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Article
Epidemiological Study of Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic in Baquba- Diyala Province

Authors: Sawsan Talib Salman سوسن طالب سلمان --- Nadhim Ghazal Noaman ناظم غزال نعمان --- Anfal Shakir Motib انفال شاكر متعب
Journal: Diyala Journal of Medicine مجلة ديالى الطبية ISSN: 97642219 Year: 2013 Volume: 4 Issue: 1 Pages: 79-86
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

Background: Pregnancy causes many changes in the pregnant women, due to mechanical and hormonal changes which lead to ureteral dilatation and urinary stasis which contribute to the  increased risk of developing urinary tract infection. Subject and methods: A cross sectional study was conducted at Al-Batool Teaching Hospital in antenatal care clinic from March during October 2012 to study the epidemiology of symptomatic and asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women. Results: out of 200 pregnant women who were included (24%) and (14%) with ≤20 years old age group were asymptomatic and symptomatic respectively, and (56%), (64%) were asymptomatic and symptomatic in age group 21-30 years old , while in those ≥ 31 years age group was (20%) and (22%) asymptomatic and symptomatic respectively. The asymptomatic bacteriuria was (77%) and it was higher among 31-40 weeks of gestation than other weeks of gestations (p= 0.006).The nulliparous was (27%) asymptomatic and (21%) symptomatic, where para1- para3 was (56%) asymptomatic and (65%) symptomatic and para4 and above was (17%) asymptomatic and (14%) symptomatic. Escherichia coli was (42.3%) more than other species.Conclusion: Urinary tract infections is a public health problem, Routine urine culture test should be performed on all antenatal asymptomatic and symptomatic pregnant women to identify unsuspected infection.


Article
Urinary tract infection incidence in college students
معدل حدوث التهاب المجاري البولية في طلبة الكليات

Author: Salahaldein B. Alwindy صلاح الد ين برهان الوندي
Journal: Baghdad Science Journal مجلة بغداد للعلوم ISSN: 20788665 24117986 Year: 2009 Volume: 6 Issue: 4 Pages: 640-645
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Result of studying (61) urine samples collected from students department of Biology in the College of Education-Tikrit University and the people who hold signs and symptoms of urinary tract infections with those who do not have any signs or symptoms through a questionnaire has been with the collection of samples, and the total cases were infected (39 ) cases, a rate (63.9%) distributed (28) cases a female (68.2%) and male (11) cases event rate (55%), while the distribution of positive cases among age groups have emerged group (20-22 years) is the highest rate (56%) females. The results of urine cultures accompany the presence of different types of bacteria sick and E.coli bacteria is the highest ratios positive also it is the most common causative agents of urinary tract infections ,it is the predominant organism to be isolated. Less frequent causative Staphylococcus aureus . Susceptibility of isolates to various antimicrobial drugs was also studied. The result demonstrates the frequent incidence of resistant bacteria to commonly used drugs especially Ampicilline, Tetracyclin.

تم في هذا البحث دراسة (61) عينة إدرار من طلبة قسم علوم الحياة في كلية التربية وللأشخاص الذين يحملون إعراض وعلامات التهاب المجاري البولية مع الذين لا يحملون أي علامات أو إعراض من خلال الاستبيان الذي جرى مع جمع العينات ، وكانت مجموع الحالات المصابة هي(39)وبنسبة (63.9%) موزعة على (28) من الإناث وبنسبة (68.2%) وفي الذكور (11) حالة وبنسبة (55%) ، أما توزيع الحالات الموجبة ضمن المجاميع العمرية فقد ظهرت المجموعة (20-22) سنة هي أعلى النسب وبنسبة (56%) إناث. وكانت نتائج زرع الإدرار مصاحبة لوجود أنواع مختلفة من البكتريا المرضية وان بكتريا E.coli هي أعلى النسب الموجبة والتي تشكل العامل الأكثر شيوعا للإصابة بخمج المجاري البولية،ثم تلتها بكتريا Staphylococcus aureus وتميزت الأنواع الجرثومية المعزولة من الإدرار بمقاومتها العالية للمضادات الحياتية الشائعة الاستعمال مثل Ampicilline, Tetracyclin .


Article
Urinary Tract Infection in Children: A hospital Based Study
خمج المجاري البولية عند الأطفال

Authors: Ghada F. Naji غاده فايق --- Basil M. Hanoudi باسل هنودي --- Ali Asim Al-Sammak علي السماك
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2006 Volume: 19 Issue: 4 Pages: 345-360
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

