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Article
The Production of Ethanol from Sugar Beet Waste byImmobilized Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

Authors: Rana A. Al-Naime --- Thamir J. Mohammed --- Jasim Al-Hilo
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2007 Volume: 8 Issue: 4 Pages: 25-30
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Saccharomyces Cerevisiae cells were immobilized in calcium alginate beads and activated charcoal for use in the production of ethanol from batch fermentation of sugar beet waste. Treatment of the waste with NaOH to increase the ability of lignocellulose material to hydrolysis by acid (2N H2SO4) to monosaccharide and disaccharide (mainly glucos).The high reducing sugar concentration obtained was equal to 9.2gm/100ml (10Brix) after treatment. Fermentation parameters, are (pH, glucose concentration (2.5-25 gm/100ml), immobilized agent concentration (2.5-25 gm/100ml) were studied to find the optimum physiological condition. And the highest ethanol concentration obtained from the fermentation in the presence of 20%(wt/v) calcium alginate was (9.322%(wt/v)) at 13.75%(wt/v) glucose concentration and pH 5 .The experimental results were correlated by empirical second order polynomial equation with correlation coefficient 96.734% and variance 93.574%

Keywords

sugar beets --- ethanol


Article
Using Diode Laser for the Determination of Blood Glucose Concentration
قياس تركيز السكر في الدم باستخدام ليزر الدايود

Authors: farah shmel فرح شامل --- Nehia N. Hussien نهاية نعمة حسين --- Saria D. Mohamed سارية ذياب
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2013 Volume: 31 Issue: 7 Part (B) Scientific Pages: 181-190
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

In this study sugar concentration was measured by using diode laser, and compared were blood with those obtained from normal spectroscopic methods were the results laser system was arranged with a by using diode laser with wavelength of 532nm and power of 1 mW was used . While the Values ranged by using spectroscope technique between (70-102mg/dl) ,Wille the measured concentration of blood sugar by laser technique give (69.87-102mg/dl). The standard deviation was calculated and represents the relative comparison between both methods. The comparison results showed that determine the concentration of blood sugar using diode laser technique has a high accuracy and it cost less than that obtained by the spectroscope methods

في هذا البحث تم قياس تركيزسكر الدم بإستخدام ليزر الدايود ومقارنة النتائج مع تلك المستحصلة بإستخدام الطرق المطيافية الإعتيادية، حيث تم ترتيب منظومة ليزرية باستخدام ليزر الدايود ذات الطول الموجي nm532 وقدرةmW 1. تم قياس تراكيز السكر في الدم باستخدام تقنية المطياف Csp(mg/dl)، حيث كانت القيم تتراوح بين (70-102mg/dl ) ، وقياس تراكيز السكر في الدم باستخدام تقنية الليزر laser(mg/dl) Cحيث كانت القيم تتراوح بين ( 102mg/dl–69.87) . وقد تم حساب الانحراف المعياري النسبي R.S.D% والذي يمثل المقارنة بين القرائتين .واظهرت نتائج المقارنة أنه بالإمكان تحديد تركيز سكر الدم باستخدام تقنية منظومة ليزر الدايود بدقة عالية وتكاليف أقل من تلك المستحصلة بواسطة المطياف.


Article
Elements of cultivation Sugar cane production in the province of Khuzestan
مقومات زراعة إنتاج قصب السكر في محافظة خوزستان

Author: Hussein Qasim Mohammad حسين قاسم محمد
Journal: Iranian Studies Journal مجلة دراسات ايرانية ISSN: 22232354 Year: 2011 Issue: 13 Pages: 125-150
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

