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Article
Effect of Mode of Delivery on Maternal and Umbilical Cord Serum Lipid Profile

Author: Estabraq A.R.Kwaeri
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2007 Volume: 6 Issue: 3 Pages: 252-255
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Limited data are available with regard to the relation between maternal and fetal serum lipid and lipoprotein levels and the mode of delivery.The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of mode of delivery on the levels of serum lipid and lipoprotein of mothers and their umbilical cords.METHOD:This study is consisted of fourty-nine pregnant women delivered by elective caesarean(CS)and seventy-five age-and gestational age-matched pregnant women who delivered by normal vaginal delivery(NVD).Serum lipid profile parameters including; total cholesterol(Tch),triglyceride(TG),high density lipoprotein-cholesterol(HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol(LDL-C)were measured in the serum of these two groups of pregnant women as well as in the serum of their umbilical cords.RESULTS:The mean(±SEM) values of serum Tch,TG,and LDL-C were significantly higher in pregnant women who delivered by NVD when compared with those of pregnant women delivered by CS(all P< 0.001).With regard to serum HDL-C mean value there was no significant difference between these two groups.Similarily,the mean (±SEM) values of serum Tch,TG,LDL-C were significantly increased in umbilical cord of NVD mothers in comparison with values obtained in umbilical cord of CS mothers( all P< 0.001).There was also a significant positive relationship between mothers and umbilical cord serum Tch levels in NVD group(r=0.339, P< 0.001).CONCLUSION:This study revealed that the mode of delivery ,in particular, NVD changes significantly the concentrations of lipid parameters mainly Tch,TG,and LDL-C.Such changes require an important attention postpartumly for such mothers with respect to biochemical investigation,particularly lipid parameters.


Article
Anatomical and Histological Features of Placentae of Different Age Groups
المظاهر التشريحية والنسيجية للمشيمة لمجاميع عمرية مختلفة

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Objectives: To study the structure of placentae of different age groups and relate that to the newborn baby and the mother.Methods: 112 placentae samples were investigated during the period from August 2007 to August 2008 under light microscope for mother aged 15 - 45 years old.Results: It was found that normal placental shapes had no correlation to mother age, while abnormal shapes were found more in young age groups. The better placental measured parameters were found in mother age 20-24 years. The percentages of abnormal umbilical cord insertion were very high compared to other studies. Babies’ gender had a correlation with the placental thickness; male babies have thicker placentae than females. Male babies have longer umbilical cords with wider diameter than females. Light microscope picture showed the chorionic villi with isolated fetal blood vessel were higher in number in 20-24 years old mothers than other, and the package arrangement increased with age. Conclusions: The best placental parameters both grossly and histologically found in mothers aged 20-24 years old. Mothers younger than 20 years old found to have abnormal insertions of the umbilical cord.Keywords: Placenta; mother age; umbilical cord; placentae location.

الاهداف : دراسة تركيب المشيمة لمجامبع عمرية مختلفة وعلاقتها باللأم والاطفال حديثي الولادة.الطرق : درست ١١٢ عينة مشيمة خلال الفترة من آب ٢٠٠٧ ولغاية آب ٢٠٠٨ باستخدام المجهر الضوئي لأمهات تراوحت اعمارهن بين ١٥ – ٤٥ سنة.النتائج : وجدت في الدراسة الحالية عدم وجود علاقة بين أشكال المشيمة الطبيعية وعمر الأم ، بينما وجدت مشيمات غير طبيعية في الأمهات من المجاميع العمرية الصغيرة. أفضل قياسات المشيمة وجدت في الأمهات الآتي تراوحت اعمارهن بين ٢٠ – ٢٤ سنة. بينما وجدت نسبة مئوية اعلى لاتصال الحبل السري بالمشيمة الغير طبيعية كما في الدراسات الاخرى. تبين وجود علاقة بين جنس الجنين وسمك المشيمة. حيث ان الاطفال الذكور لهم مشيمات سميكة اكثر من الاناث. كما ان الاطفال الذكور لهم ايضآ حبل سري اطول واكبر قطرآ مقارنة بالاناث. من فحوصات المجهر الضوئي ان الزغابات المشيمية الحاوية على اوعية دموية جنينية منفصلة كان اكثر في عمر ٢٠ – ٢٤ سنة مقارنة بالاعمار الاكبر. اما الزغابات المشيمية الحاوية على اوعية جنينية دموية بشكل متجمع او حزم فقد ازدادت بتقدم العمر.الاستنتاجات : افضل قياسات المشيمة تشريحيآ ونسيجيآ وجدت في الامهات الآتي تراوحت اعمارهن بين ٢٠ – ٢٤ سنة. ولآتي تقل اعمارهن عن العشرون عامآ وجدت فيها اتصال الحبل السري بالمشيمة غير اعتيادي.