AbstractBackground: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common diseases in children.Objective: The aim of this study was to review the clinical, laboratory characteristics and renal ultrasonography (RUS) of urinary tract infection (UTI) cases in children.Patients & methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Central Teaching Hospital for children in Baghdad. The study sample included 138 children, ranging 1 month to 15 years, presented with presumptive UTI based on history, physical examination, urinalysis findings and urine culture, during the period between 1st of March 2004 and 15th of November 2004.Cases were grouped according to their age, group 1(under 2 years), group 2(2-7 years) and group 3(>7 to 15 years).History was taken (data included age, sex, circumcision for males, signs, symptoms and worm infestation), physical examination, and standard laboratory general urinalysis (microscopy, nitrite dipstick), urine culture (the pathogen and its sensitivity) and renal ultrasound (RUS) was performed.Results: Among the total number of (138) children, group 1 has accounted for the highest percentage (58.7%). According to the sex difference; the females were predominant in three groups, the male: female ratio was 58:80 (P>0.05).Diarrhea & vomiting was the commonest presentation in group 1 (26.1%), while fever was the commonest in group 2 (9.4%) and group 3 (10.1%) (P>0.001).Sixty five patients had urine culture positive (47.1%), Escherichia coli was the predominant organism, while 73 (52.9%) were found to have culture negative results. Urinary tract infection (UTI) was more common in uncircumcised males and when worm infestation was present. Regarding the culture positive urine samples (65); they were predominantly in group 1, 44/65(31.9%) with females were predominantly affected in all age groups, male/female was 23/42 (P>0.05). Regarding ultrasound findings; they were normal in 44.6% and abnormal in 55.4%. Of all ultrasound abnormalities, increased renal echogenicity was the commonest finding and accounted for 16.9% of cases. Overall Gram-negative organisms cause 98.5% of the UTI in this study. E coli are the leading pathogen and the most suitable antibiotic is nitrofurantoin.Conclusions: In conclusion; female sex and children less than 2 years of age are significant in the occurrence of urinary tract infection. Our findings revealed that the method of urine analysis should not substitute for a urine culture in the symptomatic patients.

الملخّصخلفية الدراسة: يعتبر خمج المجاري البولية من الأمراض الشائعة عند الأطفال.هدف الدراسة: هدف الدراسة هو أستعراض الخصائص السريرية والمختبرية والموجات فوق السمعية للجهاز البولي لحالات خمج المجاري البولية عند الأطفال.طريقة الدراسة: أجريت الدراسة في مستشفى الطفل المركزيِ التعليمي للأطفال / بغداد, وشملت 138 حالة(58 من الذكور و 80 من الأناث), ومدى العمر 1 شهر- 15 سنة. وكانوا يعانون من خمج المجاري البولية الأفتراضي المعتمد على التأريخ المرضي والفحص السريري والفحص العام لأدرار وزرع الأدرار, وذلك للفترة من الأول من اذار ولغاية الخامس عشر من تشرين الثاني 2004. صنفت الحالات حسب الأعمار الى ثلاثة مجاميع: الأولى(أقل من سنتان) والثانية(2-7 سنة) والثالثة(أكثر من 7سنة ولغاية 16سنة), وتضمنت الدراسة التأريخ المرضي(عمر وجنس الطفل, الختان في الذكور, العلامات والأعراض والأصابة بالديدان المعوية), والفحص السريري وتحليل الأدرار القياسي العام(المجهري وشريط بحث النايترايت) وزرع وحساسية الأدرار للمضادات الحيوية وفحص الموجات الفوق سمعية للجهاز البولي. النتائج: كانت معظم الحالات ضمن المجموعة الأولى بنسبة (58,7%), وكانت معظم الحالات لأناث في المجاميع الثلاثة وبنسبة قيمة. وكان الأسهال والتقيؤ من العلامات الأكثر شيوعا في المجموعة الأولى(26,1%), بينما كانت الحمى الأكثر شيوعا في المجموعة الثانية(9,4%) والثالثة (10,1%) وبصورة قيمة. بلغ عدد المرضى ذوي نتائج أيجابية في زرع الأدرار 65(47,1%), وأن الاي كولاي أكثر الكائنات شيوعا, وأن 73(52,9%) كانوا ذوي نتائج سلبية لزرع الأدرار, بينما لوحظ ان خمج المجاري البولية كان أكثر شيوعا لدى الذكور الذين لم يختنوا وفي حالة وجود الديدان المعوية.الأستنتاج: أن أعمار الأطفال دون السنتين والأناث ذات علاقة قيمة مع خمج المجاري البولية. أن النتأئج أظهرت بعدم جدوى مسوحات فحص الأدرار العام لتعوض عن زرع الأدرار في الأطفال ذوي أعراض خمج المجاري البولية.


