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Article
Prevalence of Superficial Tongue lesions in Iraqi Population

Author: Sabah F. Mushatat صباح فرحان مشتت
Journal: Tikrit Journal for Dental Sciences مجلة تكريت لعلوم طب الاسنان ISSN: 20731213 Year: 2018 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 38-43
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Tongue lesions create a significant proportion of the oral lesions, which afford approximation to oral health and general condition of the patient and may reflect the presence of many systemic diseases of an individual. Oral lesions have long been view as the first signs of many systemic disease and numerous of oral illness. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of various superficial tongue lesions in Iraqi population. 2500 patients attending the Department of Oral Medicine, College of Dentistry, Al-Mustansiriyah University in Baghdad, Iraq were examined for the presence of various tongue lesions during the period from October, 2013 to September, 2016. The age of the patients ranged from 9-75years with a mean age of 36.51 years. The prevalence of tongue lesions was 14.64% and the most common lesion diagnosed was fissured tongue affecting 43.7% of the subjects (160 cases). Geographic tongue was seen in 65 patients (17.7%). Coated tongue was diagnosed in 55 patients (17 %) hairy tongue was seen in 21patients (5.7 %) and ulcerations was seen in 1 patients (0.27%). Ankyloglossia was seen in 46 patients (12.5%) and scalloped tongue was seen in 10 patients (2.7 %). Varicosities were seen in 1 of the patients (0.27 %) and thrush in one patient (0.27 %). The number of occurrences of tongue lesions in the present study was not higher of than previous studies ̦ but the high prevalence of tongue lesions in this study (14.64%) specially fissured tongue(43.7%), geographic tongue(17.7%) and coated tongue (15.02%) indicate further investigations are demanded to indicate if genetic and congenital or environmental factors play a critical role.


Article
Histological changes in tongue of rabbits with iron deficiency state

Author: Ban Abd – Al Ghani بان عبد الغني
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2005 Volume: 17 Issue: 2 Pages: 53-55
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Many oral symptoms can be contributed to iron deficient state. The present study was designed to show the effect of iron deficiency in histological feature of tongue.Materials and methods: Fifteen rabbits were used, 9 of them were given carrot only for duration of 2 months, they represent experimental group. Six of fifteen of rabbits were given normal food with all nutrient and vitamin supplement, for 2 months duration too, they represent the control group.Results: The result shows histological changes in tongue including atrophy and depapillation of experimental group.Conclusion: Iron element is important in epithelization of tongue and to keep tongue healthy

Keywords

Iron deficiency --- tongue


Article
Primary Amelanotic Melanoma of the Tongue (Case Report)

Authors: Bashar H. Abdullah --- Aliaa M. Waheeb --- Aliaa M. Waheeb2 --- Salam N. Jawad
Journal: Journal of Oral and Dental Research مجلة طب الفم والاسنان ISSN: 23106417 Year: 2014 Volume: 1 Issue: 2 Pages: 10-12
Publisher: Iraqi Association for Oral Research الجمعية العراقية لبحوث طب الفم

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Abstract

A case of a 41 years old male with a nodular lesion at the tip of the tongue is presented. Incisional biopsy showedmalignant growth with nonspecific features. Although the lesion showed no pigmentation; positivity for Melan-Awas detected leading to the diagnosis of Amelanotic melanoma. The patient was treated later with excision andneck dissection.

Keywords

Amelanotic --- Oral --- Melanoma --- Tongue


Article
Assessment of tongue space area in a sample of Iraqi adults with class I dental and skeletal pattern

Author: Mohammed A. Kadhum
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 1 Pages: 117-120
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Lateral cephalometric radiography is commonly used as a standard tool in orthodontic assessment andtreatment planning. This study aimed to determine the tongue and surrounding space area in a sample of Iraqiadults with class I dental and skeletal pattern.Materials and methods: The study included thirty healthy subjects (15 males and 15 females) with an age rangedbetween 23-34 years and class I dental and skeletal pattern with no history of any sleep related disorders. Theassessed cephalometric measurement included length and height of the tongue and position of hyoid bone fromcervical line. Descriptive statistics were obtained for the data. Genders difference was evaluated by independentsample t-test.Results: There were significantly higher values in males as compared to females in most of the measurements.Conclusions: The study provides preliminary details of tongue space area assessment in normal class I profile subjects