يعد محصول قصب السكر من المحاصيل الغذائية الهامة في حياة السكان وذلك لدخوله في إنتاج السكر الأبيض الذي يدخل بدوره في الصناعات الغذائية المختلفة ، كما انه مادة أولية في صناعة الورق والخشب ومخلفاته تستخدم كعلف للحيوان ، فضلاً عن تشغيل أيدي عاملة كثيرة . وهو من الصناعات الستراتيجية التي تدخل في التجارة الدولية .وهناك حاجة إلى دراسة متكاملة شاملة للمقومات الجغرافية وتأثيرها على زراعة وإنتاج وتنمية هذا المحصول في محافظة خوزستان ، ومدى الاستفادة من نجاح زراعته فيها للقيام بتجارب مماثلة في العراق باستخدام المنهج التاريخي والإقليمي والإحصائي


Article
Determination of serum zinc concentration in normal healthy men & type II diabetes mellitus patients.
تعين تركيز الخارصين في مصل دم الرجال السليمين و المصابين بداء السكر النوع الثاني

Author: Nasreen Kader Kamel
Journal: Tikret Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الصيدلانية ISSN: 18172716 Year: 2013 Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Pages: 139-143
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Body zinc content is regulated by the homeostatic mechanism, which regulate zinc absorption and excretion depending on its body requirements. The function of cells and tissues enzymes is depend zinc content & over 70 human body enzymes with which zinc is associated. Pervious studies show that some trace elements like magnesium, zinc, manganese & selenium may play important role in action of insulin hormone, including activation of insulin receptor sites. The aim of the study is to determine the serum level of zinc in normal healthy men & diabetes mellitus type II patients. A cross sectional study was done in Tikrit teaching hospital from beginning of January to end of December 2010. The study conducted on 50 type 2 diabetic male patients was participated in the study. While, 30 normal healthy men age matched (aged 55 to 60 years) were included as a control. Serum zinc was measured for control healthy non diabetic subjects & diabetic type 2 patients. There were non significant differences regarding age. However there is significant increase in BMI of diabetic patients as compare with control men. Fasting serum glucose was significantly higher in DM patients as compare with control subjects. Moreover, there is significant reduction in serum zinc in diabetic patients (89.35 ± 19.23 µg/dl) as compare with normal health subjects (135 ± 35.18 µg/dl). In diabetic patients, there is significant negative correlation between fasting blood sugar & serum zinc (r= - 0.37). In present study conclude that there is a significant reduction in serum zinc in diabetic patients. The present study recommend that diabetic type II patients should be encourage to eat diet rich in zinc or take zinc supplement.

محتوى الزنك في الجسم ينضم بواسطة إلية التوازن الداخلي, و الذي ينضم امتصاص و إفراز الخارصين اعتمادا على احتياجات الجسم. إن وضيفة إنزيمات خلايا الجسم تعتمد على محتوى الخارصين و إن أكثر من سبعين إنزيم تعتمد على مستوى الخارصين. الدراسات السابقة أظهرت إن بعض العناصر النزرة كالمغنيسيوم و الزنك, المنغنيز, السلينوم قد تلعب دورا مهما في عمل هرمون الأنسولين. تهدف الدراسة لتعيين تركيز الزنك في مصل دم المصابين بداء السكر النوع الثاني مقارنة مع الأشخاص السليمين. دراسة مقطعية أنجزت في مستشفى تكريت التعليمي من بداية كانون الثاني لغاية كانون الأول 2010 . تطوع في الدراسة 50 مريض مصابين بداء السكر النوع الثاني وقورنت مع 30 شخص سليم كسيطرة و بأعمار تتراوح بين 55 إلى 60 سنة. هنالك زيادة معنوية في تركيز سكر الدم في مرضى داء السكر النوع الثاني مقارنة مع السيطرة.و هنالك نقصان معنوي في تركيز الخارصين في مصل دم المرضى المصابين بداء السكر مقارنة مع السيطرة. تلخص الدراسة الحالية بلن هنالك نقصان معنوي في تركيز الخارصين في مصل دم المصابين بداء السكر. و توصي الدراسة الحالية بتشجيع مرضى داء السكر بتناول الأغذية الحاوية و الغنية بالخارصين.


