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Article
Urine Cytology in Patients withLong Standing Dialysis

Authors: Liqaa R Mousa --- Mutaz A.Al-Qazzaz --- Yarub I Kattab
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2007 Volume: 4 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-4
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Dialysis is in common use to treat patients with end stage renal failure .However longstanding dialysis harboring some cellular changes in various body fluids. This study was conducted in order to detect these changes in urine.
Objective: The study was conducted to detect cellular changes in urine of patients with longstanding dialysis.
Method: Fifty-three urine samples were examined cytologically obtained from patients with longstanding dialysis during 6 months period. Freshly voided midstream urine samples were taken . Samples were centrifuged and 2 to 3 drops of sediments were smeared on 2 glass slides and fixed in 95% ethyl alcohol then stained with Hand E stain to be evaluated.
Results: Gross physical examination of all urine samples were neither purulent nor hemorrhagic .Microscopically there was increased exfoliation of urothelial cells except in 9 cases. No significant cytological atypia were seen in all urine samples. Excessive exfoliation in the absence of significant inflammation, hemorrhage and cytological atypia compared with control group.
Conclusion: The study revealed that some cytological changes do occur in the urothelial cells of patients with longstanding dialysis. These changes need further attention and study to disclose their causes.
Key words: Urine cytology, dialysis.

Keywords

Urine cytology --- dialysis


Article
An appraisal of urine cytology in the diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

Author: Tariq Mohamed Zeki * Msc (path) د. طارق محمد زكي
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2007 Volume: 49 Issue: 2 Pages: 261-264
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Summary:Background: Urine cytology has an acceptable sensitivity, & specificity that justifies its use in the current diagnostic protocol.In Iraq transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) constitute about 62.1 % of bladder cancer (which ranks the third according to the results of Iraqi Cancer Registry 1995-1997). Urine cytology used in the primarydiagnosis, follow up, and in the screening programs of asymptomatic but high-risk patients.Patients and methods: This study was conducted on 93 patients, diagnosed or clinically suspected to have TCC of the urinary bladder attending to the Urological department in AL- Kadhimiya Teaching Hospital, AL-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital, and Baghdad Medical City. During the period from July 2004to July 2005. 76 were males & 17 were females.Urine cytological examination was done to those patients using two types of stain (hematoxylin and eosin, and papanicoloau stain) to detect malignant cells with the identification of the degree of differentiation, if possible, the cytological findings were correlated with the histopathological findings. And the cytological findings compared regarding each type of stain.Results:. Mean age of the patients was 59 year. Male:female ratio was 4.4:1. Main clinical presentation was hematuria (45.8%) of the total.Urine cytological examination has a sensitivity of 87.7%, specificity of 100% with an overall accuracy of 78% in the detection of TCC of urinary bladder. The main chief complaint of patients with TCC was haematuriawitch constitute 45.8% of the total. The percentage of high¬grade cases in urine cytology was higher than that in histopathology.the percentage of cases of TCC diagnosed by papanicoloau stain was more than that diagnosed by H & E (73.24% by pap stain versus 70.42% by H&E).Conclusion: Urine cytology has an acceptable sensitivity, specificity and an overall accuracy in the diagnosis of TCC of urinary bladder, and it offers a good chance for determination of the grade of the tumor especially in high grade tumor. Pap stain was better in the diagnosis of TCC.Keywords: Urine cytology, bladder cancer,


Article
Assessment of Abdominal Ultra Sonography (U/S) with Urine Cytology in the Follow up of Bladder Tumor Patients
متابعة مرضى سرطان المثانة بواسطة فحص السونار وفحص الادرار الخلوي

Author: Mohammed J. Al-Rubaiy محمد الربيعي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2011 Volume: 24 Issue: 1 Pages: 6-8
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: Cancer of bladder is a common disease characterized by its high recurrence and progression. Objective: To measure the sensitivity of transabdominal U/S in conjunction with urine cytology in follow up of patients with carcinoma of the bladder. Patients and Methods: The study was carried out for total number of 21patients the age of those patients ranged from 40-77 years with mean age of 60 years. All those patients have already been diagnosed as bladder carcinoma through previous cystourethroscop and histopathological results and followed up by transabdominal U/S and urine cytology and then all were examined by cystoscopy. The value of diagnostic test lies in its ability to detect patient with disease (its sensitivity). Result: Twenty (21) patients were examined ultrasonically with urine cytology for 2 times. The following in each patient cystoscopic examination detected that all patients had recurrent tumors, (100% Out of 21) the 42 transabdominal ultrasonic examination, 29 revealed positive results. The sensitivity is 69%).On urine cytology examinations 21examinations were positive. The (sensitivity is 50%). The combination of transabdominal U/S with urine cytology examination increases the (sensitivity up to 78.5%.Conclusion: The combination of transabdominal U/S with urine cytology in diagnosis of recurrent bladder cancer are non-invasive investigations which can be repeated as much as required and used to dictate the need for cystoscopic examination and considered as convenient mode in the follow up patients. In addition, it's easy to perform, cheap and not troublesome to the patients. Because of high sensitivity rate we believe that the combination of transabdominal U/S with urine cytology should be the first choice examinations for selected patients who are suspected of having recurrent bladder cancer.Key Words: Trans Abdominal Ultra Sonography, Urine Cytology, Cysto Urethroscopy

