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Article
Temporomandibular disorders in association with stress among students of sixth grade preparatory and students of fifth year high schools

Authors: Toka T. Alnesary تقى الناصري --- Rafil H. Rasheed رافل رشيد
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 2 Pages: 70-74
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: A close relationship had been reported between depression, anxiety and many disease symptoms ordisorders. This is true for temporomandibular disorders which is a collective term embracing a number of clinicalproblems that involve the masticatory musculatures, temporomandibular joint and associated structures, or both. Thisstudy designed to evaluate the association of stress with temporomandibular disorders among sixth gradepreparatory students and students of fifth year of secondary school.Subjects, materials and methods: The sample's size of 404 students of sixth grade preparatory study (154males and250 females) and 360 (168males and 192females) of fifth year of secondary schools. Firstly all the students subjectedfor stress questionnaire, secondly the stressful students subjected to different combination of clinical andquestionnaire measures according to the research diagnostic criteria of temporomandibular disorders (axis I) whichhave standardized series of diagnostic tests based on clinical signs and symptoms. Data are analyzed by using Z-testand chi-square.Results: The results obtained from this study showed that no significant differences between classes in the percentageof stressful students with temporomandibular disorders according to the clinical examination but in both classes,females' students showed higher percentage of temporomandibular disorders than males of same class. Bruxism andnail biting were significantly higher among students of sixth grade.Conclusions: This study revealed that stress of studying at sixth grade has no effect on temporomandibular disordersprevalence.


Article
The etiology of temporomandibular joint problem in Iraqi patients

Author: Wajnaa F. Qassim وجناء قاسم
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2005 Volume: 17 Issue: 3 Pages: 66-69
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: In the last decade, dramatic advances have been made in understanding the causes of facial pain related to temporomandibular disorders. The aim of this study was to identify the most possible causes that provoke temporomandibular disorders in Iraqi patients.Materials and Method: This study was conducted with 289 patients (110 males & 188 females), the mean age was 35.5 years range from (1-70) years, were seeking treatment for their Temporomandibular joint problems.Results: Stress was the most frequent etiological factor (43.3%) followed in descending manner by occlusal disharmony (30.5%), altered chewing pattern (16.5%), dental irritation (5.7%), dislocation (2%) degenerative arthritis (1%), trauma (0.7%) and rheumatoid arthritis (0.3%).Females were more frequently affected, with the total male to female ratio equal to 3:5 and predominant age for both sexes was (21-30) years.Conclusion: all the above contributory factors resulted in muscular dysfunction which in turn forms the primary factor responsible for signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint problem


Article
Prevalence of myofascial pain in students of selected secondary schools in Baghdad city

Authors: Toka T. Alnesary --- Rafil H. Rasheed رافل رشيد --- Raja H. AL-Jubouri رجاء الجبوري --- Raya R. Al-Dafaai ريا الدفاعي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: special issue 2 Pages: 84-87
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Myofascial face pain (MFP) is painful disorder of masticatory muscles thought to be the most commontype of temporomandibular disorder (TMD).This study was done to evaluate the prevalence of MFP in students ofsecondary schools of Baghdad cityMaterials and methods: The sample comprised 242 females' students and 222 males' students of secondary schools,aged 17-18 years. The MFP evaluated according to the specific screening questionnaire of research diagnosticcriteria of temporomandibular disorders (RDC/TMD) axis I with clinical examination.Results: the study revealed that (50.8%) of the students had history of pain where females reported higherpercentage than males with statistical significant difference. The history of pain in muscles of mastication was higherthan joint pain in both genders. After clinical examination this study also showed that (25.4%) of students with historyof pain had MFP. The differences between both genders regarding the diagnosis of MFP were higher in females thanmales but statistically not significant.Conclusion: high percentage of students reported a history of pain which could be attributed to MFP in (25.4%) ofthe students. The prevalence of pain history and MFP was higher in females’ than males


Article
Electromyography evaluation of masseter and temporalis muscles in patients with temporomandibular joint dysfunction

Authors: Dr. Imad S. Noorali BDS FICMS د. عماد نور علي --- * Dr. Majeed A. Baheer BDS FICMS ** د. مجيد باهر
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2016 Volume: 13 Issue: 1 Pages: 85-91
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Aim: Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are composed of heterogeneousmasticatory disorders which include muscle and joint disorders ،Majorprecipitating factors are occlusal, traumatic, psychosocial and systemic factors.The symptoms associated with this syndrome are due to hyper function and/ordysfunction of the masticatory muscles, rather than to degenerative orinflammatory changes of the TMJ .Various attempts have been made todemonstrate this hyperactivity via EMG recordings of the masticatory muscles .The aim of this investigation was to determine possible altered muscular functionin patients with TMD, as well as to determine the need for EMG application inTMD diagnosis.Methods: Thirty adults participated in this study :20 subjects with signs andsymptoms of TMD and 10 asymptomatic subjects .Surface EMG recordings wereobtained from left and right anterior temporal muscle, left and right massetermuscle.Results: of this investigation showed the presence of altered masticatory muscleactivity in TMD patients and confirmed the use of electromyography in TMDdiagnosis.Conclusion: The investigation has confirmed that EMG is a useful and non-invasivemethod in TMD diagnosis.


Article
An Assessment of Alpha-Amylase as Salivary Psychological Stress Marker in Relation to Temporomandibular Disorders among a Sample of Dental Students

Authors: Sarmad Qays Ali سرمد قيس علي --- Raja Hadi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 4 Pages: 90-95
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: University dental students perceived a higher level of stress prior to the final exam associated with raisedsalivary alpha-amylase levels which could be considered as a useful noninvasive biomarker for measuring acutestress. Using a Helkimo anamnestic and clinical dysfunction scoring for temporomandibular disorders can give abetter insight about the association of this marker and temporomandibular disorders. The aim of this study was toevaluation level of salivary alpha-amylase in stressor students with temporomandibular disorders and the relationbetween the marker in relation to temporomandibular disorders severity. This might give a better understanding tothe role of psychological stress as an etiological factor for developing temporomandibular joint problems.Materials and Methods: A total eighty participants aged between 20 to 24 were recruited for this study. Theparticipants were University dental students under graduate students at final examination period who wereexamined and gave saliva samples in final examination period. Salivary assay kits as alpha-amylase was used tomeasure those variable and a Helkimo anamnestic and clinical dysfunction scoring for temporomandibulardisorders.Results: The group of participants with stress and temporomandibular disorders showed significantly higher levels ofsalivary alpha-amylase than the control group, the salivary alpha-amylase has statistically non-significant correlationwith Helkimo anamnestic categories (Di-I mild, Di-II moderate and Di-III severe. Salivary alpha-amylase levels shownon-significant and weak association with two categories of clinical dysfunction criteria in Helkimo index system,which are Muscle pain and temporomandibular joint pain on palpation.Conclusion: This study concluded that University students perceived a high level of stress before the finalexamination. Salivary alpha-amylase is now the stress biomarker that is most often used to measure acute stress.Helkimo anamnestic and clinical dysfunction scoring criteria for still the pioneer for measuring a TMD

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