Article
Cross sectional area of umbilical cord as a predictor for neonatal birth weight

Author: Henan Dh. Skheel Al-Jebory
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 46-51
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: In an effort to ameliorate the adverse outcomes associated with traumatic delivery, maternity care professionals continue to search for methods of predicting fetal weight accurately. Aim: This study was designed to clarify the relation between cross sectional area of umbilical cord measured by ultrasound and actual birth weight and compare it with that of hadlock's formula. Patients and method This ; prospective cohort study included 113 pregnant women with uncomplicated, singleton pregnancy and gestational age of 37-42 weeks, admitted with early labor or prepared for elective cesarean section. All were examined by ultra sound, during which fetal anthropometric parameters (BPD, FL, and AC) and cross sectional area of umbilical cord were measured. The estimated fetal weight calculated by Hadlock's formula and by cross sectional area of umbilical cord was correlated with actual birth weight. Results: There was a significant moderate correlation between umbilical cross sectional area with, maternal BMI and neonatal gender, gestational age, but there was no correlation with maternal age, height and parity p.( <0,001) . The umbilical cord cross sectional area and Wharton’s jelly area were found to be moderately correlated with neonatal actual birth-weight, and no significant correlation with umbilical vessels area P (<0.001) The correlation strength of the umbilical cord cross sectional with the estimated birth weight was higher than that by Hadlock’s formula with the value of Coefficient of determinant (R2= 0.3828) for umbilical cord area versus (R20.194 ) for Hadlock's. Conclusion: The cross sectional area of umbilical cord was more accurate in predicting birth weight than fetal anthropometric parameters Bi parietal diameter, femur length and abdominal circumference, (BPD, FL,AC)by Hadlock's formula.


Article
Studying of effect of atrazine and its Negative Effect on Reproductive Organs of Pregnant White Mice Musmusculus and Their Offspring
دراسة تاثيرالمبيد العشبي اترازين وتاثيره السلبي على الاعضاء التكاثرية لاناث الفئران البيض الحوامل نوع Musmusculus ونسلها

Author: Israa Hashim Ali اسراء هاشم علي
Journal: Diyala Journal For Pure Science مجلة ديالى للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 83732222 25189255 Year: 2017 Volume: 13 Issue: 2 - part 3 Pages: 261-268
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

The effect of atrazine were studied as a cause of abortion in white mice Musmusculus.The mice were injected with intra peritoneal single dose of atrazine 75 mg/kg b.w./day for period 7-19 days from pregnancy.The highest percentage of abortion in pregnant mice reach to 59% in the day 8 of pregnancy. The highest percentage of mortality was in the day 18 and 19.The lowest body weight of fetus was 1.53 gm.Histologically,there were much inflammations and necrosis in the sections of placenta umbilical cord and ovary and the endometrium of the uterus appear thick and the alveolar of mammary glands look smallest of the abortion ,s mice.

تاثير المبيد العشبي اترازين درس كمسبب للاجهاض في الفئران البيض نوع Musmusculus اذ حقنت الفئران داخل البريتون بجرعة مفردة من المبيد 75/b.w.kg/mgيوم للفترة 7-19يوم من الحمل.اظهرت النتائج ارتفاع نسبة الاجهاض خلال الفترة الاولى للحمل اذ بلغت اعلى نسبة 59%في اليوم الثامن للحمل كما ادى المبيد الى زيادة نسبة موت الفئران الحوامل خصوصا في اليوم 18و19 للحمل وسبب ايضا ولادة اجنة ذات وزن منخفض وحجم اصغر من الطبيعي اذ بلغ معدل الوزن 1.53غم مقارنة بالسيطرة والبالغ 1.70غم ونسجيا ظهرت التهابات وتنخرات عديدة في المقاطع النسجية للمشيمة او السخد والحبل السري والمبيض وتضخم جدار الرحم وضمور الغدد اللبنية للفئران المجهضة.