Article
Prevalence of dental caries and the effect of sugar’s types, frequency of sugar intake and tooth brushing practice on dental caries among children aged 7-9 years inWassit governorate-Iraq

Author: Hanan F. Abaas حنان عباس
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2011 Volume: 23 Issue: special issue Pages: 151-154
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Dental caries is an important dental health problem and it is the most prevalent oral disease amongchildren in the world. The strength of the relationship between sugar intake and the prevalence of dental caries haslong been a subject of dispute. Some evidence suggests that sugar consumption is a very important determinate ofcaries risk, accounting for as much as half of the variation in caries prevalence among human populations.Therefore, the aim of this study was to study the effect of sugar's type, frequency of sugar intake and tooth brushingpractice on dental caries among children aged 7- 9 years of both genders in Wassit Governorate.Methods: The sample was collected during period started from 1/September to 1/ November 2010. Informationabout types of sugars intake, frequency of sugar intake and tooth brushing practice were collected by formation ofquestionnaire to all children according to Yabao 2005. All children subjected to clinical examination to assessment ofDMFT and dmft according to WHO 1997. Data analyzed using statistics package for social science (spss Inc., 2000version 10 for Windows and Excel 2000).Results: Five hundred of schoolchildren in Wassit Governorate were examined belong to age group 7-9 years of bothgender (258 males and 242 females). The mean of DMFT was (1.3±1.4), while the mean of dmft was (4.5±2.5). Theprevalence of dental caries in permanent teeth was 54% while in primary teeth was 93.2%, the prevalence of dentalcaries increased with age in both primary and permanent teeth. The mean of DMFT in children taking hard candies,soft drink, and ice-cream was (1.45±1.46), (0.99±1.33), (0.88±1.15) respectively, analysis of variance showed there wassignificant difference between the mean of DMFT with different sugar’s types. Also in present study, the most sugarsources taking by children were hard candies (68%) and soft drink (70%).The mean of DMFT and dmft increased withincreasing the frequency of sugar intake, analysis of variance showed there was significant difference betweenmean of DMFT with frequency of sugar intake. The mean of DMFT and dmft was higher in children with no toothbrushing practice than in children with tooth brushing practice; also the prevalence of dental caries in children withno tooth brushing practice was 81% while in children with tooth brushing practice was 30.5%.Conclusion: It was concluded that hard candies is more risky on dental caries than soft drink and ice cream and thefrequency of sugars intake effects on dental caries severity , also tooth brushing practice minimizes the dental cariesseverity and prevalence


Article
Trends of Oral Diseases and Treatment Needs in 13-15 Year Old Students in Mo-sul City Center

Author: Tahani A Al-Sandook
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2013 Volume: 13 Issue: 2 Pages: 241-250
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To determine the trends of the two major dental diseases (dental caries and periodontal disease) in a group of 13-15 year old intermediate school and their treatment needs. Materials and Methods: A total of 516 intermediate school students were examined. Dental caries and treatment needs were as-sessed according to the WHO 1997 guidelines. The assessment of the gingival health and treatment needs of the students was performed using the CPITN index as recommended by the WHO 1987. Six index teeth were examined and the presence of gingival bleeding and calculus was recorded. Results: Dental caries in the sample has increased with a mean of 5.17. Dental caries increased with age with a statistically significant age difference. Females tended to have a higher DMFT of 5.5 compared to males 4.79 with significant difference, only 6.6% of the sample was caries free. The majority of the samples needed one surface fillings with a mean of 3.6/child. Other dental treatments were needed to a lesser extent. Regarding the periodontal status, the disease was present in 97.5% of the sample, there was no significant age difference regarding periodontal health. Females tended to have a healthier gin-giva compared to males with significant difference. Regarding periodontal treatment needs, 97.5% of the sample required dental health education, while 65.9 % required professional scaling and polishing. Conclusions: To improve children’s oral health, community school-based oral health educational pro-grams should be established starting from primary and extending to intermediate schools, stressing on sugar restriction and oral hygiene measures, fluorides and fissure sealants can effectively be used too.


