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Article
The Effect of Long Term use of Glibenclamide on Serum and Urinary Sodium and Potassium Level in Type 2 DM Patients
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Author: Ali A. Ali علي عزيز علي
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences المجلة العراقية للعلوم الصيدلانية ISSN: 16833597 Year: 2010 Volume: 19 Issue: 1 Pages: 58-61
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Long-term use of sulfonylureas including chlorpropamide, is known to potentiate the antidiuretic action of arginine vasopressin (AVP), predisposing to hyponatremia.The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of long term use of glibenclamide on serum and urinary levels of sodium and potassium in Type 2 DM patients in Iraqi DM centers. Ninety eight patients with Type 2 DM who were maintained on different doses of glibenclamide for at least 1 year, attending the centre for Diabetes and Endocrinology in Al-Rusafa, Baghdad, were enrolled in the study, in addition to 15 normal healthy subjects. Patients were allocated into three groups according to the dose of glibenclamide that they received. Blood and urine samples were obtained for evaluation of sodium and potassium levels in these samples by flamephotometry. The results indicated that glibenclamide use resulted in significant elevation in serum levels of sodium and potassium compared to controls, while urinary excretion of these cations was not significantly changed. Stratification of patients according to the dose of glibenclamide revealed that this effect on sodium and potassium was not dose dependent. In conclusion, long term use of glibenclamide impairs normal values of Sodium and potassium independent of the administered dose.

ان دواء الكلوربروبامايد وهو من مجموعة السلفونيل يوريا يستخدم لعلاج مرضى السكري من النوع الثاني ( غير المعتمد على الانسولين) وهو معروف بتحفيزه لعمل الهرمون المضاد للبول والذي يسبب نقص الصوديوم و يعتقد ان هذا الدواء يعمل مباشرة على مستقبلات هرمون المضاد للبول. في هذا البحث نود دراسة تاثير دواء الكليبينكلامايد وهو من نفس مجموعة الكلوربروبامايد (أي السلفونيل يوريا)على تركيز الصوديوم والبوتاسيوم في الدم (المصل) وكذلك في البول المجموع خلال 24 ساعة في المرضى المصابين بداء السكري النوع الثاني وقد اجريت هذا الدراسة في شهر ايلول2008 ولغاية شهر كانون الثاني من عام2009 وقد شارك في هذه الدراسة 98 مريض خارجي من مركز الغدد الصم والسكري في الرصافة ببغداد بالتعاون مع الطبيب الاستشاري هناك و 15 شخص سليم وقد اخذت عينات من المصل والبول (البول المجموع خلال 24 ساعة في المنزل)وقد تم قياس تركيز الصوديوم والبوتاسيوم بواسطة جهاز قياس الالوان في اللهب واظهرت النتائج ان الكليبينكلامايد يؤثر بشكل ملحوظ على تركيز الصوديوم والبوتاسيوم في مصل الدم مقارنة مع المجموعة القياسية اما تاثيره على تركيز الصوديوم والبوتاسيم في البول المجموع خلال 24 ساعة لم يكن بشكل ملحوظ.

Keywords

Glibenclamide --- sodium --- potassium


Article
Influence of Sodium and Potassium Levels by Thyroid Hormones Disorder in Sera of Female Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases

Authors: Fatin F. Alkazaz --- Sura A.Alemami --- Mushtak abd hinadi Al taai
Journal: Al-Nahrain Journal of Science مجلة النهرين للعلوم ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461 Year: 2012 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 29-34
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Dysregulation of sodium and potassium has a characteristic role in the development of various cardiovascular disease. In the present study it sought to explore the sodium and potassium influenced by thyroid hormone disorders in sera of patients with cardiovascular disease. The study population consisted of 51 female patients with cardiovascular disease in combination with thyroid dysfunction. Thyroid function disorders were found to have hypothyroidism in 47%of patients and hyperthyroidism in 53%of patients. A significant increase in sodium and potassium concentrations were found in both patient groups. A positive significant correlation was observed between Na concentration and T4 level in sera of patients with hyperthyroidism while a significant negative correlation was found between Na concentration and TSH level in sera of patients with hypothyroidism.