Article
Effect of Umbilical Cord Abnormalities on Fetal Heart Pattern Leading to Operative Delivery

Author: Abdulrazak Alnakash*, Lubna Zuhair Almukhtar**, Sahar Jassim Abid
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2018 Volume: 17 Issue: 4 Pages: 360-365
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Umbilical cord abnormalities may be associated with fetal heart rate irregularities this mightchange the mode of delivery from vaginal delivery to cesarean delivery and may be responsible foradverse perinatal outcomes.OBJECTIVE:To verify the association between umbilical cord abnormalities and fetal heart irregularities thatlead to urgent cesarean delivery.MATERIALS AND METHODS:One hundred and six full term singleton pregnant women were enrolled in this study, 51 of themdeveloped non reassuring fetal heart rate (Abnormal CTG) and emergency cesarean delivery wasdone for them, those represent the study group, the other 55 women had reassuring CTG anddelivered vaginally, those represent control group. Umbilical cord and the neonate were examinedafter delivery for abnormality. The data obtained were fixed on questionnaire papers and thensubjected to analysis.RESULTS:Umbilical cord abnormalities were present in higher significant rate (43.1%) in emergencycesarean delivery group than vaginal delivery group. Although single umbilical cord abnormalitieswas present more than multiple umbilical cord abnormalities but the latter associated significantlywith increase rate of cesarean delivery (P value is 0.05). Nuchal cord was present in (31.3%) ofwomen of study group and in (16.4%) of control group. The most fetal heart abnormality foundwas fetal deceleration (96.1%) and most commonly was late deceleration (42.8%).Newborns with multiple umbilical cord abnormalities had significantly lower weight and lowerApgar scores than those with single cord abnormalities, P value 0.018, 0.037 respectively.CONCLUSION:Umbilical cord abnormalities are associated with increase rate of cesarean delivery because of fetalheart rate irregularities. The most common abnormality is umbilical cord entanglement around thefetal neck.Multiple umbilical cord entanglement are responsible significantly for increased cesarean rate andadverse perinatal outcomes.


Article
Neural Cell Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Isolated from Human Umbilical Cord Blood: In Vitro
تمايز الخلايا الجذعية اللحمية المعزولة من دم الحبل السري للإنسان إلى الخلايا العصبية خارج الجسم الحي

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Human umbilical cord blood derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are regarded as valuable source for cell transplantation and cell therapy. These cells in their undifferentiated state are fibroblast – like in morphology, and these cells when treated with retinoic acid, or epidermal growth factor, rapidly assumed the morphology of multipolar neurons. The resulting differentiated cells express nestin marker, a neurofilament protein that is one of the most specific markers of multipotent neural stem cells. In conclusion, the present findings support the hypothesis that cord blood contains MSCs that can be induced to differentiate into neuronal pathway and express neuronal marker.

تعد الخلايا الجذعية اللحمية المشتقة من دم الحبل السري للإنسان مصدرا مهما للنقل والعلاج الخلوي. تكون هذه الخلايا في حالتها غير المتمايزة ذات شكل مظهري شبيه بالارومة الليفية, ولوحظ عند معاملة هذه الخلايا بـRA او عامل النمو البشروي سرعة اكتسابها شكل الخلايا العصبية متعددة الاقطاب. وأظهرت هذه الخلايا المتمايزة استجابة للواسم العصبي بروتين الخيط العصبي الـ Nestin والذي هو احد الواسمات العصبية الخاصة بالخلايا الجذعية العصبية المتعددة القدرات. الاستنتاج : تدعم النتائج الحالية فرضية احتواء دم الحبل السري على الخلايا الجذعية اللحمية التي يمكن حث تمايزها إلى المسار العصبي ومن ثم إظهارها للواسم العصبي