Article
Impact of stress on Geographic Tongue In Iraqi population

Author: Dr. Suzan M. Abdulraheem, B.D.S, M.Sc., Assistant Lecturer. د. سوزان عبد الرحيم
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2015 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 107-115
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background:Geographic tongue or erythema migrans is fairly common benigncondition that primarily affects the lateral aspect and dorsum of the tongue. Thepattern of the lesion give the surface of the tongue the appearance of a map, thelesion persists for a short period in one area, disappears within a few days, andthen recurs in another area with no apparent reason Although the etiology of thecondition is unknown, it may be related to psychological factors. The aim of thisstudy is to evaluate the association between geographic tongue and stress.Method:This study was performed on 110 individuals; 60 cases with GT and 50 caseswithout GT. All of them filled a questionnaire of perceived stress scale (PSS) andevaluated by a psychologist.Results:Among 120 patients selected, 60 persons suffered from geographic tongue,showed significant relationship between the occurrence of geographic tongue andstress especially among females at their third decade.Conclusion:According to the results, there is a significant association between stressand GT and decreasing stress in GT patients can lead to the healing of the lesion.


Article
Morphological, Histological and Ultrustructural Study of the Tongue in House Geecko (Hemidactylus flaviviridis) Lizard

Author: Azhaar R. AL-Fartwsy, Entikhab Hameed AL-Shuaily, Zainab Abbas AL-Kubaisi
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-11
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The aim of this study to investigate the tongue morphology and histology in house gecko Hemidactylus flaviviridis using light and scanning electron –microscopy (SEM ) technique.The morphology result revealed the presence of three parts : apex , body and lingual root .The light microscopy result showed that the tongue is covered with mucous membrane composed of non keratinized stratified squamous epithelium based on lamina propria which contain bundles of striated muscles its fibers in different directions including connective tissue , blood vessels and nerves. The lingual mucosa of the dorsal surface is covered with different pattern of lingual papillae which are widely distributed all over the dorsal surface except the apex. Noticed on the dorsal surface different types of papillae were like fungiform, long and short folliolate, conical and cuboidal papillae. SEM examination showed that the tongue in Hemidactylus vlaviviridus appeared elongated with triangular shape and bifurcated free tip, also it is divided into three parts: apex, body and root; many types of papillae are distributed on the dorsal surface of the body and root of tongue. Fungiform papillae are widely distributed all over the dorsal surface of the tongue body .In the root of tongue, there are different types of papillae like filiform and foliate papillae , a lot of goblet cells have been showed in this region .


Article
Histopathological Effects of Histoacryl on Oral Secondary Wound Healing: A Comparative Experimental Study

Authors: Huda A Salim --- Bara S Munawah
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2013 Volume: 13 Issue: 23 Pages: 515-523
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The aim of this study is to evaluate the histopathological findings of healing phases in secondary wound defect on rabbit´s tongue, dressed with N-butyl -2- Cyanoacrylate (Histoacryl) tissue adhesive. Materials and Methods: Twenty domestic male rabbits had been selected. Two defects were done on each half of the tongue, 5mm oval shape, the right one left without covering, the left one covered by a thin layer of Histoacryl. Animals could be divided into four groups, each group contain five rabbits, according to sacrificing date into 3 days, 7 days, 14 days, and 30 days. Tongue specimen were collected after sacrificing the rabbit immediately, then divided into two halves, the right half was control one and the left half was the study one, giving off further two subdivisions for each group. The specimen were placed in formaldehyde and sent for histopathological examination regarding inflammatory and reepithelialization scoring. Results: The histopathological findings of this study revealed that there was a significant difference of inflammation between the two groups at 3 days, one week, one month, of tongue at p-value < 0.05, while there was no significant difference at two weeks period. In reepithelialization of the tongue a significant difference at 3 days at p-value < 0.05, and no significance at one week, two week, and one month. Conclusion: This study concluded that histoacryl tissue adhesive accelerate healing by decreasing inflammation, and inducing reepithelialization of mucosal secondary wound defects