إن عدم انتظام مستوى الصوديوم والبوتاسيوم في الدم له دور مميز في تطور عدد من الأمراض القلبية الوعائية, ولغرض إيضاح تأثر مستويات الصوديوم والبوتاسيوم بالتغيرات الهرمونية للدرقية في مصول دم المصابات بمرض القلب الوعائي, تم قياس مستوى هرمونات الدرقية (HSΤ,4Τ,3Τ) و تركيز الصوديوم والبوتاسيوم في مصول دم المصابات بمرض القلب الوعائي حيث تضمنت الدراسة الحالية جمع 51 عينة من المصابات بمرض القلب الوعائي ولديهن اضطرابات في هرمونات الدرقية ,وقد تبين ظهور قصور الدرقية في 47% من المرضى وفرط الدرقية في 53% من المرضى. أيضا توصلت الدراسة إلى وجود ارتفاع معنوي في مستويات الصوديوم والبوتاسيوم في مصول دم كلا المجموعتين مع وجود علاقة ايجابية معنوية بين مستوى 4Τ و الصوديوم في مصول دم المصابات بأمراض القلب الوعائي اللاتي لديهن فرط الدرقية في حين لوحظ أن العلاقة بين مستوى الصوديوم وTSH في مصول دم المصابات بأمراض القلب الوعائي اللاتي لديهن قصور الدرقية كانت سالبةمعنوية.


Article
STUDY OF SOME BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN URINE AND SERUM OF EXPERIMENTALLY- INDUCED UROLITHIASIS RABBITS BY SODIUM OXALATE

Author: Arwa , H.M.AL-Saeed اروى حميد السعيد
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: Print:18138497 E; 24108456 Year: 2013 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 47-54
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

The present study was undertaken to find the alteration in some urine and serum parameters of urolithiasis rabbits induced by sodium oxalate .Animals were divided into two groups six in each, first group animals received only normal saline (0.9%) as control group , while second group animals were treated with sodium oxalate (70 mg / Kg b.w intraperitoneal ) daily for 15 days as treatment group . The results of urine analysis indicated that increased urine specific gravity , protein level and leukocytes , while decreased pH in treatment group as compared with control group , also observed that hemolysis in urine but there was no significant difference (p> 0.05) in urine level of glucose , Ketones , nitrite , urobilinogen and bilirubin in treatment group as compared with control group . The results of serum analysis indicated that there was no significant difference (p> 0.05) in serum level of calcium and phosphorus , while , increased serum level of sodium , potassium , uric acid and creatinine in treatment group as compared with control group . The study indicated that there was some changes in both urine and serum parameters in urolithasis .

Keywords

Serum --- Rabbits --- Sodium oxalate


Article
Construction of New Ion Selective Electrodes for Determination Chloramphenicol Sodium Succinate and Their Application in Pharmaceutical Samples

Authors: Khaleda H. Al-Saidi --- Weaam R. Aziz
Journal: Al-Nahrain Journal of Science مجلة النهرين للعلوم ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461 Year: 2012 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 71-78
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

A liquid membrane electrodes for the determination chloramphenicol sodium succinate were constructed based on chloramphenicol palmitate and sodium tetraphenyl borate, and with four plasticizers, Di-butyl phthalate (DBPH); Di-butyl phosphate (DBP); Di-octyl phthalate (DOP); Tri-butyl phosphate (TBP); in PVC matrix. These electrodes give sub- Nernstian slopes (53.98, 51.45, 49.66 and 48.98 mV/decade) and linear ranges from (1x10-4-1x10-1, 5x10-4-1x10-1, 1x10-4-1x10-1, 5x10-4-1x10-1 M) respectively. The best electrode was based on DBPH plasticizer which gave a slope 53.98 mV/decade, correlation coefficient 0.9999, detection limit of 5 x 10-5 M, lifetime 50 day displayed good stability and reproducibility and used to determine the Chloramphenicol sodium succinate in pharmaceutical samples. The measurement interferences in the presence of K+, Na+, Fe+3, Al+3, Cu+2, Mn+2, sucrose, Gelatine and Chloramphenicol palmitate were studied using the separated and mixed methods for selectivity coefficient determination. The pH and life time of the electrodes were also studied. The results were compared statistically with UV-spectrophotometeric technique by using F-test.

