Previous studies suggest a deleterious effect of cigarette smoking on semen on semen quality ,but their results have not been consistent.OBJECTIVE:To compare the various semen parameters of infertile cigarette smokers with infertile non-smokers, to study the effect of cigarette smoking on semen quality.METHODS:Semen samples of 66 cigarette smokers and 70 non-smokers infertile patients were included in the study. As far as possible; other factors which might influence semen quality were eliminated. Seminal parameters, when taken together, indicated the presence or absence of the three main semen variables: asthenospermia (A), oligospermia (O), and normospermia (N). Smokers were categorized as light, moderate and heavy smokers. Semen samples were examined for Asthenospermia and oligospermia, according to World Health Organization guidelines.RESULTS:In our study, 25 non-smokers had normospermia (N) with their semen parameters falling within the normal ranges. In contrast, samples from 16 smokers qualified as N. This finding underscores the fact that smoking certainly has an adverse influence on the semen quality, as concluded in several other studies.Asthenospermia (A) was the most dominant semen variable contributing to the semen quality of smokers (n = 34) as well as non-smokers (n = 31). Statistical analysis using Pearson chi-squared and t-test found no statistically significant effect of cigarette smoking on sperm density; motility or morphologic features of sperm were detected.CONCLUSION:Our study shows a limited effect of smoking on conventional sperm parameters.


Article
Lung Diffusing Capacity for Carbon Monoxide (DLco-SB): the Influence of Cigarette Smoking

Author: Najeeb Hassan Mohammed
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2010 Volume: 9 Issue: 3 Pages: 328-334
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Most tests of lung function used in the evaluation and follow-up of the pulmonary effect of smoking reflect airway function alone such as standard spirometry. Whereas, the best established test that reflect alveolar function is the single-breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLco-SB) especially when this is expressed per liter of alveolar volume (DLco/VA). Accordingly, to study the effect of smoking on both airway and alveolar functions, it is necessary to use DLco/VA test in addition to standard spirometry.OBJECTIVE:The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of cigarette smoking on lung diffusion, to correlate the effect of cigarette smoking and smoking cessation on lung diffusion and to find out whether the effect of cigarette smoking on lung diffusion is reversible.SUBJECTS AND METHODS:The effect of cigarette smoking on spirometric indicators of ventilatory function (FVC, FEV1%, PEFR) and on lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco-SB/VA) was evaluated on two occasions 6 months apart in 94 middle-aged, asymptomatic, male subjects, 56 smokers and 38 nonsmokers.RESULTS:All subjects were within the normal predicted spirometric and lung diffusion values (80-120%). The values of FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC% and PEFR averaged more than 94% in never smokers (n = 38, mean age 43.57 years), 85% predicted in smokers (n = 56, mean age 42.54 years). However, the mean rate of decrease in spirometric and lung diffusion values (DLco/VA) between smoker and non-smokers were significant (p<0.05). fourteen subjects (14) who initially were smokers became sustained ex-smokers within six months of the first measurement, however, comparing the mean values of these parameters between the two groups reveals statistically significant differences (p<0.05); since that the values of DLco and DLco/VA in ex-smokers were significantly greater than those of current smokers and approached the values of those who had never smoked. In ex-smokers the mean values of DLco/VA rose, averaging 90% predicted at the first assessment but 97% predicted six months later.CONCLUSION:The values of FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC%, PEFR and Lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco/VA) were lower in smokers than in never smokers. Ex-smokers had spirometric and lung diffusion values similar to those of never smokers even when spirometric values and DLco/VA were known to have been reduced while they were smoking.

Keywords

dLco-SB --- spirometry --- smoking


Article
Association between Facial Skin Tumors and Wrinkling
العلاقة بين سرطان جلد الوجه وتجعداته

