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Article
Synthesis and Characterization of New Biodegradable Polymers and Study of Some Properties in Phosphate Buffers
تحضير وتشخيص بوليمرات متحللة احيائيا جديدة ودراسة بعض خواصها في محلول الفوسفات المنظم

Authors: Raheem J.M. رحيم جميل محيسن --- Ali K.S. علي غانم سوادي --- Husein N.Kh. حسين ناصر خلف
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Aquaculture المجلة العراقية للاستزراع المائي ISSN: 1812237X Year: 2009 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 51-58
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Copolymers between polylactic acid and polyethylene glycol, also alganic acid and polyethylene glycol were synthesized and diisocynate (MDI) were prepared and characterized. Swelling behaviors and loss of weight of these polyurethanes were studied by immersion of the gels in various buffer solutions. Particularly the polyurethane foam showed the highest EWC (equilibrium water constant) in time-dependent and pH-dependent swelling.

تم تحضير بوليمرات مشتركة بولي اثيلين كلايكول مع بولي حامض اللاكتك وكذلك بولي اثيلين كلايكول مع حامض الالجينك وكذلك حضرت الرغوة الاسفنجية للبوليمرين مع المثيلين داي ايزوسيانيت. درس تاثير الدالة الحامضية والزمن للمحاليل المنظمة على كفاءة الرغوة في سحب الماء وكذلك على استقرارية الرغوة.

Keywords

copolymer --- hydrogels --- swelling.


Article
MEASUREMENTS OF SUCTION AND WATER CONTENT DURING SATURATION OF COMPACTED EXPANSIVE SOIL

Authors: Bushra Suhail Al-Busoda --- Hassan Obaid Abbase حسن عبيد
Journal: DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES مجلة ديالى للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19998716/26166909 Year: 2015 Volume: 8 Issue: 4 Pages: 100-109
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

The change of climate gives fluctuation of water content in its result rain, evaporation, rising water ground level and evapotranspiration. The expansive soil will volume change and suction. This behavior can damage on construction structures especially, roads and light building. The phenomenon is very interesting to be researched, how far the effect of water content change and variation suction toward the behavior volumetric swelling expansive soil. This paper presents results of measurement of swell percent, water content and total and matric suction under gradual and controlled moisture intake using dial gages and filter paper .It was found that the suction decreases with increase water content. The results showed that the greater swelling the smaller total and matric suction. The study showed that approximately a linear relationship between the suction with water content.

ان تغير الطقس يؤثر على محتوى الماء نتيجة المطر وارتفاع الماء الجوفى والتبخر.نتيجة لهذه العوامل فان التربة الانتفاخية يتغير حجمها وامتصاصها للماء.هذا السلوك يحطم الابنية وخصوصا الطرق والابنية الخفيفة الوزن.من المفيد البحث بهذه المشكلة ومعرفة تاثير تغير المحتوى المائى والامتصاص على التغير الحجمى للتربة الانتفاخية.هذا البحث يقدم نتائج قياسات نسبة الانتفاخ والمحتوى المائى والامتصاص الكلى والجزئى تحت تسليط ماء باستخدام مقياس التشوه وورقة الترشيح .وجد ان مقدار المص يقل بازدياد المحتوى المائى وكذلك انه كلما كان الانتفاخ اكبر كلما مقدارالامتصاصالكلى والجزئى اقل.هذه الدراسة وجدت ان العلاقة خطية تقريبا بين الامتصاص والمحتوى المائى.

Keywords

Expansive Soil --- Suction --- swelling


Article
Improvement of Physical and Mechanical Properties of Iraqi Gypsum Using Resole Resin

Author: Atheer Alaa Abdulhussein
Journal: journal of kerbala university مجلة جامعة كربلاء ISSN: 18130410 Year: 2012 Volume: 10 Issue: 2 Pages: 211-220
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

The objective of the present work is to improve physical and mechanical properties of local gypsum reinforced with Resole resin. The water-gypsum ratio was kept at 45% throughout all these experiments. The prepared composites show a clear improvement in impact, compression strength and modulus of elasticity while, the bending strength is reduced when the Resole resin proportion in gypsum was increased from 2.5 to 10%. The other objective of this study was to evaluate the water absorption of Resole –gypsum composite. From the experimental results it may be concluded that swelling % was reduced when the Resole percentage in gypsum- Resole composite was increased.