حضرت أقطاب انتقائية سائلة لتقدير الكلورامفينيكول صوديوم ساكسينيت والتي تعتمد على للكلورامفينيكول صوديوم بالميتيت والصوديوم تيترافنيل بوريت مع أربعة من الملدنات, داي بيوتيل فثاليت، داي بيوتيل فوسفيت, داي اوكتيل فثاليت وتراي بيوتيل فوسفيت بوليمر الفاينيل كلورايد على التوالي. اعطت هذة الأقطاب انحدارا شبه نيرنيستي 53.98, 51.45 ,49.66 و 48.98 ملي فولت/ حقبة ومدى التركيز الخطى حوالي من 10-4 الى 10-1 . وكان أفضل قطب الذي يعتمد على داي بيوتيل فثاليت كملدن حيث اعطى انحدارا 53.98، معامل ارتباط 9999، حد كشف5X10-5 وعمره 50 يوم مع استفرارية وتكرارية جيدة، لتقدير الكلورامفينيكول صوديوم ساكسينيت في المستحضرات الصيدلاتية. كذلك درست التدخلات لحساب معامل الانتقائية بطريقة المحاليل المنقصلة وطريقة المحاليل الممزوجة بوجود الايونات المواد التالية (K+, Na+, Fe+3, Al+3, Cu+2, Mn+2, sucrose, Gelatine and Chloramphenicol palmitate) ودراست حدود الدالة الحامضية وعمر القطب. حيث تمت مقارنة النتائج مع الطريقة الطيفية من خلال اجراء الـ F-test.


Article
Formulation and Evaluation of Acyclovir Microspheres
Formulation and Evaluation of Acyclovir Microspheres

Authors: Naresh K Naresh K --- Mounika K Mounika K --- Pavani S Pavani S
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences المجلة العراقية للعلوم الصيدلانية ISSN: 16833597 Year: 2018 Volume: 27 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-7
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The present study is to formulate and evaluate Acyclovir (ACV) microspheres using natural polymers like chitosan and sodium alginate. ACV is a DNA polymerase inhibitor used in treating herpes simplex virus infection and zoster varicella infections. Acyclovir is a suitable candidate for sustained-release (SR) administration as a result of its dosage regimen twice or thrice a day and relatively short plasma half-life (approximately 2 to 4 hours). Microspheres of ACV were prepared by an ionic dilution method using chitosan and sodium alginate as polymers. The prepared ACV microspheres were then subjected to FTIR, SEM, particle size, % yield, entrapment efficiency, in vitro dissolution studies and release kinetics mechanism. The FTIR spectra’s revealed that, there was no interaction between polymer and ACV. ACV microspheres were spherical in nature, which was confirmed by SEM. The particle size of microspheres was in the range of 23.8µm to 39.4µm. 72.9% drug entrapment efficiency was obtained in the formulation F3 (1:3 ratio) with a high concentration of calcium chloride (4% w/v). The in vitro performance of ACV microspheres showed sustained release depending on the polymer concentration and concentration of calcium chloride. The release data was best fitted with zero order kinetics and Korsemeyer-Peppas release mechanism and diffusion exponent ‘n’ value of was found to be Non-Fickian.

The present study is to formulate and evaluate Acyclovir (ACV) microspheres using natural polymers like chitosan and sodium alginate. ACV is a DNA polymerase inhibitor used in treating herpes simplex virus infection and zoster varicella infections. Acyclovir is a suitable candidate for sustained-release (SR) administration as a result of its dosage regimen twice or thrice a day and relatively short plasma half-life (approximately 2 to 4 hours). Microspheres of ACV were prepared by an ionic dilution method using chitosan and sodium alginate as polymers. The prepared ACV microspheres were then subjected to FTIR, SEM, particle size, % yield, entrapment efficiency, in vitro dissolution studies and release kinetics mechanism. The FTIR spectra’s revealed that, there was no interaction between polymer and ACV. ACV microspheres were spherical in nature, which was confirmed by SEM. The particle size of microspheres was in the range of 23.8µm to 39.4µm. 72.9% drug entrapment efficiency was obtained in the formulation F3 (1:3 ratio) with a high concentration of calcium chloride (4% w/v). The in vitro performance of ACV microspheres showed sustained release depending on the polymer concentration and concentration of calcium chloride. The release data was best fitted with zero order kinetics and Korsemeyer-Peppas release mechanism and diffusion exponent ‘n’ value of was found to be Non-Fickian.