Article
Developed method for producing fish protein concentrate from marine fish tongue sole Cynoglossus bilineatus
طريقة مطورة لانتاج مركز بروتيني سمكي من سمك لسان الثور Cynoglossus bilineatus

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to produce fish protein concentrate from marine fish Cynoglossus bilineatus, the fish brought from local Basrah market and dried in the oven at 105 °C for 24 h. The chemical composition of the dried fish were 48.62 % protein (N×6.25), 19.49 % fat and 19.95 % ash, while for the processed protein concentrate were 79.56 % protein (N×6.25), 6.38 % fat and 9.51 % ash. The obtain yield was 67.58 % of dried fish. The processed product characterized with light brown and acceptable fishy smell, and also showed good strong stability after 90 days of storage regarding to TVNB, TBA and total bacterial count at 28 °C, 10 °C and -4 °C without objectionable changes in color and smell. The processed product also had low total bacterial count which was 487, 481 and 462 CFU/gm for the temperatures and storage time above respectively, as well as, coliform bacteria was not detected. The total volatile nitrogen bases were 8.4, 8.2 and 8.0 mg N/ 100 gm, while the TBA were 0.628, 0.266 and 0.263 mg malon aldehyd / kg for the same temperatures and storage time respectively.

هدف البحث إلى تصنيع مركز بروتيني سمكي بطريقة مطورة من أحد أنواع الأسماك البحرية (سمك لسان الثور) Cynoglossus bilineatus، جلبت العينات من السوق المحلية في البصرة وجففت في المختبر بدرجة حرارة 105 °م ولمدة 24 ساعة، اعتمدت طريقة التصنيع المطورة على إنجاز هضم ذاتي للمكونات السمكية عند خفض الأس الهيدروجيني إلى 4 باستعمال 5 % حامض الهيدروكلوريك، كان التركيب الكيميائي للسمك الخام المجفف 48.62 % بروتين (N×6.25) و19.49 % دهن و19.95 % رماد، وللمنتج المصنع 79.56 % بروتين(N×6.25) و6.38 % دهن و9.51 %، وكان ريع الحاصل من المنتج البروتيني المصنع 67.58 % من وزن المادة الخام. أتصف المنتج المصنع بلون بني فاتح ورائحة سمكية خفيفة وأثبت قابلية خزن جيدة لدى خزنه لمدة 3 أشهر بدرجات حرارة 28 °م و10 °م و–4 °م ، إذ لم يحصل تغير ملحوظ في صفاته ولم تتطور حالة التزنخ. حسب العدد البكتيري الكلي و كان 487 و481 و462 خلية / غم على التوالي بعد90 يوماً من الخزن وبدرجات الحرارة أعلاه فضلاً عن خلوه من بكتيريا القولون، وكانت قيمة القواعد النتروجينية الطيارة الكلية 8.4 و8.2 و8.0 ملغم نتروجين/ 100 غم على التوالي، كما لم تظهر حالة تزنخ في المنتج المصنع وفق قيم حامض الثايوبربتيوريك التي كانت 0.268 و0.266 و0.263 ملغم مالون ألديهايد / كغم على التوالي بعد فترة الخزن وبدرجات الحرارة ذاتها.