Article
Some Anatomical Changes in Placenta In Relation To Newborn`s Apgar score

Authors: Mohammed I. Ghanem --- Samia A. Eleiwe
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2014 Volume: 13 Issue: 1 Pages: 49-53
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: Sick newborns from apparently normal mothers, typically, have low Apgar scores and at such situation; there are great probabilities, for these newborns to develop several diseases, with poor outcomes. Also, there may be a chance for any prospect baby, to get same health state. Objective: This study was designed to correlate some of the placental topographic anatomical data with the newborn wellbeing, and to lay highlighting, on the presence of any placental abnormality, which could be caused by neither maternal nor fetal factors. Materials and methods: the study included 60 full term placentae of apparently normal mothers, who were admitted to Labor Room at al-Yarmook Teaching Hospital, al-Elwia Maternity Teaching Hospital and al- Khadhra`a Private Hospital, in Baghdad, for a normal vaginal delivery, or even for a caesarian section. The research was done over the period of 1stof February 2013 till end of 15thof April 2013. The newborns were scored high and low in Apgar score. The following anatomical data were selected in this study: the placental weight /newborn weight ratio, the mode of the umbilical cord insertion and the placental thickness, in each of the low and high Apgar score groups of fetuses, as indicators for the functional status of the placenta in these two groups. Results: The placental/newborn weight ratio in low Apgar score group of fetuses, was significantly lower than that in the high Apgar score ones. As regarding the umbilical cord mode of insertion; the eccentric type of insertion was more in both of fetal groups, nevertheless it was relatively higher in the high Apgar score group of fetuses, while the central type was more in the low Apgar score group of fetuses. The marginal type was only seen at the low Apgar score group of fetuses. The mean of thickness of placentae of low Apgar score group, was found to be less than that of the high Apgar score group, Conclusions: There was a strong and significant correlation between the fetal well being and data obtained from these topographic anatomical placental records.


Article
Estimation of Cadmium Concentration in Blood Serum of Mothers and Umbilical Cord
تقدير تركيز الكادميوم في مصل دم الأمهات والحبل السري

Authors: Nadiaa Ahmed Salih نادية احمد صالح --- Hussam Dawood Abdullah حسام داود عبدالله --- Wasan Nazhan Hussien وسن نزهان حسين
Journal: Diyala Journal For Pure Science مجلة ديالى للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 83732222 25189255 Year: 2016 Volume: 12 Issue: 3 - part 2 Pages: 114-128
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

Determining the level of concentration of cadmium in the blood of the umbilical cord of neonatal and their mothers may serve as an indicator of the extent of the pollution of the environment with this element. It may also indicate the extent of the exposure to this element especially that this element has the capability of passing through placenta. This study aims at determining the concentration of (Cadmium, Zinc and Copper) and the concentration of Glutathione in the blood of the umbilical cord of neonatal and their mothers in Tikrit city and Arbeda town which is an agricultural town. For this study, 160 samples of mothers blood and of the umbilical cords of their neonatal were collected and 50 blood samples were collected as a control group. Metal elements were discovered in the blood of the mothers and their neonatal by using the atomic absorption spectrometer. The results of the current study showed that the rate of mothers and neonatal who have the cadmium in their blood was higher in Tikrit city than those in Arbeda town. The results also showed a significant decrease P<0.05 in the concentration of zinc and glutathione in the serum of pregnant women and the umbilical cord compared to the control group. An increase in copper concentration rate in the blood of pregnant women and umbilical cord compared to the control group.