Article
Effect of Artificial Sweeteners and Sugar Alcohol on the Quality of Peach Nectar
تأثير المحليات الصناعية والسكريات الكحولية في نوعية نكتار الخوخ

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Abstract

Peach Nectar was prepared by replacing sucrose with alternative sweeteners Sucralose, rebaudioside-A, xylitol and sorbitol at ratio 100% and theirs mixture 50% for each sweetener . Were studied properties of physicochemical and sensory evaluation for duration three months, It was observed a significant increase in acidity, the percentage of soluble solids, viscosity , the value of hydroxymethyl furfural and value of color index a *, while decreased significantly pH values and value of color index L * and b * for all treatment with increasing duration of storage The results showed that the highest significant increase in acidity value at the end of the storage in the treatment that sweetened with sucralose and rebaudioside-A, it was reaching (0.453%) for each other and theirs mixture (0.450%) . Increased total soluble solids , the treatment that sweetened with sorbitol obtained the highest significant increase, it was (18.51%) and their mixtures , Thus viscosity increased in this treatment and their mixtures compared to the rest treatment . It obtained the highest change in peach nectar color that sweetened with sucrose, represented by HMF value that reached (1.870 mg /l) , this led to rise in index value of red color a* in it when estimating color, it reached (1.840) but decreased index values of color L * and b * (bright yellow) in the same treatment, they reached (26,06and 16.48) respectively compared to the rest treatment. The pH value decreased in treatment that sweetened with artificial sweeteners and theirs mixture that reached (2.310). This means that the duration of storage and treatment influenced significantly on the sensory properties (odor, taste, color and appearance) for samples of peach Nectar. All the treatments were rise in the odor acceptance degree in the end period of storage, but decreased in the control treatment, and decreased the degree of acceptance of taste in treatment that sweetened with sorbitol (4.73) compared to all treatment but the taste improved slightly after mixed with other alternative sweeteners under study. The highest degree of color and appearance acceptance in all treatment special those that sweetened with artificial sweeteners.

تم تحضير نكتار الخوخ باستبدال السكروز بالمحليات البديلة السكرالوز ، الريبوديوسايد -1 ، الزايليتول والسوربيتول بنسبة 100% ومزج كل محليين بنسبة 50 % . وتمت دراسة الخواص الفيزيوكيميائية والحسية للمعاملات اثناء خزنها لمدة ثلاثة اشهر . اظهرت النتائج ارتفاعا معنويا في الحموضة والـ TSS% واللزوجة وقيمة هيدروكسي مثيل فرفورال وقيمة مؤشر اللون a ، بينما انخفضت معنويا قيمة الاس الهيدروجيني ومؤشري اللون L و b للمعاملات جميعها مع زيادة مدة الخزن ......


Article
EFFECT OF GROWTH REGULATORS AND HERBICIDES ON SUGAR YIELD , QUALITY AND ATTENDANT WEEDS OF SUGARCANE Saccharum officinarum L. GROWN IN DHULUIYA REGION.

Authors: N.F. Almubarak --- F.T. AL- Chalabi
Journal: Diyala Journal of Agricultural Sciences مجلة ديالى للعلوم الزراعية ISSN: 20739524 Year: 2015 Volume: 7 Issue: 1 Pages: 16-29
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

