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Article
Microbial Contamination Associated with Computer Keyboards and Mouse Devices in Diyala University

Authors: Abdul-Razak Shafiq Hasan --- Shaima'a Rahem Hussien --- Zainab H. Al-Azawi --- Reham Asa'd
Journal: Diyala Journal of Medicine مجلة ديالى الطبية ISSN: 97642219 Year: 2015 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 66-72
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

Background: Surface contamination of public user interface systems such as computer keyboards and mouse devices may play a role in community-acquired outbreaks by acting as an environmental vehicle in transmission of potential hazardous microorganisms. There is no economical way to test all keyboards and mice out there, but there is a common-sense way to prevent bacterial contamination or eliminate it if it exists.Objectives: To explore the bacterial contamination rates in multi-user and single-user computer accessories (keyboards and mouse devices) in certain colleges of the Diyala University.Materials and methods: This study was conducted in Bacteriology laboratory- Colleges of Veterinary Medicine- Diyala University for the period from October 2012 to April 2013. A total of 155 swabs were collected aseptically from 60 computers in 4 colleges, namely, College of Medicine, Veterinary Medicine, Science, and Education- Pure Science. Swabs were streaked on blood and MacConkey's agar plates then incubated for 24 hours at 37 ̊ C. Final identification of bacterial species was based on standard bacteriological and biochemical criteria.Results: The results showed that the overall contamination rate in the four colleges was (54.8%). The highest isolation rate of bacterial contaminant was Staphylococcus epidermidis (30.6%), followed by Escherichia coli (29.4%). Fungi constitute (17.6 %) of isolates. The College of Veterinary Medicine rank at the top with significant highest contamination rate (52.7%), followed by the College of Medicine with a contamination rate (21.2). Computers of the internet centers harbor the significant highest contamination rate compared to administrative units (71.8% and 28.2%) respectively. The contamination rate was higher in mouse devices compared to keyboards (57.6% vs 42.3%).Conclusion: The study concluded that continuous education of students and employees about the risk of bacterial contamination arise from using the computers, beside the periodic disinfection of computer accessories may aid the fight against transmission and spreading of infectious pathogens.


Article
Radioactive Safety Assessment for Surface Contamination by using SAFRAN Tool
تقييم السلامة لتلوث اشعاعي سطحي بأستخدام البرنامج الحاسوبي SAFRAN

Authors: Mezher Abed Gatea مزهر عبد كاطع --- Zaidoon Hafiz Ibrahim زيدون حافظ ابراهيم --- Saad Jundee Kadhum سعد جندي كاظم
Journal: JOURNAL OF MADENAT ALELEM COLLEGE مجلة كلية مدينة العلم الجامعة ISSN: 2073,2295 Year: 2019 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 93-102
Publisher: City College of Science University كلية مدينة العلم الجامعة

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Abstract

This research presents the deterministic safety assessment for work activities carried out to remediate the surface radioactive contamination which found during the decommissioning of Radioisotopes Production Laboratory (RPL) at Al-tuwiatha nuclear site, to demonstrate that the dose acceptance criteria and the safety goals are met with a high degree of confidence. Work activities comprised characterizing, removal, packaging and relocating of the generated waste into specified zone. The physical status of the affected area is soil and debris and radiologically contaminated with (Cs-137, Eu-152, Co-60) and small amounts of natural Uranium. Safety assessment calculations have done by using SAFRAN (Safety Assessment Framework) version 2.3.2.7 software. The radiation exposure for workers in the affected area is considered as an endpoint to be compared to the worker dose limit. Dose to the public is considered to be negligible and is not numerically assessed in the SAFRAN file due to that RPL is located in a restricted zone far away from the public, low level radioactivity for the affected area and 30m berm surrounded Al-tuwiatha site. Assessment for accident conditions, were also considered to be negligible because no accident occurs in all activities of work. Safety assessment calculations based on maximum external dose rate (2.233µSv/h) and maximum air contamination (0.001Bq/m3). Safety assessment results proved that the sum of external and internal doses to the workers for all work activities were 1.6mSv/y is less than 10% of the 20mSv/y dose limit. Hence, there are no activities that have been assessed to present a risk rating higher than low and the radiological risks remain below the relevant prescribed dose limits through implementing effective safety programs into remediation process of the surface contamination.

يقدم هذا البحث تقدير السلامة الاشعاعية لفعاليات العمل التي جرت لمعالجة التلوث الاشعاعي السطحي والذي وجد خلال تصفية مختبر انتاج النظائر المشعة (RPL) الواقع في موقع التويثة النووي، لأظهار تحقق معيار الجرعة المقبولة واهداف السلامة وبدرجة عالية من الثقة. اشتملت فعاليات العمل على توصيف ورفع ورزم ونقل النفاية الناتجة الى المكان المخصص. ان الحالة الفيزياوية للمنطقة المتأثرة بالتلوث هي تربة وانقاض ملوثة اشعاعيا بنظائر ( Cs-137 و Eu-152 و Co-60) وكميات قليلة من اليورانيوم الطبيعي. تمت حسابات تقدير السلامة بأستخدام البرنامج الحاسوبي SAFRAN)) الاصدار 2.3.2.7. اعتبر التعرض الاشعاعي للعاملين في المنطقة المتأثرة كنقطة معايرة نهائية للمقارنة مع الحدود المقبولة للجرعة الاشعاعية للعاملين. تم اهمال الجرعة الاشعاعية لفرد الجمهور ولم يتم تقديرها عدديا في ملف برنامج الـ SAFRAN)) بسبب وقوع مختبر انتاج النضائر المشعة في المنطقة المقيدة والنشاط الاشعاعي الواطىء للمنطقة الملوثة ووجود حاجز ترابي يحيط موقع التويثة وبأرتفاع 30م. ايضا تم اهمال تقدير السلامة للحوادث بسبب عدم حدوث اي حادث عرضي في كافة فعاليات العمل. اعتمدت حسابات تقدير السلامة على اعلى معدل جرعة اشعاعية خارجية (2.233µSv/h) واعلى تركيز للملوثات خلال العمل (0.001Bq/m3). اثبتت نتائج تقدير السلامة أن مجموع التعرض الاشعاعي الخارجي والداخلي للعاملين ولكافة فعاليات العمل كان ((1.6mSv/y وهو اقل من 10% من الجرعة الاشعاعية المقبولة للعاملين ((20mSv/y. لذا فأن المخاطر الاشعاعية تكون واطئة، وتحت مستوى حدود الجرعة المقبولة والمتعلقة بالعاملين في حقل الاشعاع، وهذا ناتج من خلال تطبيق برامج سلامة فعالة في عملية المعالجة لمنطقة التلوث السطحي.

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