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Article
Effects of Toluene and Formaldehyde on Oogenesis in Adult Female Mice

Authors: Layla A Kareem --- Hiwa B. Banna --- Kameel M. Naoom
Journal: Diyala Journal of Medicine مجلة ديالى الطبية ISSN: 97642219 Year: 2014 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 33-40
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

Background: The present study was designed to investigate the effects of toluene and formaldehyde inhalation on the ovaries of adult female mice at room temperature. Material & Methods: Mice were divided into three groups: control group, toluene exposed and formaldehyde exposed groups. The female mice were exposed to (3 ml = 300 ppm toluene) and (2.5 ml=300 ppm formaldehyde) 3 hours daily for 21 days. In this study a haemotoxlyin and eosin stains as well as the periodic acid Schiff (PAS) were used in order to illustrate the histological structures of the ovaries. Results: Female exposed to both solvents showed a significant decrease in their weights. Histological examination of the ovaries of the exposed mice (either to toluene or formaldehyde) revealed an increase in thickness of zona pellucida of ovarian follicles, significant increase in the number of primary, secondary and Graffian follicles with decrease in the number of primordial follicles after inhalation comparisons to the normal groups. Discussions: The results indicate that exposure to these organic solvents may suppress the central nervous system that contains vital centers which leads to reduction of mice weight. Conclusion: Both solvents may cause injuries to the ovaries followed by changes of the histological structure for them. This might be due to disruption of endocrine function which leads to suppression of the releasing of gonadotropins hormones.

Keywords

Toluene --- Formaldehyde --- Oogenesis


Article
Transport of light nonaqueous phase liquid in a saturated nonhomogeneous Soil
انتقال سائل هايدروكاربوني قليل الكثافة لامائي في تربة مشبعة ومتغايرة الخواص

Authors: Hussein H. E. Al-Husseini --- Abbas H. Sulaymon --- Adel O. Shareef
Journal: Journal of Petroleum Research & Studies مجلة البحوث والدراسات النفطية ISSN: 22205381 Year: 2018 Issue: 20 Pages: 230-248
Publisher: Ministry of Oil وزارة النفط

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Abstract

The purpose of the present research is to study the dissolution and transport of LNAPL (toluene) from a circular pool in heterogeneous sand soil. An aquifer was constructed to conduct this aim with dimension of (100 * 50 * 30) cm. The aquifer was packed with heterogeneous sand soil. Eight points at three depths along the aquifer were selected for sampling procedures. Samples were analysis for toluene concentration using gas chromatography devise. Three velocities of five were selected to explain the transport phenomena. Statistical analysis was applied to the data to find the correlation between measured concentrations. It was found that, the concentrations of toluene were fluctuated in the low and max porous medium flow velocities (0.408 and 5.118) cm/day effect of flow through porous media on. The statistical analysis showed that there a correlation between concentrations of toluene in the vertical direction (depth) of the medium.

ان الهدف من الدراسة الحالية دراسة ذوبان وانتقال مركب منفرد من المواد الهيدروكاربونية الأقل كثافة من ماء التلوين من بركة في تربة رملية مشبعة وغير متجانسة. تم أنشاء مكمن مائي بإبعاد (100*50*30) سم. تم ملئ المكمن المائي بتربة رملية غير متجانسة واختيرت ثمانية نقاط على طول المكمن وعلى ثلاثة اعماق تحت سطح التربة الرملية كنقاط لسحب العينات. تم تحليل العينات المسحوبة لتحديد تراكيز التلوين باستخدام جهاز كروموتغرافي الغاز. تم اختيار ثلاث سرع لجريان الماء في الوسط. تم اجراء التحليل الاحصائي باستخدام برنامج SPSS لايجاد العلاقة بين قيم التراكيز المقاسة. وجد من خلال الدراسة ان هناك تغاير بين التراكيز المقاسة خلال سرع الجريان الواطئة واعلى سرعة جريان للوسط (0.408 و 5.118 سم/يوم) على التوالي. بين التحليل الاحصائي ان هناك علاقة بين قيم التراكيز المقاسة خلال عمق التربة.

Keywords

LNAPL --- toluene --- porous media.


Article
Solvent Effects on Performance of P3HT: PCBM Organic Solar Cell

Author: Mohammed T. Obeed
Journal: Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences) مجلة ابحاث البصرة ( العلميات) ISSN: 18172695 Year: 2017 Volume: 43 Issue: 1A Pages: 62-71
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Regioregularpoly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT):[6,6]-phenylC61-butyricacidmethylester (PCBM) active layer were found to significantly increaseorganic solar cell performance. photovoltaic devices with three solvents, Toluene (T),Xylene (X), and co-solvent Toluene:Xylene (T:X) were fabricated. The physicalproperties of these devices with different solvents are investigated. In this paper, wefind that, absorption spectrum of the blend becomes more broad with differentsolvents, which is highly desirable for photovoltaic devices. Films morphology isevaluated by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). X-Ray diffraction (XRD) samplesand External Quantum Efficiency (EQE) measurements are also performed for theactive layers. The Power Conversion Efficiency (PCE) enhancement for the devicewith (T:X) is more significant than for other solvents. With different solvents, thesolar cells upon (T:X) give (PCE) of 0.176%, in contrast to 0.144% for (T), and0.079% for (X), devices.

