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Article
Natural Convection Heat Transfer from a Plane Wall to Thermally Stratified Environment

Authors: Naseem K. Ali --- Ihsan Y. Hussain
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2012 Volume: 18 Issue: 2 Pages: 223-238
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The effect of linear thermal stratification in stable stationary ambient fluid on free convective flow of a viscous incompressible fluid along a plane wall is numerically investigated in the present work. The governing equations of continuity, momentum and energy are solved numerically using finite difference method with Alternating Direct implicit Scheme. The velocity, temperature distributions and the Nusselt number are discussed numerically for various values of physical parameters and presented through graphs. ANSYS program also used to solve the problem. The results show that the effect of stratification parameter is marginalized with the increase in Prandtl number, and the increase in Grashof number does not practically vary the effect of stratification parameter.


Article
Effect Of Growing Media, Seed Sizes And Stratification On Germination And Subsequent Seedling Growth Of Loquat (Eriobotrya Japonica L)

Authors: Fakhraddin M. Hama Salieh --- Hasan S. Shekh- Marif --- Faraydwn K. Ahmad
Journal: Journal Of Kirkuk University For Agricultural Sciences مجلة جامعة كركوك للعلوم الزراعية ISSN: 22210482 Year: 2018 Volume: 9 Issue: 2 Pages: 23-28
Publisher: Kirkuk University جامعة كركوك

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Abstract

The experiment was conducted in a lathhouse of the department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Sulaimani during 2014 growing season. Three growing media, two seed sizes as well as stratification periods {direct or no stratification and moist chilling at 3±10C for two weeks} were used for the purpose of their influences on the germination and subsequent seedling growth of loquat. Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates was used and analysis of variance carried out and then the treatment means were compared according to Duncan’s Multiple Range Test at 0.05 level. The data revealed that growing media had a significant effect on most characteristics: peat moss recorded the highest value for germination percentage (67.158%), seedling length (9.478 cm), seedling diameter (0.682 cm) and leaves area (84.366 cm2), while the highest germination percentages resulted were 57.861% and 56.333% for moist chilling for two weeks and small seeds respectively. Small seeds combined with each peatmoss and moist chilling for two weeks gave (77.083 and 62.611)% germination successively as the maximum germination percentages. Finally, combination of small seeds moist chilled for two weeks and grown in peat moss gave the highest germination percentage (90.833%).


Article
EFFECTS OF PRE-CHILLING AND STRATIFICATION PERIODS ON SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF PISTACIA KHINJOK STOKS
تأثير فترات التبريد والتنضيد في انبات بذور حبة الخضراء Pistacia khinjuk stock ونمو شتلاتها

Authors: Jyad. A. AL Ashoo جياد عبد العشو --- Khalil. I. Aljomaely خليل إبراهيم الجميلي
Journal: Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture مجلة زراعة الرافدين العراقية ISSN: 1815316X Year: 2013 Volume: 41 Issue: 1 Pages: 219-232
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

This study was conducted in the forestry department nursery of Mosul University; to investigate the effects of stratification degrees & chilling on seed germination and seedlings growth of Pistacia khinjuk stock. The results revealed the superiority of seed stratification in 12°c stratification in comparison with 4°c stratification. the 12°c gave the higher averages of germination energy (%) , germination percentage (%) , Survival percentage (%) , Seedling length (cm.) & seedling diameter (mm), the averages were 26.96%, 36.39 % , 34.74% , 54.54 cm, 5.90mm respectively , Also the stratificated seeds for 20 days were superior in all characters and gave the highest average in germination energy 34.42% , germination percentage 49.80% survival percentage 46.36%, seedling length 55.41 cm., and seedling diameter 6.1 mm. The chilling period 48 hour was superior in characters of germination energy (29.95%) , germination percentage (40.33%) , Survival percentage (38.16%) , Seedling length (64.09)cm. and seedling diameter (6.37)mm.