Article
Numerical and Experimental Study on the PressureDistribution ina Volute of High-Speed Centrifugal Fan with Impeller- Volute interaction(English)
دراسة نظرية وعملية علر توزيع الضغط للمجرى الحلزوني لمروحة طرد مركزية ذات سرعة عالية مع تداخل الدافعة الحلزونية

Authors: Dr.Muthana K. Aldoory د. مثنى خالص الدوري --- Ahmed A. Ali أحمد علي
Journal: AL Rafdain Engineering Journal مجلة هندسة الرافدين ISSN: 18130526 Year: 2012 Volume: 20 Issue: 5 Pages: 69-91
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

ABSTRACT This paper shows a numerical simulation in capturing the dynamic and static pressure effects inside a centrifugal fan due to the impeller-volute interaction.The fan used in this study is a single-stage machine with an unshrouded impeller and external volute.Three volute tongue designs were investigated. Volute C had a full tongue and did not allow any flow recirculation. Volute B had a reduced tongue length thereby opening the recirculation port. Finally the tongue of volute A had a rounded leading edge to make it less sensitive to off-design flow conditions. For the numerical simulation, the viscous Navier-Stokes equations are handled with unstructured grid and the relative reference frames technique is applied to take into account the impeller-volute interaction. The data obtained allow the analysis of the main phenomena existent in these fans, such as: pressure changes in the volute for different flow rates and the secondary flow generated in the volute due to the width change between the impeller and the volute. Numerical results are compared with the experimental pressure data measured in the volute and agreement is found show that at low flow rates ,the volute decelerates the airflow leading to an increase in pressure throw the volute. At these low flow rates separation or flow unsteadiness can occur from the underside of the tongue and the strength of the instability increased when the mass flow rate was reduced further. The pressure fluctuation for various mass flow rates is a non-periodical nature and it is manifest as the broad band components in higher level of random frequency (up to nearly 500 Hz).This investigation concentrates on the measurement of the flow characteristic in the volute casing and the volute tongue configuration.KEYWORDS Flow in volute, Centrifugal fan, volute tongue

الخلاصةيستعرض البحث التمثل العددي لحساب ضغط الهواء الديناميكي و الساكن في داخل المجمع (volute) لدافعة الهواء كنتيجة للتأثير المتبادل بين المروحة (impeller) و المجمع. دافعة الهواء المستخدمة في هذا الدراسة ذات مرحلة واحدة و المروحة من النوع المفتوح و المجمع خارجي. تم دراسة ثلاث أنواع من نتوء لسان (tongue) المجمع ، نوعC: لسان بطول كامل، لايسمح للهواء بالدوران في داخل المجمع.نوع B: لسان بطول غير كامل، يسمح لبعض الهواء بالدوران داخل المجمع ونوع A : لسان بنهاية مستديرة و حسب التصميم الأساسي لدافعة الهواء ليكون أقل حساسية للتشغيل خارج ظروف التصميم.لغرض تمثيل الجريان استخدمت معادلات Navier- Stokes مع الأخذ بنظر الاعتبار لزوجة الهواء. الوصف الشبكي للمجمع من نوع غير المهيكل و ذو إطار مرجعي نسبي عند الأخذ بنظر الاعتبار للتأثير المتبادل ما بين المروحة و المجمع على خصائص الجريان. البيانات المستحصلة من هذا التمثيل استخدمت لتحليل ظاهرة طبيعة الجريان من حيث تغيير الضغط في المجمع كنتيجة لتغيير معدل جريان الهواء من الدافعة. استدلت النتائج إلى حدوث جريان ثانوي في المجمع بسبب وجود المسافة الفاصلة بين المروحة و المجمع. تم مقارنة النتائج العددية مع نتائج التجارب العملية و حصول التوافق بينهما. وقد بينت التجارب كذلك ان المجمع يعمل على تباطأ سرعة الهواء و زيادة في الضغط. عند معدلات الجريان الواطئة ويحصل عدم استقرار للجريان تحت منطقة نتوء اللسان و يزداد عدم الاستقرار عند الاستمرار في خفض معدلات الجريان. التذبذب في ضغط الهواء في المجمع ذو طبيعة عشوائية و يغطي طيف التذبذب مدى واسع و لغاية Hz 500 .