الملخص:اجريت هذه الدراسة في مستشفى الكندي التعليمي شعبة الجراحة البولية ما بين تشرين الثاني 2008 وتشرين الثاني 2009مالخلفية: سرطان المثانة يمتاز بنسبة عالية من الرجوع ولحساب حساسية فحص السونار مع فحص الادار الخلوي في متابعة مرضى سرطان المثانة الراجع.المرضى والطرق: تم اجراء الدراسة على 21 مريض بعمر 40-77 سنة 60 سنة كلهم مشخصين سابقا بالاصابة بسرطان المثانة بواسطة الناظور والفحص النسيجي وتمت متابعتهم بالسونار والفحص الخلوي للادرار. حساسية التشخيص تعتمد على قابلية تشخيص المريض المصاب بسرطان المثانة الراجع.النتائج: 21 مريض اجري عليهم فحص السونار والفحص الخلوي للادرار بمعدل 42 مرة.متابعة الفحص بالناظور اثنتت ان جميع المرضى لديهم سرطان المثانة الراجع(100%). ومن بين 42 فحص سونار 29 منهم نتيجة ايجابية فحساسية الفحص تكون 69% وبفحص الادار الخلوي كان 21 فحص ايجابي فتكون حساسية الفحص 50%.دمج فحص السونار مع فحص الادرار الخلوي تزداد حساسية التشخيص الى 78.5%.الاستنتاج: دمج فحص السونار مع فحص الادرار الخلوي في تشخيص حالات السرطان الراجع للمثانة هي فحوصات بسيطة ممكن اعادتها قدر الامكان وحسب الحاجة وبذلك نستطيع تقليل فحص الناطور بالاضافة الى ان اجراؤها سهل وغير مكلف ولا يزعج المريض.


Article
Cytological Findings in Patients with Haematuria

Author: Alaa Abdulqader Abdulrazaq, Ehab Jasim Mohammad, Duraid Taha Abdulkareem, Waleed Nassar Jaffal
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2017 Volume: 16 Issue: 4 Pages: 340-344
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Regardless of the accessibility of more up to date and more modern methods of investigations, urinary cytology still remains the most regularly utilized non-invasive investigation for the diagnosis of cancer of the bladder.OBJECTIVE:To assess the helpfulness of urine cytology in assessment of patients with hematuria for the presence of malignancy.PATIENTS AND METHODS:A total of 1560 recently voided urine samples got at private clinics from patients with hematuria, whether gross or microscopic, over a time of three years were incorporated in the study. Physical and microscopical (cytological) examination done for all samples.RESULTS:Among these cases of hematuria incorporated in the study, 23.7% (370 cases) were found to have positive finding of atypical cells. In these cases with atypia, 48.7% (180 cases) were proved to have malignancy both with cystoscopic findings and the histopathological biopsy. The remaining cases of atypia were found to be reactive, either due to instrumentation or foreign body. In an extensive number of cases of hematuria, that is, 1190 cases (76.3%) no atypical cells were identified.CONCLUSION:Urine cytology can distinguish urothelial cells changes and high grade bladder tumor so it is a good tool particularly with coordinated effort amongst clinician and cytopathologist. Urine cytology can be utilized as an adjunct test in assessment of patients with hematuria.


Article
7.ADENOVIRUS INFECTION IN A SAMPLE OF IRAQI KIDNEY TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS: MOLECULAR AND HEMATOLOGICAL STUDY

Authors: Hind M. Ahmed --- Asmaa B. Al-Obaidi --- Mustafa R. Hussein --- Haider S. Kadhim --- et al.
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2018 Volume: 16 Issue: 3 Pages: 279-288
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background: Human Adenovirus (ADV) is one of highly prevalent viruses worldwide, after primary infection, it remains latent and then might reactivate in immunocompromised patients. High ADV viremia seen in renal transplant recipients (RTR) with clinical presentations range from asymptomatic viremia to respiratory and gastrointestinal disease hemorrhagic cystitis, graft dysfunction and severe disseminated disease.Objective: The objectives of this study are to determine the rate of occurrence of ADV viremia by quantitative Real time PCR (QRT-PCR) in RTR and correlate them with urine cytology results, renal function tests and patients' hematological parameters.Methods:Seventy-one renal transplant recipients (RTR) were enrolled in this study. Whole blood samples (3 ml) divided into two parts, one part for complete blood picture and differential count and other part from which plasma separated and subjected to viral DNA extraction and then ADV Taqman QRT-PCR analysis for viral load measurement. Five ml urine specimens were collected for Pap-stained urine cytology.Results: Out of 71 RTR, 15 (21.12%) had positive ADV viremia by QRT-PCR, with a mean viral load 4.0 x107± 1.9 x108 copies/ml, and 80% (12 out of the 15) of positive viremia patients aged more than 40 years (p=0.011). All of RTRs 15/15 (100%) had symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) (p=0.039), and 5 out of 9 patients who had lymphopenia had positive viremia (p=0.007). Pap-stained urine cytology smears showed that 39/71 (55.71%) of the RTRs had positive decoy cells (DC), but there was no significant correlation between ADV viremia and the presence of DC (p=0.107).Conclusion: The present study showed the prevalence of ADV viremia in RTRs, with very high viral load, which is associated with lymphopenia and overt clinical features, this suggests that ADV might be an important cause of morbidity in RTRs.Keywords: Adenovirus, renal transplantation, real-time PCR, urine cytologyCitation: Ahmed HM, Al-Obaidi AB, Hussein MR, Kadhim HS, Ghazi HF. Adenovirus infection in a sample of iraqi kidney transplant recipients: molecular and hematological study. Iraqi JMS. 2018; 16(3): 279-288. doi: 10.22578/IJMS.16.3.7

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