Article
Reliability of microscopic urinalysis in predicting urinary tract infection in Children.
اعتماد تحليل ألإدرار في كشف حالات الإصابة بالتهاب المجارى البولية

Author: Shaker K. Gatea D.C.H. C.A.B.P
Journal: KUFA MEDICAL JOURNAL مجلة الكوفة الطبية ISSN: 1993517X Year: 2009 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 226-233
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are associated with potentially serious long- term consequences . Up to 7 percent of girls and 2 percent of boys will have a symptomatic, culture-confirmed UTI by six years of age.Most UTIs in children result from ascending infections, colonic bacteria responsible for most of cases. Urinary tract infection may be suspected because of urinary symptoms in older children or because of fever, nonspecific symptoms, or failure to thrive in infants. Eighty one child of age 3.5months -10 years with variable presentation and high clinical suspicion of UTI were recruited for evaluation of UTI on out patient bases over nine –months period, data regarding age , sex was obtained . Urine samples were collected by clean- catch or urine bags .UA was done by microscope for pus cells and urine cultures were carried out.UTIs seems to be highly prevalence among studied children and vary with age and sex and the sensitivity of UA is high(77%)but the specificity is low( 33%) , in agreement with other studies. UA can rule out UTI if the result is negative in cases with low clinical suspicion and positive result is insufficient to diagnose UTI because false positive results are common. However, proper urine culture which required invasive procedure is necessary for diagnosis of urinary tract infections , so the criteria for its use should be optimized.

التهابات المجارى البولية في الأطفال يكون مصحوبا بنتائج خطيرة ذات تأثير على الكلية ربما تنتهي بفشل الكلية إذ لم تعالج مبكرا . حوالي %7 من الفتيات و%2 من الذكور يصابون بالتهاب المجاري البولية خلال السنوات الست الأولى من العمر . معظم التهابات المجاري البولية تكون نتيجة التلوث ببكتريا القولون والأعراض السريرية لهذه الالتهابات مختلفة حسب العمر ومكان الإصابة . إحدى وثمانون طفلا أعمارهم تتراوح بين 3.5 شهرا إلى 10 سنوات هنالك شك كبير إنهم يعانون من التهابات المجاري البولية ,أخذت منهم نماذج من الإدرار للتحليل بواسطة الميكروسكوب والزرع وظهر من ذلك إن نسبة الإصابة في هؤلاء الأطفال عالية وتختلف مع اختلاف العمر والجنس كما إن نسبة الاعتماد على النتائج الايجابية لهذه التحاليل عالية أيضا تصل إلى %77 وهذا متطابق مع الدراسات الأخرى إلا أن تحليل الإدرار إذا كان سالبا في طفل لا يعاني من علامات سريريه يمكن الاعتماد عليه في إبعاد احتمال الإصابة بالتهابات المجاري البولية أما إذا كان التحليل ايجابيا فلا يمكن الاعتماد عليه بشكل كلي بثبوت الإصابة. وان زرع الإدرار يكون ضروريا في حالات كهذه وفي حالات احتمال الإصابة العالية.


Article
8.PRE AND POST EXTRACORPOREAL SHOCK WAVE LITHOTRIPSY (ESWL) URINE CULTURE AS A GUIDE FOR ANTIBIOTICS MANAGEMENT

Authors: Laith A. Al-Anbary --- Ahmed A. Khaleel --- Jabbar S. Hassan
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2018 Volume: 16 Issue: 3 Pages: 289-297
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:The lifetime prevalence of kidney stone disease is estimated at 1-15%. The positive urine cultures can be obtained not only from Struvite stones, but also from calcium oxalate stones and also high levels of endotoxins are found both in infection stones (Struvite and carbonate apatite stones), and in non-infection stones. High concentrations of endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides) are thought to be released in the systemic circulation during stone treatment, inducing a systemic inflammatory response (SIRS) and this leads to urosepsis. Pre-Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) prophylactic antibiotics have an important role in reducing post-SWL infections, however, previous studies reported conflicting results. The issue of administering prophylactic antibiotics remains controversial in patients with sterile urine undergoing ESWL.Objective: To evaluate possible risk factors for post ESWL bacteriuria and consequently to identify patients with higher danger for urinary tract infection (UTI) or sepsis.Methods:Urine samples from 50 patients underwent ESWL, were collected by clean catch mid-stream urine collection method in sterile containers. Those patients were attending and admitting to Al-Imamein Al-Kadhimein Medical City during the period from October 2016 to January 2017. All patients had a urine culture performed before and after shock wave lithotripsy. Statistical analysis was performed with Epi-Info 7 and Excel programs. Statistical significance was evaluated using the Fisher's exact test with p <0.05 considered statistically significant.Results: A total of 50 patients who underwent ESWL during; the 2- months study period was enrolled in the study. Thirty-three 33 (66%) out of 50 were men and 17 (34%) out of 50 were women. 10 (20%) of patients had hypertension and 5 (10%) had diabetes mellitus. Fifty urine samples were collected from patients enrolled in this were cultivated on blood and MacConkey agar Pre-and post-ESWL Regarding Pre-ESWL results revealed 14 (28%) were urine culture positive while 23 cases were post-SWL urine culture positive. Conclusion: Antibiotic prophylaxis is not justified without defined risk factors such as positive urine culture before ESWL, an external bladder catheter or nephrostomy tube and a history of infectious stones or recurrent urinary tract infection.Keywords: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), urine culture, renal stone and antibioticsCitation: Al-Anbary LA, Khaleel AA, Hassan JS. Pre and post extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) urine culture as a guide for antibiotics management. Iraqi JMS. 2018; 16(3): 289-297. doi: 10.22578/IJMS.16.3.8

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