Article
Memory and the Tip-of-the-Tongue Phenomenon
الذاكرة وظاهرة على طرف اللسان

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This study is a psycholinguistic investigation of the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon (henceforth TOT) as being experienced by a sample of advanced Iraqi learners of English. The study is based on the assumption that since speaking is a universal process for all humans, then speaking production models and theories should be broad enough to describe and explain any phenomenon in any language used whether or not that language is a native or a foreign language and specifically the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon. Therefore, advanced Iraqi learners of English could undergo such a phenomenon while using English as a foreign language. This study consists of two parts and seven appendices. The first part is the theoretical part of the study which is considered the basis for defining and explaining the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon, and the basis for understanding the discussion of the results of the second part. However, the second part sheds light on the experimental work of the study. It includes the analysis of the experimental work, the discussion of the results, conclusions, recommendations and suggestions. Among the main conclusions are:1.Although there were no significant differences in state between the males and the females in the test, it is clear that the males underwent the TOT state more than the females in few specific items.2.Although there were a restricted number of the TOT state cases; however, in those cases almost all the speech production models and theories that explain the TOT phenomenon are applicable.3.Most of the TOT state cases occurred in test No. four. That is to say, the subjects underwent the TOT state with verbs and adjectives more than with nouns.4.Concerning the detected TOT cases, they occurred more with words that have sparse neighbourhoods than words that have dense neighbourhoods.5.The recency variable effect was quite clear in test No. three. The more recent the word is the more it affects the incidence of the TOT states.6.Length of words affects the incidence of the TOTS.7.Only in test No. one there were no significant state differences among the males, on the one hand, and among the females, on the other. However, in tests: two, three and four there were significant state differences among the males and among the females.8.Statistically speaking, there is only one case for the whole test in which the group of the females and the group of the total are in the “I know” state. This case is for item No. two in test No. three

الخلاصة عربي يهدف هذا البحث الى دراسة احدى ظواهر علم اللغة النفسي وهي ظاهرة "على طرف اللسان"، التي تعتري الطلبة العراقيين من ذوي المستوى المتقدم الذين يتعلمون اللغة الانجليزية كلغة أجنبية. بنيت الدراسة على الفرضية التالية : بما ان عملية الكلام هي عملية كونية تشمل عموم البشر، اذن فنظريات الكلام يجب ان تكون مؤهلة لوصف أي ظاهرة ، وتفسيرها اي ظاهرة في اي لغة سواء كانت اللغة الام ام لغة اجنبية خصوصاً، ظاهرة "على طرف اللسان". ولذلك فأن الطلبة العراقيين من ذوي المستوى المتقدم في تعلم اللغة الانجليزية ليسوا مستثنين من تأثرهم بهذه الظاهرة عندما يتكلمون اللغة الانجليزية .وقد خلصت الدراسة الحالية الى مجموعة من الاستنتاجات اهمها مايلي:1.على الرغم من عدم وجود فروقات مهمة في حالة الذكور والاناث ممن اشتركوا كعينة اختبار فأنه من الواضح ان الذكور اختبروا ظاهرة "على طرف اللسان" اكثر من الاناث في بعض فقرات الاختبار 2.اوضحت نتائج الاختبار الكلي انّ كل نظريات الكلام تقريباً تنطبق على حالات "على طرف اللسان" التي سجلت في الاختبار الكلي.3.ظهرت اغلب حالات "على طرف اللسان" على عينة الاختبار عند التعامل مع بعض الافعال والصفات اكثر من الاسماء الانكليزية .4.تكررت الحالات المسجله لهذه الظاهرة مع الكلمات ذوات السياق الغني اكثر من تلك ذوات السياق الشحيح.5.كان لعامل حداثة المعلومة المكتسبة تأثير على هذه الظاهرة.6.كان لطول الكلمة علاقة بحدوث او عدم حدوث هذه الظاهرة.7.كانت هنالك فروقات مهمة فيما بين الإناث كمجموعة منفصلة والذكور كمجموعة منفصلة ايضاً ،خصوصاً في الاختبارات الفرعية للاختبار الثاني ، والثالث والرابع.8.من ناحية احصائية ،سجلت حالة واحدة فقط في الاختبار بأكمله بينت أن الإناث كمجموعة منفصلة ،والعينة الكلية مرتا في حالة واحدة من عدم المعرفة .

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