Keywords

PCBM --- Organic --- Solar Cell --- toluene --- Xylene


Article
Study of Some Physical Behavior for Polycarbonate In Two Different Solvents at Room Temperature
دراسة بعض الخصائص للسلوك الفیزیائي للبولیكاربونیت في مذیبین مختلفین في درجة حرارة الغرفة

Authors: Khalid Mershed E. --- Raouf Mahmood Raouf --- Harith Hasoon Jasim
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2012 Volume: 30 Issue: 3 Pages: 354-363
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The goal of this research was to study some Rheological and optical properties ofpoly carbonate in (chloroform and toluene) with different concentrations to know thephysical behavior of this polymer in two solvents at room temperature.It wasdetermined that the value of polymer solution in these two solvents with differentconcentrations and the optical absorption, average viscosity molecular weightEffective molecular radius. The results have shown that the values of density, (shear,relative, specific, reduced, original) viscosities, Effective molecular radius andaverage viscosity molecular weight, increase with poly carbonate concentration intwo solvents.The results also showed that prepared concentrations density wassignificantly influenced by the density of solvents used; this influence was not in thesame magnitude for the rest of measurements and calculations. This may be due tothe dynamic behavior of the polymer in a solvent.

یھ دف البح ث إل ى دراس ة بع ض الخص ائص الریولوجی ة والبص ریة للب ولي كاربونی ت ف ي(الكلوروف ورم والتل وین ) لمعرف ة س لوك الب ولیمر الفیزی ائي ف ي ھ ذین الم ذیبین المختلف ین,وف ي درج ةحرارة الغرفة .تم تعیین قیم بعض أنواع اللزوج ة للب ولیمر الم ذاب ف ي ھ ذین الم ذیبین وبتراكی ز مختلف ةوك ذلك الامتصاص یة الض وئیة و ت م حس اب مع دل ال وزن الجزیئ ي اللزوج ي و نص ف القط ر الجزیئ يالفع ال.ل وحظ إن ق یم ك ل م ن الكثاف ة، اللزوج ة القص یة ، اللزوج ة النس بیة، اللزوج ة النوعی ة، اللزوج ةالمختزلة،اللزوج ة الأص یلة ووزن الجزیئ ي ت زداد بزی ادة تركی ز الب ولي كاربونی ت ف ي الم ذیبین .كم اأظھ رت النت ائج ت أثر كثاف ة التركی ز المحض رة بش كل واض ح بكثاف ة الم ذیبات المس تخدمة ول م یك ن ھ ذابنفس المقدار في بقیة القیاسات والحسابات وقد یعود ھذا إلى السلوك الدینامیكي للبولیمر في المذیبات.


Article
INVESTIGATION ON THE EFFECT OF THE POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL ON THE ELECTROPHORTIC DEPOSITION OF ALUMINA AND ZIRCONIA

Authors: Awham Jumah Salman --- Saad Badry Hasson Farid --- Alaa Abdul hasan Atiyah
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Engineering Sciences مجلة القادسية للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19984456 Year: 2018 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-9
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

This work is a study of the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on electrophoretic deposition )EPD) of alumina and zirconia particles. The effect of polyethylene glycol as a binder material and the toluene as a dielectric liquid, on the pH of suspension, the final thickness and green density of the deposed parts were studied. There was a difference in the behavior of polyethylene glycol when added for the alumina suspension and the zirconia suspension. The increase in polyethylene glycol was useful to deposit the zirconia more than alumina. The pH for both alumina and zirconia suspension increases with the increase of polyethylene glycol content and with the addition of toluene due to increase of the OH– concentration in the suspension. This increase of pH enhances the particle surface charge and enhances the deposition rate, which led to the increase of density of the deposit


Article
Effect Time Factor on Some Physical Properties for Polystyrene irradiation and Dissolved in Toluene

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Abstract

We have studied in our research the effects of both gamma- rays and time factor on some physics properties as a function of changing some physical properties with the speed of ultrasound for Polystyrene dissolved in the toluene at (30 ± 3oC) temperature by existence the presence of air to maintain the stability of the physics properties of polymeric materials exposed to the radiation.


Article
The Electronic transitions of polyaniline doped with p- toluene Sulfonic acid
الانتقالات الالكترونية للبولي أنلين المشوب بحامض البارا تلوين سلفونك PAni-PTSA

Author: Kareema M. Ziadan
Journal: journal of kerbala university مجلة جامعة كربلاء ISSN: 18130410 Year: 2013 Volume: 1 Issue: المؤتمر العلمي الاول لكلية العلوم Pages: 67-47
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

Polyaniline doped with p-toluene Sulphonic acid PAni-PTSAwas synthesized by using a new oxidative chemical polymerization method. The polymer solution deposited on, glass and Aluminum substrate by spin coating technique.Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra, and ultraviolet visibility (uv- vis. absorption) spectra, were used to characterize the molecular structures of PAni-PTSA and electronic translation of polymer . The optical analyses indicated that the transition was direct transition with energy gape about 2.5eV. The electrical properties were measured by two probe method. The conductivity values of this polymer is about(8*10-4 S/cm ).