Authors: Khalifa E. Sharquie د خليفة عبيد الشرقي --- Jamal R. Al-Rawi د جمال رشيد الراوي --- Anwar S. Al-Rawi د. انوار ساجد الراوي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2009 Volume: 22 Issue: 3 Pages: 147-151
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: There are many risk factors that accentuate wrinkling like age, sex, occupation and smoking. From our clinical observation we noticed that, patient with skin malignancy are less liable to wrinkling.Objectives: To test the assumption whether skin wrinkling is protective against skin cancer or not? Patients & Methods: A case-control study was conducted in Department of Dermatology and Venereology in Baghdad teaching hospital in period from April 2002 through March 2003 on 54 patients with various skin tumors, and 108 patients as a control group, Socio-demographic information and full dermatological examination was done. Facial wrinkles were examined and measured according to wrinkles score in the group. Then we simplify these score into: superficial, (I, II), medium (III, IV) and deep wrinkles (V, VI). Result: The frequency of skin tumors were as follow; basal cell carcinoma (74.07%), squamous cell carcinoma (11.11%), baso-squamous cell carcinoma, (5.5%) kerato-acanthoma (5.5%) and solar keratosis (3.7%). The commonest age group affected by skin tumors were from 50-79 years and the commonest skin type in cases and controls were skin type III (P>0.05). All skin tumors were more common in males than females (P>0.05). Outdoor activity was more in patients with tumor, while control group had nearly equal outdoor and indoor activity (P<0.05).Patients with superficial wrinkles more commonly affected with skin tumors than those with deep wrinkles, while comparison group had more medium and deep wrinkles. So whenever there was increase in severity of wrinkle, there was decrease in frequency of malignancy. Conclusion: The present work had confirmed a negative association between wrinkling score and the frequency of skin tumors. Smoking might indirectly protect against basal cell carcinoma. Key words: Facial wrinkling, tumors, smoking.

Keywords

Facial wrinkling --- tumors --- smoking.


Article
Comparison of the Hemodynamic & Respiratory Parameters between Smokers & Non Smokers in Lower Abdominal Surgery Under General Anesthesia

Authors: Iyad Abbas Salman --- Musrey Younis Jahn
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2013 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 202-207
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Smoking is a very widespread habit , it had been proved to affect adversely on many systems of the body especially the cardiovascular (CVS) & the respiratory system, and such effects wouldbe exaggerated perioperatively because of the effect of general anesthesia (GA) especially whenthere is no any period of abstinence from smoking (as when occurred during emergencyprocedures).OBJECTIVE: To assess the hemodynamic & respiratory effects of smoking perioperatively in patientsundergoing emergency lower abdominal operations. PATIENT AND METHODS: A prospective case control study carried on 80 patients in Baghdad teaching hospital/Medicalcity / Baghdad / Iraq, from September 2011 to March 2012, the 80 patients have been allocatedinto 2 groups, (each of 40 patients): group 1 who were non smoker patients, & group 2 thesmoker patients. The 2 groups were undergone emergency lower abdominal surgery under GA, all the patientsreceived similar pre. & intraoperative managements. Pulse rate (PR), systolic blood pressure(BPsys), diastolic blood pressure (BPdias),oxygene saturation (SPO2), and airway pressure(Paw) were monitored with the standard non invasive technique, at the baseline period(preoperative); immediate postintubation; 10, 20, 30, & 40 minutes intraoperatively; immediatepostextubation; & 10 minutes in the recovery period.RESULTS: Regarding the pulse rate, there were no statistically significant variations between the 2 groupsapart from the immediate postextubation period (105 ± 6.95 in smokers vs 100.3 ± 8.3 in nonsmokersRegarding the systolic blood pressure, there was statistically significant increase in the systolicBP especially at the immediate postintubation period in smoker patientsRegarding the diastolic BP, apart from the immediate postextubation period ,there wassignificant increase in the diastolic BP between the 2 groups especially at the immediatepostintubation Regarding the SPO2%, there were no statistically significant reduction in the SPO2 readingsbetween the 2 groups apart from the intraoperative period Regarding the P airway , there were no significant increase in the P airway perioperativelybetween the 2 groups CONCLUSION: There were statistically significant CVS derangements in the smoker group versus the nonsmokers especially around intubation period.

Keywords

smoking --- hemodynamic --- respiratory


Article
Association between smoking and facial wrinkling in relation with age and sex

Authors: Khalifa E. Sharquie --- Jamal R. Al-Rawi --- Maqsood M. aljumaily
Journal: Tikret Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الصيدلانية ISSN: 18172716 Year: 2013 Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Pages: 195-203
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

There are many risk factors that accentuate wrinkling like age, sex, occupation. Smoking is a preventable risk factor of facial wrinkles formation. To test the assumption whether skin wrinkling is significantly associated with age, sex and smoking or not? A cross-sectional study was conducted in Department of Dermatology and Venereology in Baghdad teaching hospital in period from April 2011 through March 2012 on (106) respondents, Socio-demographic information and full dermatological examination was done. Facial wrinkles were examined and measured according to wrinkles score in the group. Then we simplify these score into: superficial, (I, II), medium (III, IV) and deep wrinkles (V, VI). Smoking habit was more frequent in males than females which was ststistically highly significant (P=0.001). Middle and deep wrinkles are more frequent among males while shallow wrinkles are more among females which was highly significant (P<0.001). Shallow wrinkles only appeared in second and third decades of life while middle and deep wrinkles been more frequent in forth decade of life and above which also highly significant (P<0.001). Shallow wrinkles are mostly among non smokers while middle and deep wrinkles more among smokers and ex-smokers (P<0.001). The present work had confirmed a positive association between wrinkling score and the frequency of smoking habit.