تم دراسة مستوى تركيز كل من العناصر المعدنية (الكادميوم, الخارصين ,النحاس) بالإضافة الى تركيز الكلوتاثايون في عينات مأخوذة من دم الحبل السري للأطفال حديثي الولادة وأمهاتهم ,اذ يعتبر مستوى تركيز الكادميوم في هذه العينات مؤشرا لمدى تلوث تلك البيئات بهذه المعادن ومدى تعرضهم لها خاصة وان عنصر الكادميوم له خاصية المرور عبر المشيمة. تم جمع 160 عينة دم للام والحبل السري لأطفالهم و 50 عينة دم من النساء غير الحوامل كمجموعة سيطرة وقد تم جمع هذه العينات من مدينتي تكريت واربيضة لكون الثانية من المدن الزراعية .استخدم جهاز امتصاص الطيف الذري للكشف عن العناصر المعدنية في العينات المأخوذة . وأوضحت النتائج بان عنصر الكادميوم يتواجد بنسب اعلى في عينات مدينة اربيضة مقارنة بمدينة تكريت , ولوحظ وجود انخفاض معنوي عند مستوى 0.05 > P لتركيز الخارصين والكلوتاثيون في مصل الأمهات الحوامل والحبل السري مقارنة مع مجموعة السيطرة , وكما وجد أيضا ارتفاع بمستويات تركيز النحاس بدم النساء الحوامل والحبل السري مقارنة بمجموعه السيطرة .


Article
Umbilical cord drainage versus intraumbilical cord oxytocin injection in management of third stage of labour

Authors: Farah S.Dawood فرح سامي داوود --- Najmah M. Miran نجمه محمود ميران
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2017 Volume: 59 Issue: 1 Pages: 19-24
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Postpartum hemorrhage is an important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Considerable difference of opinion exist regarding the optimal approach to the management of the 3rd stage of labour, practice varies between countries &between units.Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of intra umbilical vein injection of oxytocin and umbilical cord driange in shortening the duration of third stage of labour.Patient and Methods: In this randomized controlled study, 100 women were enrolled in this study they divided into three groups. (Group 1 ,N =30 )received 20 units of oxytocin diluted in 20 ml 0.9% saline solution injected in the umbilical vein after clamping.(Group 2, N = 34) placental cord drainage.(Group 3, N= 36) with no intervention. The primary outcome was mean duration of third stage of labor.Results: The third stage of labor was significantly shorter in group 1 and 2 as compared to group 3. Groups 1 shorten the duration of third stage of labor by 3 min. and group 2 shorten the duration of third stage of labor by 4.27 min.There were no reports of need for manual removal of placenta or retained placenta.Conclusion: The use of intraumbilical injection of oxytocin and placental cord drainage in the third stage of labor significantly reduced the duration of the third stage.Key word: intraumbilical cord oxytocin, umbilical cord drainage, third stage of labour.


Article
13.HISTOMORPHOMETRIC AND ENDOTHELIN-1 IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF HUMAN PLACENTAL VILLI CORRELATED WITH UMBILICAL CORD COILING INDEX

Authors: Hayder J. Mubarak حيدر جواد مبارك --- Sarah A. Ahmed سارة عبد الحسين احمد
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2017 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 198-205
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Background: Umbilical cord coiling index plays a role in predicting the pregnancy outcome and risk of low birth weight. Endothelin-1 binding sites exist on placental stem villi vessels and trophoblastic layer of the villi. Endothelin-1 is involved in regulation of the feto-placental circulation and specific trophoblastic functions.Objective: To investigate the profile of anti-endothelin-1 antibody expression in the human normal placental villi in relation to the coiling indices of the umbilical cords attached to these placentas.Methods: Normal human placentas were collected with inclusion criteria (full term newborns with normal perinatal outcome whose mothers were normal), and classified according to their umbilical cord coiling index into three groups: (N, H, and H), endothelin-1 marker used to investigate the localization of the endothelin-1 in the placental villi of each group.Results: There was a difference between the mean positivity percentage of endothelin-1 immunohistochemical reactivity in normocoiled group in comparison with hypercoiled group and hypocoiled group. There is a difference between the mean number of terminal villi in the three groups and in the perimeter of blood vessels.Conclusion: The pattern of endothelin-1 reactivity is associated with vasodilatation of the villous vascular bed to maximize the exchange function of the placenta as a physiological response to overcome the sequel of obstruction of umbilical vessels in both types of abnormal coiled cords during pregnancy.Keywords: Placental villi, umbilical cord, coiling index, normal pregnancy, endothelin-1, immunhistochemistry.Citation: Hayder J. Mubarak, Sarah A. Ahmed. Histomorphometric and endothelin-1 immunohistochemical study of human placental villi correlated with umbilical cord coiling index. Iraqi JMS. 2017; Vol. 15(2): 198-205. doi: 10.22578/IJMS.15.2.13

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