أجريت هذه الدراسة في مشتل قسم الغابات لمعرفة تأثير درجات التنضيد وفترات التنضيد والتبريد في إنبات بذور حبة الخضراء ونمو شتلاتها . أظهرت الدراسة تفوق البذور المنضدة بدرجة (12مْ) على البذور المنضدة بدرجة (4مْ) إذ أعطت اعلى المعدلات لصفات الطاقة الانباتية ونسبة الإنبات ونسبة النجاة وطول الشتلة وقطر الشتلة وكانت 26.96% و 36.39% و 34.74% و 54.54سم و 5.90 ملم على التوالي . كذلك تفوقت البذور المنضدة لمدة 20يوم في الصفات المدروسة إذ أعطت اعلى المعدلات للطاقة الانباتية (34.42%) ونسبة الإنبات (49.80%) ونسبة النجاة (46.36%) وطول الشتلة (55.41سم) وقطر الشتلة (6.1ملم). وبخصوص فترات التبريد فقد تفوقت فترة 48 ساعة في الطاقة الانباتية (29.95%) ونسبة الإنبات (40.33%) ونسبة النجاة (38.16%) وطول الشتلة (64.09سم) وقطر الشتلة (6.37ملم).


Article
EFFECTS OF PERIODS AND CONDITIONS OF STRATIFICATION AND SOAKING IN HOT WATER ON SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF Melia azedarach L.
تأثير فترات وظروف التنضيد والغمر في الماء الحار في إنبات بذور السبحبح Melia azedarach L. ونمو شتلاته

Authors: Riyadh S. AL-Khaffaf رياض صالح الخفاف --- Yaqoob Shamaon Lazar يعقوب شمعون لازار
Journal: Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture مجلة زراعة الرافدين العراقية ISSN: 1815316X Year: 2013 Volume: 41 Issue: 1 Pages: 233-247
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

This study was carried out in the greenhouse/forestry department /college of agriculture and forestry, to study the effects of stratification period, hot water degrees and stratification degrees on seed germination of Melia azedarach seedling growth. The results showed the superiority of 45 days of stratification in all the studied characters (germination energy, germination percentage, seedling length, seedling diameter and number of leaves). The resulted averages were 37.42%, 59.24%, 75.77cm, 9.78mm, 114 leaf respectively. Among the hot water degrees the superiority in all the characters was in the case of 50°C and gave the averages 35.90%, 56.02, 63.89 cm, 8.02mm, 97.14 leaf respectively. Due to stratification degrees; 4°C showed superiority in seedling length character only and gave an average of 57.53 cm. Also the interaction among stratification in the incubator for 45 days and soaking in 50°C hot water were superior in germination energy and germination percentage characters. Furthermore the interaction of stratification for 45 days in refrigerator and soaking degree 50°C was superior in the characters of seedling length ,seedling diameter and number of leaves.

أجريت هذه الدراسة في الظلة الخشبية لقسم الغابات/ كلية الزراعة والغابات/جامعة الموصل, لمعرفة تأثير فترات التنضيد ودرجات حرارة ماء الغمر وظروف التنضيد في إنبات بذور السبحبح ونمو شتلاته. أظهرت النتائج تفوق فترة التنضيد 45 يوم في الصفات المدروسة وهي (الطاقة الانباتية ونسبة الإنبات وطول الشتلة وقطر الشتلة وعدد الأوراق). وأعطت أعلى المعدلات للصفات المدروسة, وهي 37.42%, 59.24%, 75.77 سم, 9.78 ملم, 114.63 ورقة على التوالي. وبخصوص درجات حرارة ماء الغمر فقد تفوق الغمر في الماء الحار ذات درجة الحرارة 50 مْ في جميع الصفات وأعطت أعلى المعدلات للصفات المدروسة وهي 35.90 %, 56.02%, 63.89سم, 8.02 ملم, 97.14 ورقة على التوالي. أما ظروف التنضيد فقد تفوق التنضيد في الثلاجة (4 مْ) في صفة طول الشتلة وأعطت أعلى معدل لطول الشتلة وهو 57.53 سم,كما تفوق التداخل الثلاثي التنضيد 45 يوم في المختبر وغمر بدرجة الحرارة 50مْ في صفتي الطاقة الانباتية ونسبة الإنبات فضلاً عن تفوق التداخل التنضيد 45 يوم في الثلاجة وغمر بدرجة 50مْ في صفات طول ساق الشتلة وقطرها وعدد الأوراق.

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