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Article
Abundance, occurrence, seasonal changes and species composition of Macroinvertebrates in the restored Iraqi southern marshes

Author: A.H. Ali; N.M. Aziz and H.A. Hamza
Journal: Marsh Bulletin مجلة الاهوار ISSN: 18169848 Year: 2007 Volume: 2 Issue: 1 Pages: 80-95
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

78 species of macroinvertebrate were recorded in all monitored marshes comprised 17 snails, 40 insects, 4 of each shrimp and Annelid, 3 of each mussel, spider and crab, 2 Isopods, and 1 of amphipod and 1 Cirriped. Density of macroinvertebrates was higher on aquatic plants in all groups except stations Saddah, Burkah (both in East Hammar). the bottom substratum organisms were higher. Maximum species were recorded in Suq Shuyukh52 species while minimum values were recorded in East Hammar 39 species.Maximum density was recorded in East Hammar for snail 11.32-15.6 ind. /m2 on plant and 29.3-27ind/m2 on bottom substrate, while minimum density recorded in Um Alnaaj (Huwayzah) 2.2 ind. /m2. Maximum value for insect in Burkah bottom 6.3ind/m2 and minimum value in Suq Shuyukh bottom 0.33 ind. /m2. Maximum value for shrimp was recorded on plant of Um Alnaaj 15.17 ind. /m2 and minimum value on plant in Amia 6.9 ind. /m2. Seasonal changes in macroinvertebrates numbers were recognized ,that maximum numbers were recorded for all groups in spring, while minimum values were recorded in summer.Snail had higher values of diversity in all marshes; moreover East Hammar was higher than that in other marshes in biological indices. Evenness was found to be 0.71 for shrimp in Huwayzah in comparison to Suq Shuyukh 0.45 and East Hammar 0.13. Higher diversity of shrimp in Suq Shuyukh 0.73, while insect had a comparable in seasonal values and low in all ecological indices between Huwayzah and Suq Shuyukh.


Article
دراسة بيئة النبات المائي الدخيل Hydrilla verticillata وانتشاره

Author: عبد الرضا اكبر علوان المياح وداد مزبان طاهر الاسدي
Journal: Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences) مجلة ابحاث البصرة ( العلميات) ISSN: 18172695 Year: 2010 Volume: 36 Issue: 1B Pages: 8-51
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Hydrilla verticillata, (in Arabic Qotel in some area) is an exotic and invested aquatic plant for Iraq. It is recently decovered after inundation of Abo-Zaraq marsh, therefore its ecology and distribution are the amis of this study.The results of this study showed that H. verticillata has different reproductive stratigies and a very high potential of invation of different habitat, and can easly grow and withstand in it. For that reson H. verticillata quickly succeeded to expand its distribution through almost all marshes areas including Shatt Al-Arab water way reaching to Abo Al-Khasib.Cover percent, Biomases and the yield of a year production were determined.

يعد نبات الكطل Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle نباتاً دخيلاً وغازياً للبيئة المائية في العراق وقد اكتشف بعد عملية إعادة أغمار الاهوار، في هذا البحث دراس بيئياً وتم مراقبة انتشاره وتحددت مناطق توزيعه ونموه ومدى تأثيره البيولوجي والبيئي على النباتات والنظم البيئية في الاهوار الجنوبية. وقد أظهرت النتائج أن للنبات قدرات واستراتيجيات تكاثرية هائلة على غزو المناطق الجديدة والتكيف للنمو في ظروف بيئية مختلفة لذلك استطاع توسيع رقعة انتشاره منذ اكتشافه في نيسان 2004 في هور أبو زرك حتى الآن بشكل سريع جداً وغطي الاهوار كافة وامتد في شط العرب وصولاً إلى أبي الفلوس في أبي الخصيب. كما قيست نسبة الغطاء الخضري والكتلة الحية له وحدد مقدار إنتاجه السنوي.


Article
Concentrations of Trace Metals in Aquatic Plants and sediments of the Southern Marshes of Iraq (Al-Hawizah and Al-Hammar)

Author: N.A.N. Awad ; H.T. Abdulsahib andA.A. Jaleel
Journal: Marsh Bulletin مجلة الاهوار ISSN: 18169848 Year: 2008 Volume: 3 Issue: 1 Pages: 57-66
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

The analysis of trace metals Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe in six species of aquatic plant species and sediments of Al-Hawizah and Al-Hammar marshes were investigated . It was found that the nature of the region is unpolluted with the trace metals. The ability of these plants to accumulate and eliminate trace metals in relation to their concentrations in ambient led to the observed variations in metal concentrations in plants. The results showed higher concentration of trace metals in sediment than in plants. No significant difference were observed in trace metals concentrations in aquatic plants and sediment samples for both Al-Hawizah and Al- Hammar marshes .Generally , the levels of the studied metals in plants and sediments of region were lower thanthe other compared areas of the world


Article
Assessment of water quality and trace metals in sediment of Southern Marshes
تقييم نوعية المياه والمعادن النزرة في رواسب الاهوار الجنوبية