Article
The Microbial Contamination of Toothbrushes and Their Disinfection by Antimicrobial Solutions

Authors: Eman A Mustafa --- Rayia J Alnaimi --- Rafi A Al–Talib
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2008 Volume: 8 Issue: 12 Pages: 144-150
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To evaluate the bacterial survival rate on toothbrushes after brushing and the efficacy of their decontamination by immersing them in different antimicrobial solutions when toothbrushes were not inuse. Materials and Methods: Twenty healthy dental students participated in this study, they were all supplied with a new toothbrush of the same brand and type together with identical tubes of fluoridated toothpastes and were asked to brush twice daily for a period of 4 weeks during which they were asked to follow their oral hygiene practices. The students were divided into 3 groups, the first group kept theirtoothbrushes in a ventilated area exposed to air after brushing; the second group kept their toothbrushes soaked in 1% Sodium hypochlorite solution (1 part bleach, 4 parts of distilled water); the third groupimmersed their toothbrushes in 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate solution. After one month the toothbrushes were collected, decapitated and examined in the laboratory by making bacteriological cultures to identify the aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms in each toothbrush, also the total live bacterial counts per toothbrush were obtained. Results: The toothbrushes that were not immersed in any antimicrobial solution were heavily contaminated and the immersing of toothbrushes in 0. 2 % chlorhexidine gluconate solution was a very effective method in reducing the mean number of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Conclusions: Toothbrushes can become contaminated after approximately1 month of use, it is therefore recommended for individuals to use solutions like 0.2 % chlorhexidine gluconate which proved to be an effective antimicrobial agent to reduce toothbrush contamination.


Article
Ionic imbalance; as risk factor for pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseas
عدم التوازن الايوني كعامل خطورة للإصابة بأمراض القلب الوعائية

Author: Abdul Ghani M. Al-Samarrai عبد الغني محمد علي السامرائي
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Pure Science مجلة تكريت للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 18131662 Year: 2007 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 43-47
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Across – sectional study was conducted on 100 patients (male and female) having cardiovascular dysfunction (Angina, Myocardial infarction, Heart failure) with age ranged from 55-75 years. They were compared with 78 normal healthy person with the same age.The study was carried out on patients attended to Tikrit Teaching hospital in out door of CCU word in Tikrit city .Fasting blood sample were obtained , serum was extracted and analyzed for serum Ca++, Na+, K+, Mg++, serum lipids and lipoproteins were also measured . Serum Mg++ was found to be significantly decreased in the three types of cardiovascular disease for sexes and this correlates inversely with increased serum Na+, K+ and Ca++ levels. Serum cholesterol, Triglyceride and LDL- cholesterol were significantly increased in both sex whereas HDL – cholesterol levels were significantly decreased in male and female for these three type of C.V.D patients.