الهدف من العمل هو بتحسين الخواص الميكانيكية والفيزيائية للجبس المحلي المعزز براتنج الريسول. نسبة الماء الى الجبس ثبتت على نسبة 45% خلال جميع التجارب. النماذج المتراكبة المحضرة من راتنجResole)) مع الجبس حصل فيها تحسين ملحوض في قوة التصادم والانضغاط ومعامل المرونة في حين لوحظ هناك انخفاض في قوة الانحناء عندما تغيرت نسبة الريسول في الجبس من 2.5% الى 10% الهدف الاخر من هذه الدراسة هو تقييم امتصاص الماء من قبل متراكبات الجبس والريسول. من النتائج العملية ظهر بشكل واضح, ان درجة الانتفاخ تقل كلما ازدادت نسبة راتنج الريسول في متراكبات جبس-ريسول.


Article
Synthesis of polyamids from some of the medical drugs after the Insertion of 1,3,4-thiadiazole ring in their composition
تحضير بوليمرات الآمايدات من بعض العقاقير الطبية بعد إدخال حلقة 4,3,1- ثايادايازول في تركيبها

Authors: Malath Khalaf Rasheed ملاذ خلف رشيد --- Ali Lateef Hussein علي لطيف حسين
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Pure Science مجلة تكريت للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 18131662 Year: 2017 Volume: 22 Issue: 12 Pages: 64-71
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

This search include preparation of polyamids Containing some of the medical drugs, by the polycondensathion method for amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole compounds with dicarboxylic acids (terephthalic acid and phthalic acid) in presence of triphenyl phosphite and by using domestic microwave oven. Electrical conductivity were determined by using electrical conductivity cell unit.The prepared compounds were characterized by UV/Vis (Ultraviolet/visible), IR (Infra-red) and 1H-NMR (Proton nuclear magnetic resonance) spectra in (d6-DMSO) Solvent ,in addition to using elemental analyses apparatus (C.H.N) for some prepared compounds.

تضمن هذا البحث تحضير بوليمرات الامايدات الحاوية على بعض العقاقير الطبية بطريقة التكاثف المتعدد لمركبات الامينو ثايادايازول الحاوية على العقاقير الطبية مع الحوامض ثنائية الكاربوكسيل (حامض التيرفثاليك وحامض الفثاليك) وبوجود ثلاثي فنيل فوسفيت (TPP) وباستخدام فرن المايكرويف, وتم قياس التوصيلية الكهربائية لهذه البوليمرات المحضرة باستخدام وحدة خلية التوصيل الكهربائي المصنعة محليا. شخصت المركبات المحضرة باستخدام التقنيات الطيفية طيف الأشعة فوق البنفسجية والمرئية (UV/Vis) وطيـــف الأشـــــعة تحـــت الحمـــراء (IR) وطيـــف الرنين النووي المغناطيســـي للبروتون 1H-NMR وباســـــتخدام مذيــــب (d6-DMSO), وتحليل العناصر (C.H.N) لبعض المركبات المحضرة.


Article
Effect of Annealing on the Crystallization of Poly Vinyl Chloride for Drug Delivery System

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Abstract

Poly vinyl alcohol has been studied for its ability to form crystallites by using annealing method. Semicrystalline films of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) were prepared by casting 11.5 wt. % and 13 wt. % PVA aqueous solution onto glass slides at annealing temperature range 90 -120°C and duration time 15- 60 minute. This allowed the macromolecules to form crystallites, small regions of folded and compacted chains separated by amorphous regions where single PVA chain may pass through several of these crystallites. Degree of crystallinity of PVA films (hydrogels) was determined by method of density; on the other hand the swelling behavior was conducted by the determination of water uptake, wet degree of crystallinity, gel fraction and solubility. The results of PVA films showed that water uptake decreased with increasing temperature, time of annealing and PVA concentration, while degree of crystallinity increased, and gel fraction and solubility decreased with increasing temperature and time of annealing. The maximum dry and wet degree of crystallinity was 64% and 36% respectively at 120°C and 60 min.