Author: Ammar A. Talal عمار عطية طلال
Journal: Marsh Bulletin مجلة الاهوار ISSN: 18169848 Year: 2013 Volume: 8 Issue: 2 Pages: 165-181
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Water quality surveys were designed and implemented during Dec.2011 to Feb. 2012 at three stations, in the Hor Al-Gebaysh, Al-Bourgah and Harer. Physical and chemical stressors including the natural water quality parameters, dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature, salinity and pH as well as nutrients were studied. The mean ranges of the following parameters were recorded: In Hammar Low value of salinity was 1.24 ppt in spring and higher was 2.11ppt in summer. Al-Bargah low value was 1.41ppt in winter and higher 2.01ppt in summer, while The lower value recorded in Al-Gebayesh was 1.12 ppt in winter but higher value was 1.98 ppt in Autum Air temperature in Al-Gebayesh the range was from 14.82- 36.08°C. Dissolved oxygen concentrations have generally been high. Determination of heavy metals (Pb , Cu and Ni) in three locations Al-Gebaysh, Al-Bourgah and Harer. The result showed that the Al-Bourgah and Harer as the most contaminated site with heavy metal. Levels of Ni in sediment ranged was 112 μg/g d.w in winter 2012,The levels of Pb higher was 41.61 μg/g d.w in Harer and lower 25.23 μg/g d.w in Al-Gebaysh, while Cu metal was 10.21 μg/g d.w in winter in Al-Bourgah to 19.12 μg/g d.w in Harer in summer

تم أجراء عملية لأختبار نوعية المياه في الاهوار الجنوبية العراقية للفترة من ديسمبر 2011 الى فبراير 2012 في ثلاث محطات وهم هور الجبايش والبركة وحرير في هور الحمار. كانت المؤشرات المختبرة هي درجات الحرارة والملوحة والاوكسجين المذاب (DO)فضلا عن الدالة الحامضية. وبينت الدراسة أن الملوحة وجدت أن أقل قيمة لها سجلت في فصل الربيع في منطقة حرير وكانت 1.24جزء بالمليون أما التركيز الاعلى فكان 2.11 جزء بالمليون في فصل الصيف.أما هور الجبايش فكانت أقل قيمة لها كانت 1.12 جزء بالمليون في فصل الشتاء والقيمة الاعلى سجل في فصل الخريف وكانت 1,98 جزء بالمليون. درجات الحرارة سجلت معدلات من 36.08- 14.82 °م. ووجد أرتفاع في تراكيز الاوكسجين المذاب فضلا عن تراكيز عالية من النترات والفوسفات. قيست تراكيز ثلاث من العناصر الثقيلة( الرصاص ، النحاس ، النيكل ) في رواسب ماخوذة من مناطق الدراسة من الجزء الجنوبي .أشارت النتائج بان محطتي البركة وحرير الاعلى تاثرا" بالعناصر النزرة من بقية المحطات


Article
WATER BUDGET FOR ABU ZIRIG MARSH IN SOUTHERN IRAQ
الموازنة المائية لهور أبو زرك الواقع في الجنوب العراقي

Authors: Ryidh Abood Yasir --- Khayyun Amtair Rahi --- Dr. Zaidun Naji Abudi
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2018 Volume: 22 Issue: 1 Pages: 25-33
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

The marshes of Iraq are located in the southern part of the country with small portion that is located in Iran. They cover an area of about 15000-20000 km2. The marshes consist of hydraulically connected shallow lakes and scattered ponds. Three major marsh areas are considered the core of the wetlands of Iraq: (i) Al Hammar Marshes; (ii) the Central Marshes and (iii) Al Hawizeh Marshes. During the last two decades of the twentieth century, the marshes were subjected to natural and deliberate dryness and destruction and their area reduced to about 10% of the original area. The Iraqi regime in the early nineties of the last century has cut off the marshes’ inflow supplies and dried out the majority of the core marshes permanently. The regime has constructed numerus dykes, manmade cannels to implement the draining the drying process. Efforts are underway to restore the dried marshes. The restoration process requires sustained surface water supplies to re-flood the area and sustain it. Abu Zirig is a small marsh that is part of the Iraqi Central Marshes (ICM). The marsh constitutes a natural depression at the mouth of al Gharraf River. It is situated about 40 km to the east of Nassiriah city. The marsh was one of the marshes dried by diverting flows away from it via manmade embankments. Abu Zirig was part of the re-flooded marshlands. The embankments were removed immediately following the fall of Saddam’s regime on the year of 2003. Its restored area was about 120 km². The marsh consists of two parts separated by manmade dyke; upper and lower parts. This paper is an attempt to study the hydrology of the Abu Zirig Marsh, specifically, the water budget. Determination of water budget component in situ (i.e. the marshes area) is needed to evaluate the restoration process. It was found that the only inflow source was surface water flowing from al Gharraf River. Losses were to infiltration and evaporation. The marsh was considered operating on steady state, so that change in storage during the study period was zero.