تضمنت الدراسة 100 مريضا"( ذكور واناث) يعانون من الأمراض القلبية الوعائية مثل ( الذبحة الصدرية ، احتشاء العضلة القلبية ، عجز القلب ) من فئات عمريــه تراوحــت بـين (55 – 75) سنة هؤلاء المرضى قورنوا مع 78 شخص سليم ضمن نفس الفئة العـمرية . هذه الدراسة نفذت على المرضى الذين ادخلوا إلى وحدة العناية المركزة في مستشفى تكريت التعليمي في صلاح الدين .جمعت نماذج الدم من المرضى في حالة الصيام وقد قيس تركيز بعض الأيونات في مصل الدم مثل ( Mg++, Ca++ , Na+, K+) بالإضافة إلى قياس تركيز اللبيدات واللبيدات البروتينية في مصل الدم . لوحظ آن تركيز Mg++ يقل في أمصال دم المرضى الذين يعانون من الذبحة الصدرية واحتشاء العضلة القلبية وعجز القلب وفي كلا الجنسين وهذا النقصان في تركيز ++Mg له علاقة عكسية بزيادة تركيز كل من (++ ( Na+, K+, Ca.كذلك وجد أن تركيز كل من الكوليسترول ، الكليسريدا ت الثلاثية بالإضافة إلى اللايبوبروتينات واطئة الكثافة تزداد في هؤلاء المرضى وفي كلا الجنسين بينما يقل تركيز اللايبوبروتينات عالية الكثافة في النساء والرجال للأنواع الثلاثة من الأمراض القلبية الوعائية. من هذه الدراسة نستنتج أن نقصان تركيز++ Mg في أمصال دم المرضى الذين يعانون من الأمراض القلبية الوعائية قد يؤثر على عملية ايض اللبيدات بالإضافة إلى تأثيره على تركيز بقية الأيونات مثل (++ ( Na+, K+, Ca.

Keywords

Magnesium --- lipid --- calcium --- sodium --- potassium


Article
The Role of Addition of Diclofenac Sodium to Imipramine in Treating Children with Nocturnal Enuresis

Author: Samir Ali Muter
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2010 Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Pages: 16-20
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Nocturnal enuresis presents a common medical problem all over the world, over many years various therapeutic options have been tried; none was proved to be superior, because the defect occurs at many levels in the urinary tract and its neuronal control. Nowadays prostaglandins have been proved to play a role at renal, bladder, urethral and sympathetic control of urinary system.OBJECTIVE:We evaluated the role of diclofenac sodium when added to the conventional imipramine therapy in treating patients with primary nocturnal enuresis.PATIENTS AND METHOD:70 children complaining of nocturnal enuresis were enrolled in this study, half of them were given imipramine alone and the other half were given a combination of imipramine and diclofenac sodium at night before retiring to bed, and the number of wet nights per week was recorded on a calendar sheet by the parents over 4 weeks, those who showed more than 50% reduction in the number of wet nights a week were regarded as responders, who were followed after cessation of treatment over another 6 weeks to look for relapse.RESULTS:Of the patients treated with imipramine alone 57.14% (20/35) showed more than 50% decrease in the number of wet nights weekly compared to those treated by imipramine and diclofenac sodium who showed 84.84% (28/33) response rate (> 2.5 SE of difference between responding proportions). The relapse rate after stopping treatment was 60% (12/20) in the first group compared to 32.1% (9/28) which exactly two times the SE of difference between relapsing proportions.CONCLUSION:The addition of diclofenac sodium to imipramine in treating patients with primary nocturnal enuresis might have caused a highly significant higher response rate and a fairly significant lower relapse rate after cessation of treatment.


Article
The effect of phenobarbital sodium on the The Thyroid Gland in Rabbits
تأثير فينوباربيتون الصوديوم على الغده الدرقيه للأرانب

Author: Abdul Jabbar Rasmi Damya Qasim Sukker عبد الجبار رسمي حويط ضمياء قاسم سكر
Journal: Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences) مجلة ابحاث البصرة ( العلميات) ISSN: 18172695 Year: 2007 Volume: 33 Issue: 4A Pages: 93-96
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

The present study was design to observe the effect of Phenobarbital sodium on the thyroid gland of rabbits. A dose of(75mg/kg) was injected intramuscularly to the rabbits for (17) days. The study revealed a histological changes include decrease in follicular size and a major decrease in size of the follicular lumen.

أجريت الدراسة الحالية لهدف ملاحظة تأثير فينوباريتون الصوديوم على أنسجة الغدة الدرقية للأرانب. أعطيت جرعة (75ملغم/كغم) في العضلة لمدة سبعة عشر يوماً تبين من نتائج الدراسة انخفاض قليل في حجم الخلايا الحويصلية مع تضييق كبير في حجم التجويف الحويصلي.