Field experiments were carried out on sugarcane Saccharum officinarum L.in the fields of the general company for industrial crops, Dhuluiya (within thecentral region of Iraq) to study the effect of some plant growth regulators andherbicides, added at the beginning of tillers stage, in Sugar yield , quality andattendant weeds of sugarcane (Variety: Co196). Split Plot Design was used withfour replications, the main plots included herbicides 2, 4-D, bentazone and acontrol treatment (without herbicide). Plant growth regulators GA3,daminozide, mefluidide and control treatment (without PGR) was included insub plots . The results indicated that the use of mefluidide with 2,4-D has ledto highest decrease in weed density with achieve highest percentage of control(80.61 and 76.60 %) for both years respectively , while use of GA3 alone led tohighest increase . it was found that the use of GA3 with 2,4-D has led to highestincrease in percentage of sucrose ( 11.97 and 13.79 % ) for both yearsrespectively ,while effect of GA3 alone shows highest increase in Brix(16.83and 15.98 %) for both years respectively , So that the use of GA3 with 2,4-D ledto highest increase in Purity (83.41 and 83.91 % ) for both years respectively,while use of daminozide treatment led to highest decrease . The interactioneffect of mefluidide with 2,4-D treatment caused highest increase in sugar yieldwith an increase 34 and 31 % for both years respectively .


Article
An-Econometrical Analysis of The Imports of Sugar and Tea in Iraq For The Period (1990-2013)
تحليل اقتصادي وقياسي لاستيراد السكر والشاي في العراق للمدة (1990-2013)

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Abstract

In this research study economic and standard analysis to import crops of sugar and tea to Iraq for the period (1990- 2013), the fact that the import is one of the foreign trade activities in Iraq, research had adopted on the import of crops sugar and tea being the crops that have a close relationship to food security and considered imported crops quantities are the dependent factor (Y) independent factors represented by (the world price and the domestic price and the price of goods complementary and alternative national income and population and dummy variable), It was depend on time-series data in the estimation of the phenomenon under discussion, and to reach the best results was applying the standard model are four formats, The strongest functions had been adopted a based on favorable and superior in terms of statistical and lab. tests it has been chosen as the best crops of sugar, tea function dual logarithmic function, and results of the analysis it became clear moral influence negative to the variables of the world price and the domestic price of goods complementary dummy variable (X1, X2, X3, d) in the importation of crop sugar, tea , either the price of alternative goods for the tea crop variable (X3) and he had a positive significant effect on the import of tea crop, and pointed variables of national income and population (X4, X5) to positive morale in the importation of sugar and tea crops, The study reached with a number of conclusions and recommendations,: that Iraq suffers from a food gap of sugar and tea crops requiring fill this gap through imports from abroad, Research was recommending through interest in local agriculture in order to promote a commodity sugar and the use of available alternatives in Iraq as well as the process of conducting experiments on tea cultivation protected in order to reduce the import of tea, so It is reduced imports and narrow the food gap.

تم في هذا البحث دراسة التحليل الاقتصادي والقياسي لاستيراد سلعتي السكر والشاي في العراق للمدة (1990-2013)، ولكون الاستيراد هو احد أنشطة التجارة الخارجية في العراق اعتمد البحث على استيراد محصولي السكر والشاي كونهما من المحاصيل التي لها علاقة وثيقة بالأمن الغذائي واعتبرت الكميات المستوردة من هذين المحصولين هي العامل التابع (Y) وتمثلت العوامل المستقلة بكل من( السعر العالمي والسعر المحلي وسعر السلع المكملة والبديلة والدخل القومي وعدد السكان والمتغير الوهمي)، وتم الاعتماد على بيانات سلسلة زمنية في تقدير الظاهرة قيد البحث، وللتوصل الى افضل النتائج تم تطبيق نموذج قياسي بأربع دوال، وانتخبت أقوى الدوال بناءً على افضليتها وتفوقها من ناحية الاختبارات الاحصائية والقياسية إذ تم اختيار الدالة اللوغاريتمية المزدوجة كأفضل دالة لمحصولي السكر والشاي، ومن نتائج التحليل اتضح التأثير المعنوي السالب لمتغيرات السعر العالمي والمحلي وسعر السلع المكملة والمتغير الوهمي (X1،X2،X3،d) في استيراد محصولي السكر والشاي، اما متغير سعر السلع البديلة لمحصول الشاي (X3) فكان له تأثير معنوي موجب على استيراد محصول الشاي، واشار متغيري الدخل القومي وعدد السكان (X4،X5) الى المعنوية الموجبة في استيراد محصولي السكر والشاي. وانتهت الدراسة بعدد من الاستنتاجات والتوصيات منها : ان العراق يعاني من فجوة غذائية من محصولي السكر والشاي مما تطلب سد هذه الفجوة عن طريق الاستيراد من الخارج ، وهذا له آثار اقتصادية سلبية على الاقتصاد العراقي، لذلك فقد اوصى البحث الاهتمام بالزراعة المحلية من أجل النهوض بمحصول السكر واستخدام البدائل المتوفرة في العراق وكذلك أجراء تجارب عملية على زراعة الشاي المحمية من أجل تخفيض استيراد الشاي وبذلك يتم تقليل الاستيرادات وتضييق الفجوة الغذائية .