Article
Aquatic Oligochaetes of Iraq's Southern Marshes
الديدان قليلة الاهلاب المائية في اهوار جنوب العراق

Authors: Emaduldeen A. Almukhtar عماد الدين عبد الهادي المختار --- Hussein A. Sabtie ** حسين علي سبتي** --- Haifa J. Jaweir هيفاء جواد جوير
Journal: Baghdad Science Journal مجلة بغداد للعلوم ISSN: 20788665 24117986 Year: 2012 Volume: 9 Issue: 3 Pages: 472-480
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Aquatic Oligochaetes community in the Iraqi southern marshes, Al- Hawiezah, Al-Chibayish and Al-Hammar, have been studied for the period from July 2006 to June 2007. Two sites within each marsh, in addition to a reference site located at Shatt Al-Garma, have been chosen for sample collection using Ekman dredge. The results revealed that the highest average annual density was 16800 individual / m2 recorded in Al-Hawiezah marsh, while in Al-Chibayish and al-Hammar marsh the density did not exceed 5111 individual/m2. In contrast, the density of Oligochaetes recorded in Shatt Al-Garma was about 10500 individual / m2. The highest monthly density was recorded in April 2007.The highest local percentage occurrence was 96% recorded in Al-Hawiezah marsh, while the highest average monthly percentage occurrence was recorded in January 2007.The study revealed the presence of 19 Oligochaetes species belonging to 14 genera and 4 families. Naididae was represented by 8 spp.; Tubuficidae 8 spp.; Lumbriculidae 2 spp. and Lumbricidae 1 spp. Tubificid worms formed about 73% of the total count while Naididae formed 15%, Lumbriculidae 8% and Lumbricidae 4%.Among Tubificidae, Limnodrilus was the most abundant genus composed about 35% of L. hoffmeisteri; 11.5% L. claparedianus; 8% L. profundicola and 4.7% L. maumeensis, followed by Tubifex tubifex 23%. Other species were Branchuira sowerbyi formed 15%; 2.8 and 2 % for Peloscolex velutinus and Aulodrilus pigueti respectively. Naididae worms comprised 8 species including 32% of Dero digitata, 24% of Nais variabilis, 14% of Amphichaeta sp. and 11% of each of D.obtuse and Pristina longiseta. However, D. dorsalis represented only 7.5% of the total Naididae. Few individuals of B. sowerbyi and Lumbriculus variegates, with two regenerated parts at the posterior end were also detected in some samples. This case was considered a rare observation within the population of these worms in this particular area.

تم دراسة مجتمع الديدان الحلقية قليلة الاهلاب المائية في اهوار جنوب العراق، هور الحويزة واالجبايش والحمار للفترة ما بين تموز 2006 وحتى نهاية حزيران 2007, واختيرت محطتين لجمع العينات في كل هور، 1و2 في هور الحويزة، 3 و 4 في هور الجبايش و 5 و6 في هور الحمار ، اضافة الى محطة سابعة (7) في شط الكرمة اختيرت لغرض المقارنة. بينت النتائج ان اعلى معدل كثافة سنوية سجلت في محطات هور الحويزة وبلغت حوالي 16800 فرد / م2 ، بينما لم تتعدى 5111 فرد / م2 في اهوار الجبايش والحمار. بالمقابل بلغ معدل الكثافة السنوية في شط الكرمة حوالي 19500 فرد / م2 . وسجل اعلى معدل كثافة في شهر نيسان 2007 . سجلت اعلى نسبة تواجد موقعي 96% في هور الحويزة، بينما كانت اعلى نسبة تواجد شهري في شهر كانون ثاني 2007.سجل 19 نوع تعود الى 14 جنس ، ثمانية منها تعود للعائلة Naididae وثمانية للعائلة Tubuficidae ونوعين للعائلة Tubuficidae ونوع واحد للعائلة Lumbricidae. شكلت افراد العائلة Tubuficidae حوالي 73% من عدد الافراد الكلي، وافراد العائلة Naididae 15% و 8% لافراد العائلة Lumbriculidae وشكلت افراد العائلة 4%, Lumbricidae.من ضمن العائلة Tubuficidae كان الجنس Limnodrilus هو الكثر سيادة ويشمل 35% من النوع L. hoffmeisteri و 11.5 من النوع L. claparedianus و 8% من النوع L. profundicola و 4.7% L. maumeensis ، يتبعه النوع Tubifex tubifex بنسبة 23% . ومن الانواع الاخرى النوع Branchuira sowerbyi الذي سجل 15% ، وكانت النسبة 2.8 و 2% لكل من النوعين Peloscolex velutinus و Aulodrilus pigueti على التوالي.وفيما يخص بديدان العائلة Niadidae فتكونت من ثمانية انواع شملت 32% منها االنوع Dero digitata و 24% النوع Dero digitata و 14% نوع تابع للجنس Amphichaetaو 11% لكل من النوعين Dero obtuse و Pristina longiseta واخيرا" النوع Dero dorsalis الذي مثل 7.5 % من مجموع عدد العائلة Niadidae .لوحظ ضمن بعض العينات وجود افراد قليلة من النوع B. sowerbyi و النوع Lumbriculus variegates تمتلك جزئين متكونة بالاخلاف في النهاية الخلفية للدودة وهي حالة نادرة في مثل هذه الديدان.

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