Article
TOXICOLOGICAL PATHOLOGY OF NAPROXEN (NSAIDS) ON GASTRO-INTESTINAL TRACT IN WHITE RATS
الامراضيه السمية للنابروكسين (كعامل مضاد التهاب الغيرستيرويدية (على القناة المعوية في الجرذان البيضاء

Author: Thaer Ali, Saleh K. Majeed, Zainab W. Khudair ثائر علي صالح كاظم زينب وحيد
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: Print:18138497 E; 24108456 Year: 2014 Volume: 13 Issue: 1 Pages: 138-149
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

The current study was accomplished to investigate the toxicity of naproxen sodium (NAP) in white rats, and then to detect the pathogenesis of NSAIDs-induced gastro-intestinal injury. The study included the usage of main effective(naproxen) on (48) male and female white rats, They were divided into four groups, and each group contained(12) rats, divided as follows. group-C, which treated with normal saline, group(L) was low dose which received (5mg/kg) of naproxen sodium, group(I) was given intermediate dose ,which received (10mg/kg) and group(H) represented high dose, which received (20mg/kg). The drug administrated by oral gavage for three months. Results of the study included the macroscopic changes such as minimal changes of the gastric mucosa or lining epithelium in the wall of stomach, also included ulceration of the small intestine, in addition there was increase length of the villi and presence of inflammatory cells in lamina properia, and also there was degeneration of mucosal epithelium and mucosal glands in the lamina propria of the stomach, There was vacuolation of mucous lining cells of the stomach, and there was inflammatory cells in the serosa, presence of prominant ganglionic cells in the distal part of muscularis externa of the stomach. The pathological changes of high dose of naproxen was more severe than intermediate dose(group-I) and low dose(group- L).

في الجرذان البيضاء، ومن ثم الكشف عن الآلية المرضية لإصابة المعدة والامعاء التي يسببها المسكنات(نابروكسين) على مدى العقدين الماضيين. واستخدمت في هذه الدراسة(48) جرذ. كما شملت الدراسة استخدام مضمون المواد التي يتم استدعاؤها مع (نابروكسين). ووضعت جميع المجموعات الحيوانية للجرذان في نفس الظروف من درجة الحرارة والرطوبة، وحيث أنها قسمت إلى أربع مجموعات، ولكل مجموعة(12جرذ)، وتتضمن هذه المجاميع حسب التقسيم التالي، مجموعة (C)وتمثل (المجموعة غير المعالجة)، الذي تعامل مع المحلول الملحي العادي، ومجموعة (L)التي تمثل الجرعات المنخفضة (5 مغ/كغ) من الصوديوم نابروكسين، بينما مجموعة (I) تمثل الجرعة المتوسطة (10 مغ/كغ) وتمثل المجموعة (H) بالجرعة العالية، التي تلقت (20 مغ/كغ). وطريقة إعطاء الجرعات لهذه الحيوانات بواسطة التجريع الفموي واستمرت لمدة ثلاثة أشهر. أما نتائج هذه الدراسة شملت وجود تغيرات عيانيه، كالتغيرات الأقل ما يمكن في البطانة المخاطية لجدار المعدة أو البطانة الطلائية لجدار المعدة، وأيضا شملت وجود تغيرات مجهرية ،كالتقرح في الأمعاء الدقيقة، بالإضافة إلى وجود زيادة طول الزغابة مع وجود خلايا التهابيه في الصفيحة المخصصة، وأيضا كان هناك وجود تنكسات البطانة المخاطية والغدد المخاطية في الصفيحة المخصصة، كما كان هناك تكون فجوات في خلايا البطانة المخاطية للمعدة، وكان هناك خلايا التهابيه في الطبقة المصلية، مع ملاحظة وجود خلايا عقديه بارزه في الجزء الأقصى للطبقة العضلية الخارجية للمعدة، حيث وجدت التغيرات الامراضيه للجرعة العالية من النابروكسين وكانت أكثر حده من الجرعة المتوسطة والمنخفضة للنابروكسين.

Keywords

Naproxen sodium --- White rats --- Villi

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