Keywords

Facial wrinkling --- smoking


Article
The Effect of Smoking on the Diagnosis of Breast Lump
تاثير التدخين على تشخيص عقدة الثدي

Author: Ameer Salah Tawfeeq
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2014 Volume: 11 Issue: 2 Pages: 395-398
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Background: It has been well-known that smoking is a risk factor for a variety of cancers in humans eg. Lung, stomach and urinary bladder cancers. Till now there has been no clear association between smoking and breast cancer. There is a well-established relationship between smoking and duct ectasia/ periductal mastitis. The presented study tries to spot the light on how smokers differ from nonsmokers regarding the diagnosis of breast lumps and the relative percentage of each diagnosis.Methods: A random sample of 114 patients with breast lumps (half of which were smokers and the other half non- smokers) had been studied prospectively and the diagnosis made by "triple assessment", when necessary excisional biopsy, then the diagnosis difference between the smoker and the nonsmoker group had been studied. The smokers had been smoking one packer or more each day. Results: All of the patients were females with age between 13 and 70 years (mean age 41). The diagnosis of the lumps in the smokers sample was as follows: fibroadenoma 20(35%), fibrocystic disease 16(28%), breast abscess 7(12.3%), carcinoma 7(12.3%), duct ectasia/ periductal mastitis 4(7%), galactocoele 3(5.3%), total number of patients 57. The diagnosis of the lumps in the non-smokers sample was as follows: fibroadenoma 18(31.6%), fibrocystic disease 16(28%), breast abscess 8(14%), duct ectasia/ periductal mastitis 6(10.5%), galactocoele 4(7%), carcinoma 2(3.5%), Pyllodes 1(1.8%), nonhodgkin lymphoma 1(1.8%), lipoma 1(1.8%), total number of patients 57.Conclusion: Reviewing the diagnosis of breast lumps in smokers and nonsmokers reveals two important facts: a significantly higher incidence of breast cancer has been found in the smokers. Another unexpected finding was that duct ectasia/ periductal mastitis was more common in the nonsmoker sample.

المقدمة:من المعروف ان التدخين من مسببات العديد من السرطانات في الانسان مثل: سرطان الرئة والمعدة والمثانة. لكن الى وقتنا هذا لم يثبت ان هناك علاقة واضحة بين التدخين وسرطان الثدي.من ناحية اخرى هناك علاقة معروفة بين التدخين ومرض توسع قنوات الحليب. البحث المقدم يسلط الضوء على كيفية اختلاف تشخيص عقدة الثدي بين المدخنات وغير المدخنات.الاسلوب: تم اخذ عينة عشوائية مكونة من 114 مريضة ولديهن عقدة الثدي( نصف المريضات من المدخنات والنصف الاخر من غير المدخنات) وتم دراستهن مستقبليا والوصول الى التشخيص عن طريق "التقييم الثلاثي " وعند الحاجة اخذ عينة استئصالية للورم. كما وقد تمت دراسة الفرق في نسب التشخيص بين المدخنات وغير المدخنات .النتائج: جميع المرضى كانوا من النساء وتراوحت الاعمار مابين 13 و 70 سنة ( معدل العمر41).نسب تشخيص الاورام في المدخنات كان بالشكل التالي: الورم الليفي 20(35%), تكيس الثدي الليفي 16(28%) , خراج الثدي 7(12,3%) , سرطان الثدي 7(12,3%) , توسع قنوات الحليب 4(7%) , اكياس الحليب 3(5,3%) العدد الكلي كان 57.نسب تشخيص الاورام في غير المدخنات كان بالشكل التالي: الورم الليفي 18(31,6%) , تكيس الثدي الليفي 16(28%) , خراج الثدي 8(14%) , سرطان الثدي 2(3,5%) , توسع قنوات الحليب 6(10,5%) , اكياس الحليب 4(7%) ,اورام فلوديس 1(1,8%), اورام الثدي اللمفاوية نونهوجكن1(1,8%) ,اورام شحمية 1(1,8%) العدد الكلي كان 57.الاستنتاج: عند مراجعة تشخيص اورام الئدي في المدخنات وغير المدخنات تم ملاحضة امران: زيادة ملحوضة في سرطان الثدي لدى المدخنات. الامر الاخر غير المتوقع هو ان توسع قنوات الثدي كان اكثر لدى غير المدخنات.