Article
Factors associated with facial swelling severity following impacted lower third molar surgery: A prospective study

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Abstract

Background: The ultimate purpose of this prospective study is to estimate and measure swelling associated withsurgical extraction of impacted mandibular third molars in different four post-operative times and to identify the riskfactors associated with determination of their risk degree.Material and Methods: In this prospective cohort study 159 consecutive cases in which removal of impacted lowerthird molars in 107outpatients were evaluated. Five groups of variables have been studied which are regarded as apotential factor for swelling after mandibular third removal which will enable the surgeon to predict and counsel highrisk patients in order to offer a preventive strategy.Results: Facial measurements were carried out on 1st, 2nd days, 1st and 2nd week postoperatively to measure theswelling area in each time respectively The peak level of swelling was noted on the second post-operative day andsubside by seven days but in some cases the swelling was still in minor degree while in most patients it was zero byday 14.Conclusions: The degree of difficulty of the surgical extraction was the main indicators of risk factors for the swelling inall post-operative days because it involves all the other risk factors together


Article
Primary Hydatid Cyst of the Skeletal Muscles: A Rare Presentation of Cystic Echinococcosis

Author: Ali A. Ali.
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2013 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 66-70
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Hydatid cysts of the liver and/or lung are commonly seen in surgical practice in endemic areas like Iraq. Primary or secondary skeletal muscle hydatidosis is rarely reported, even in endemic areas. This is a case report of a 51 year-old, otherwise healthy, man with a firm non-fluctuant cystic swelling in the right thigh that was painless and growing slowly over a period of six months. While ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging suggested a multilocular cystic lesion, other investigations failed to confirm the diagnosis of muscular hydatid cysts, especially in the absence of a primary cyst in the more common organs. The lesion was initially considered a soft tissue tumor but intraoperative exploration revealed a hydatid cyst with daughter cysts, that was excised and the patient was treated with Albendazole for 1 month postoperatively. The patient developed a seroma that disappeared spontaneously. There was no recurrence for up to 4 months of follow-up. This report illustrates that echinococcal disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a cystic mass in any anatomic location, especially when it occurs in endemic areas.


Article
Geotechnical Properties of Expansive Soil Treated With Silica Fume
الخواص الجیوتكنیكیة للترب الأنتفاخیة المعالجة بمادة السیلیكا فوم

Author: Zeena Waleed S. Abbawi
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2013 Volume: 31 Issue: 17 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 3358-3370
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Problematic soils such as expansive soil are those clay soils which exhibitedsignificant volume changes as results of soil moisture variation, when a dry mass ofclay is allowed to absorb water, the effective size of particles increases and thereforethe clay mass swells. This type of soil, upon wetting and drying, causes sever damageto structures built on such soil.A treatment of swelling/shrinkage using silica fume was studied in this work. Thesoil selected for the present investigation classified as (CH) according to unified soilclassification system with liquid limit = 51% and plastic limit = 27%. Soil specimenswere mixed with various percentages of silica fume contents (10%, 20%, 25%, 30%and 50%) to determine their effects on geotechnical properties such as Atterberge’slimits, compaction, unconfined compression and swelling properties.The results show that the silica fume played an important role in improving theproblem of swelling behavior in expansive soil. The silica fume decrease liquid limitand changed compaction parameters of expansive soils the moisture content valuesincreased and the maximum dry unit weight values decrease. Also the silica fumeincreased unconfined compressive strength, decreased the compressibility and thevertical swelling percentages of clayey soil-silica fume mixtures.


Article
The Suitability of Soils for Constructor in selected sites at Nasiriya City, South of Iraq
تقیم صلاحیة التربة للأعمال الإنشائیة لمناطق مختارة في مدیة الناصریة جنوب العراق

Author: Shaymaa k. khadhim شیماء ك كاظم
Journal: basrah journal of science البصرة للعلوم ISSN: 18140343 Year: 2014 Volume: 32 Issue: 1C eng Pages: 32-48
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Expansive soils are defined as those soils whose volume changesunder the effect of wetting and drying cycles are these soils associatedwith the problems and failures that have been observed in constructionfield as reported from many parts of the world. In this paper variousgeotechnical properties have been studied .The purpose of this study is toevaluate soils for suitable construction. Four different sites were selectedto evaluate some of geotechnical properties in some regions of Nasiriyacity. By studying grain size distribution, chemical tests, Atterbreg limits,Consistency index swelling potential, and consolidation parameters. Thepresent study provides typical ranges of some soil parameters.The soil in the city of Nasiriya has a variation of engineeringproperties with depth. The sites were selected from different areas tocompare between the engineering properties. The soil has low plasticity(LL < 50), and high swelling potential. Some of the study areas contain apercent of sulphate, which has a negative effect on concrete structures.