حضرت مادة البولي أنلين المشوب بحامض الباراتلوين سلفونك بالطريقة الكيميائية مستخدم مادة مؤكسدة جديدة. المحلول لبوليمري PAni-PTSA رسبت على قواعد من الزجاج والألمنيوم بواسطة الطلاء بالبرم. جهاز مطياف FTIR ومطياف UV استخدمت في تشخيص التركيب الجزيئي والانتقالات الالكترونية للبوليمر PAni-PTSA . تحليل النتائج الضوئية تشير إلى انتقالات الكترونية مباشرة بفجوة طاقة حوالي 2.5 إلكترون فولت. الخواص الكهربائية قيست بطريقة المجسين . التوصيلية الكهربائية لهذا البوليمر المحضر حوالي (8*10-4 S/cm ). .


Article
Investigation of Lewis Acid-Base Reaction of Acidic Species Present in Aluminum Chloride-Urea Ionic Liquid [AlCl2.nUrea] +

Authors: Hadi M. A. Abood --- Marwa H. Fadhil
Journal: Al-Nahrain Journal of Science مجلة النهرين للعلوم ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461 Year: 2014 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 71-75
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Aluminum chloride-urea ionic liquid was investigated for its active species concentration with the aide of electronic spectroscopy by Lewis acid-base titration with chloride ions. A coordination bonds between aluminum cationic species of the ionic liquid and the aromatic ring of toluene or benzene was assumed to be responsible for new formed bands in visible and ultraviolet regions. Upon Lewis acid-base titration these bands disappeared and the concentration of the acidic species were elucidated to be around 75 mole% of the initial aluminum chloride used to prepare a 1.5 mole aluminum chloride to 1 mole urea ionic liquid. The product of this reaction assumed to be between 1 acidic species to 1 chloride ion according to the mole fraction elucidated graph.

تمت دراسة السائل الايوني المتكون من كلوريد الالمنيوم واليوريا لتحديد تركيز الاجزاء الفعالة بأستخدام التحليل الطيفي فوق البنفسجي المرئي لمتابعة تفاعل حامض وقاعدة لويس مع ايون الكلوريد. تكونت اصرة تناسقية بين اجزاء الالمنيوم الموجبة الموجودة في السائل الايوني وبين الحلقة الاروماتية للتولوين او البنزين و تكونت حزم جديدة في المنطقة المرئية والفوق البنفسجية. بأجراء تفاعل حامض وقاعدة لويس اختفت هذه الحزم الجديدة وتم عن طريق ذلك تحديد تركيز الاجزاء الموجبة الفعالة في السائل الايوني و كانت نسبتها المولية 75% من كلوريد الالمنيوم الاصلي المستخدم في تحضير السائل الايوني بنسبة 1.5 مول من كلوريد الالمنيوم الى 1 مول من اليوريا. وظهر من خلال الكسر المولي ان الناتج لهذا التفاعل كان بين 1 مول من الاجزاء الموجبة الفعالة للسائل الايوني الى 1 مول من ايون الكلوريد المضاف.


Article
Removal of Benzene and Toluene from their Polluted Aqueous solutions by using Natural Adsorbent

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Abstract

Low cost activated carbon was produced from available consumed black tea with microwave technique and employed as an effective adsorbent for removal of benzene (Bz) and toluene (T) from water. The resulted activated carbon was characterized by utilizing dye (methylene blue (MB) and methyl violet (MV)) adsorption procedures and several techniques such as Fourier transform Infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Rays diffraction (XRD). Commercial activated carbon and filter sand as individual and blend samples were also subjected to adsorption of MB, MV, Bz, and T. All obtained results were tabulated and discussed after qualitative and quantitative determinations by applying ultraviolet- visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS) for MB and MV dyes, and gas chromatography (GC) instrumentations for Bz and T.


Article
The Dynamic Behavior and Control of Methanol-Toluene Distillation Column

Authors: Duraid F. Ahmed --- Maher O. Ahmed
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 1813162X 23127589 Year: 2017 Volume: 24 Issue: 3 Pages: 1-11
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

In this study the dynamic behavior for two control methods of the distillation column for the separation of methanol and toluene mixture are studied. The experimental responses of temperature in each tray of distillation column for step changes in set point of reboiler, reflux ratio and feed weight fraction were obtained. Based on a derived mathematical model, the Simulink simulator of the distillation column is used to implement the PID and fuzzy logic control methods. The Comparison between two controllers is done for step changes in set point, feed flow rate, feed weight fraction and liquid reflux. The controller performance is measured by using mean square error and integral square error. The results showed that the performance of the fuzzy controller is the best than the PID controller in fast access to the desired value and cancelling the disturbances.

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