Keywords

Smoking --- Breast Lump


Article
Estimation of Serum Malondialdehyde and Uric acid levels in Smokers and non-Smokers
تقدير مستوى المالوندايالديهايد وحامض اليوريك في مصل دم المدخنين وغير المدخنين

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Abstract

Malondialdehyde (MDA) is one of many low molecular weight end-products of lipid peroxidation; it is as an index of lipid peroxidation. Uric acid is one of the endogenous oxidant-antioxidant paradoxes.The aim of this study is to evaluate the levels of serum MDAand uric acid insmokers and non smokers. This study was carried out from January to July 2012 on (30) smokers and (30) non smokers.Serum MDA level was measured spectrophotometrically using thiobarbituricacid method, whereas serum uric acid was measured using enzymatic colorimetric method.The results of the study revealed a significant increase (P<0.001) in uric acid value in smokers subjects compared to non smokers (6.54 ± 0.37 Vs 4.68 ± 0.22) respectively, while no significant difference (P>0.05)In MDA value was observed in smokers and non smokers subjects (2.227 ± 0.394 Vs 1.912 ± 0.32) respectively.

مالوندايالديهايد هو احد المركبات ذات الوزن الجزيئي الواطيء والناتج النهائي لعملية مافوق الاكسدة للدهون ويعتبر كدليل لاكسدة الدهون أما حامض اليوريك فانه يعمل بشكل متناقض كمؤكسد وكمضاد للأكسدة داخل خلايا الجسم. الهدف من البحث هو تقدير مالوندايالديهايد وحامض اليوريك في مصل دم المدخنين وغير المدخنين. تم أجراء البحث بين فترة كانون الثاني الى تموز 2012 على (30) من المدخنين و(30) غير المدخنين.وتم قياس مستوى مالوندايالديهايد في المصل بواسطة جهاز (spectrophotometer) بأستخدام طريقة (thiobarbituric acid) وقياس حامض اليوريك في مصل الدم بأستخدام الطريقة اللونية (colorimetric). أثبتت نتائج البحث على أن الزيادة في قيمة حامض اليوريك في المدخنين عالية معنوياً مقارنةً بغير المدخنين (6.54 ± 0.37 Vs 4.68 ± 0.22) على التوالي. وأما الزيادة في قيمة مالوندايالديهايد ليس معنوية في المدخنين مقارنةً بغير المدخنين (2.227 ± 0.394 Vs 1.912 ± 0.32) على التوالي.

Keywords

Smoking --- MDA --- Uric acid.


Article
The Effect of Cigarette and Water Pipe Smoking on Some of Blood Parameter
تأثير تدخين السكائر والنركيلة في بعض معايير الدم

Authors: Amal K. Abbas أمال خضير عباس --- Layla Fouad Ali ليلى فؤاد علي
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2015 Volume: 56 Issue: 3C Pages: 2537-2541
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Current study aimed to investigate the effect of cigarette and water pipe smoking on smoker immunity comparing to non smoker. Twenty blood samples were collected from smoker students and twenty blood samples from non smoker students from Baghdad university in 2014.The results showed that there was increase in W.B.Cs total count in smoker group comparing to non smoker in a significant differences P<0.05. The differential W.B.Cs count results shows that there are increase was neutrophiles and Monocytes while there is decrease in lymphocytes in smoker group comparing to non smokers in a significant differences P<0.05 .Also the results revealed that there is an increase in percentage of phagocytosis to Staphyllociccus aureus bacteria by phagocytic cells in smoker group comparing to non smoker group.

تهدف الدراسة الحالية إلى دراسة تأثير السجائر والنرجيلة على مناعة المدخنين مقارنة مع غير المدخنين. تم جمع عشرين عينة دم من طلاب مدخنين وعشرين عينة دم من طلاب غير مدخنين من جامعة بغداد في 2014. أضهرت النتائج أن هناك زيادة في مجموع عدد الكريات البيضاء في مجموعة المدخنين مقارنة مع غير المدخنين بفروق معنوية. كما بينت الدراسة أن هناك زيادة في عدد الخلايا العدلة و الخلايا وحيدة النواة في حين أن هناك انخفاض في عدد الخلايا اللمفاوية في المدخنين مقارنة مع غير المدخنين وبفروق معنوية. كما أظهرت النتائج أن هناك زيادة في النسبة المئوية في عملية البلعمة لبكتريا المكورات العنقودية من قبل الخلايا البلعمية في مجموعة المدخنين مقارنة مع غير المدخين وبفروق معنوية.

Keywords

cigarette --- smoking --- immunity.

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