یمكن تعریف الترب الانتفاخیة بأنھا التربة التي یتغیر حجمھا بتغیر محتواھا الرطوبي . فيھذا البحث اختیرت أربع مناطق في مدینة الناصریة الواقعة في الجزء الجنوبي من العراق .تمدراسة بعض الخواص الجیوتكنیكیة لغرض تقیمھا ھندسیا وملائمتھا لبناء المنشاة ، وقد تمدراسة خواص التحلیل ألحجمي وحدود اتربرغ والتحلیل الكیمیائي للترب وفحص القواموالانضمام ،,وحساب جھد الانتفاخ اعتمادا على حد السیول ودلیل اللدونة.أظھرت النتائج اختلاف في الخواص الجیوتكنیكیة مع العمق من منطقھ إلى أخرى، وقد بینتذات انتفاخیة ، (L.L< نتائج حدود اتربرغ أن تربة مناطق الدراسة كافھ واطئھ اللدانة (% 50عالیة اعتمادا على طریقة الفعالیة .فحص الانضمام اظھر أن الترب ذات انضمام اعتیادي


Article
EFFECT OF USING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF EXPANSIVE SOIL

Authors: Adel H. Majeed --- Muhannd W. Majeed
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2017 Volume: 21 Issue: 5 Pages: 171-183
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Expansive soil is the soil that its volume changes according to the changing of moisture content included in it. When the soil absorbs water this will lead to increase its volume and vice-versa. The swelling of soil leads to structural damage such as kerbs swelling, cracking in borders and reinforced foundation and finally leads to deformation in floors and doors, these deformations may be light, moderate and heavey according to the value of swelling. In this research, the expansive soil "that is brought from Karkuke province" has initial plasticity index (P.I) is (98), Liquid limit (L.L) is (163), and plastic limit (P.L) is (65). In order to improve the properties of expansive soil, petroleum products have been added to the soil in different percentages (2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10%) by soil weight. These different products such as: Kerosene, Gasoil, and Cut-back asphalt (MC-30) are brought from AL-Durra Oil Refinery in Baghdad.. After done all the laboratory tests on this type of soil with different percentages of adding petroleum products, it will be noted that the addition of 10% by soil weight of kerosene reduces the liquid limit (L.L), plastic limit (P.L) and plasticity index (P.I). It also reduces the free swell and swelling pressure as shown in this research. For all petroleum products the increase of adding petroleum products leads to reduce volumetric changes.

: الترب الانتفاخية هي الترب التي يتغير حجمها نتيجة تغير المحتوى المائي المحيط بها. فعندما تمتص التربة الماء يؤدي ذلك الى زيادة حجمها والعكس بالعكس. ان ظاهرة النتفاخ بالتربة تؤدي الى اضرار كبيرة في المنشات منها ظهور تشققات في الارضيات والسقوف والابواب وهذه التشققات ربما تكون قليلة او متوسطة او كبيرة بالاعتماد على قيمة الانتفاخ. في هذا البحث الترب الانتفاخية تم جلبها من مدينة كركوك وكانت نتائج الفحوصات الأولية لها كما يلي مؤشر اللدونة (98%) وفحص حد السيولة (163%) وحد اللدونة (65%). ولأجل تحسين الخواص للتربة النتفاخية تم أستخدام وأضافة منتجات نفطية وبنسب مختلفة (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%و 10%) من وزن التربة. والمنتجات النفطية المستخدمة هي النفط الابيض والكازأويل ومستحلب الاسفلت (أم سي 30) وهذه المنتجات جلبت من مصفى الدورة في بغداد . بعد اجراء كافة الفحوصات المختبرية وبأستخام نسب مختلفة من المنتجات النفطية وجد أن مادة النفط البيض وبنسبة 10% قد قللت نتائج حد السيولة وحد اللدونة ومؤشر اللدونة مقارنة بالمواد النفطية الاخرى, كما وانها قللت من قيمة الانتفاخ الحر وضغط الانتفاخ للنماذج وكما موضح بالبحث.

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