Article
Agaricus bisporous effect on Sugar, Cholesterol and the Bactericidal power of human serum
تأثير Agaricus bisporous على سكر, كولسترول والقوة المضادة للبكتريا في مصل الانسان

Author: Asal Aziz Tawfeeq أسل عزيز توفيق
Journal: Diyala Journal For Pure Science مجلة ديالى للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 83732222 25189255 Year: 2015 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 69-81
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

This research was carried out to study the effect of Agaricus bisporous mushroom on reducing the sugar and cholesterol in blood and determine its activity on improving the bactericidal power of serum collected from a group of healthy volunteers. So, about fifty healthy volunteers from both sexes ranging in age from (20-30 years) and of a weight between (65-100 kg) were included in this study.Results of nourishing (150g) of Agaricus bisporus mushroom as a diet to about (40) healthy volunteers from both sexes twice a week for two months did not show any change in body weight mass (BW) compared with the controls after two months of mushroom administration. However, a significant difference (P <0.05) in serum glucose and cholesterol concentrations in both (male and female volunteers of the study) was detected. In addition, the effect of Agaricus bisporus mushroom administration on the bactericidal activity of normal serum was also studied and a significant difference (P <0.05) in the bacterial colony counts especially in the colony counts of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus was recorded. Moreover, the ethanolic extract of the Agaricus bisporous mushroom showed a significant (P <0.05) antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus strains only.

تم اجراء هذا البحث لغرض دراسة تأثير فطر Agaricus bisporous على تخفيض السكر وكولسترول الدم وتحديد فعاليته في تعزيز القوة القاتلة للبكتريا في مصل الدم لمجموعة من المتطوعين الاصحاء. لذا تم اخذ نحو خمسين متطوعا من كلا الجنسين لهذه الدراسة تراوحت اعمارهم بين (20-30 ) سنة واوزانهم بين (65-100) كغم. وأظهرت نتائج التغذية لأربعين متطوعا بما يقارب ( 150 )غم من فطرAgaricus bisporous مرتين في الاسبوع ولمدة شهرين عدم حدوث اي تغيير في الوزن مقارنة مع مجموعة السيطرة واظهرت نتائج فحص الدم لمتناولي الفطر فرقا معنويا (P <0.05) في تراكيز السكر والكولسترول في الاناث والذكور من المتطوعين للدراسة مقارنة مع مجموعة السيطرة. بالإضافة الى ذلك , فقد تم دراسة تأثير فطرAgaricus bisporous على تعزيز قدرة المصل القاتلة للبكتريا وتم تسجيل فرقا معنويا(P <0.05) في عدد المستعمرات البكتيرية وخاصة في مستعمرات بكتريا Staphylococcus aureus. أيضا, فقد أظهر المستخلص الإيثانولي للفطر تأثيرا معنويا(P <0.05) مضادا لسلالات بكتريا Staphylococcus aureus فقط.

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