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Article
A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN THE SIDE EFFECTS OF COPPER INTRAUTERINE DEVICE IN WOMEN WITH NON-SCARRED AND SCARRED UTERUS

Author: Thikra N Madlol ذكرى نجم عبد الله مدلول
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2011 Volume: 9 Issue: 4 Pages: 350-356
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

BackgroundSo many women think that the use of intrauterine devices in a scarred uterus carries high complications like increased uterine bleeding and pain and these side-effects may result in early removal of the device.ObjectiveThe study was conducted to show the difference in the side effects of Copper intrauterine device (CuT380A) in women after vaginal deliveries and those with previous scar of cesarean section.MethodsThe study group consisted of 411women who were using CuT380A device for contraception which has been fitted for more than 3months (240 of them had vaginal deliveries and 171 had one or more cesarean section scar). Complications of the CuT380A device were compared in both groups in regard to heavy vaginal bleeding (menorrhagia), painful menstrual cycles (dysmenorrhea), cycle irregularity, other types of pain (pelvic pain and backache) and infection. Both groups were further studied and complications were compared according to the duration of intrauterine device insertion.ResultsThe most common side-effects related to CuT380A were bleeding and pain. Menorrhagia was recorded in 35.42% and 29.24% while dysmenorrhea in 27.08% and 34.50% women of the non-scarred and scarred uterus groups respectively. These side effects were not statistically different between the two groups and they decreased significantly with time; menorrhagia decreased from 40.54% to 27.17% (P-value=0.035) and from 36.27% to 18.84% (P-value=0.014) while dysmenorrhea decreased from 31.76% to 19.57% (P-value=0.039) and from 41.18% to 24.64% (P-value=0.026) in non-scarred and scarred uterus groups.ConclusionThe study revealed that the side-effects of CuT380A device did not differ between non-scarred and scarred uterus and that menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea significantly decreased with time.Key wordsCuT380A, non-scarred uterus, scarred uterus.


Article
Some Immunological Evaluations of Propolis in Albino Male Mice

Author: Ali H. Ad'hiah
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2007 Volume: 49 Issue: 1 Pages: 121-125
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Propolis is a complex resinous bee product that has a wide range of biological activities. In thepresent investigation, two oral doses (10 and 20 mg/kg/day) of propolis (ethanol extract) wereevaluated immunologically in albino male mice (80 animals) through three types of experiments. Inthe first, the propolis was tested alone, while in the second and third experiments, propolis was givenbefore and after the immune suppressive drug MMC (pre- and posttreatments, respectively). The three experiments were paralleled with three negative controls, inwhich the propolis was replaced with distilled water. In the first experiment, the dose 10 mg/kg ofpropolis enhanced the parameters investigated, and a significant increase was observed in the totalcount of leucocytes (10.7 vs. 7.8 x 103 cells/cu.mm.blood), lymphocytes (7.0 vs. 5.3 x 103cells/cu.mm.blood), neutrophils (2.9 vs. 2.1 x 103 cells/cu.mm.blood), monocytes(0.5 vs. 0.3 x 103 cells/cu.mm.blood) and eosinophils (0.3 vs. 0.1 x 103 cells/cu.mm. blood), PI (15.2vs. 10.8%), PFC (72 vs. 38%), AR (0.84 vs. 0.57 mm) and DTH (0.68 vs. 0.40) as compared tonegative controls. Much more enhancements were observed in the dose 20 mg/kg. In the second andthird experiments, a similar picture was drawn in the interaction of propolis (pre- and posttreatments)with MMC, in which the propolis extract was able to modulate the immune suppressiveeffect of MMC, and this was dependent on the type of treatment and dose, and again, the dose 20mg/kg was more effective in this respect.Key words and Abbreviations: Arthus reaction (AR), Delayed type hypersensitivity reaction (DTH),Mitomycin C (MMC), Phagocytic index (PI),Plaque forming cells (PFC), Propolis and Sheep red blood cells (SRBC).


Article
UTERINE ADENOMYOSIS IN SHE BUFFALOES: A HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY.
ورم العضال الغدي في رحم الجاموس: دراسة نسجية ومرضية

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Abstract

Adenomyosis is a fairly frequent disorder adult she Buffalo characterized by the haphazard location of endometrial glands and stroma deep within the myometrium of the uterus.It was found in twenty she buffalo in Basrah governorate, suffering from repeated estrus and infertility. This study recorded the histopathological changes of this disease.This study showed that the endometrial glands are present mostly in myometrium which interfere the differentiation of the uterine cells in young female buffalo, the lesion also characterize by the fibrocytes as whorls pattern.

ورم العضال الغدي في رحم الجاموس متكرر الحدوث ، مؤديا الى اعتلال جسدي في اناث الجاموس البالغة ويتميز بوجوده الغدد الر حمية في مكان غير طبيعي في الطبقة العضلية للرحم وبشكل عميق.وجدت هذه الأعراض في 20 جاموسة في محافظة البصرة كانت تعاني من تكرار الشبق وقلة الخصوبة ، وسجلت في هذه الدراسة المعايير النسجية المرضية للمرض.وفي هذه الدراسة وجد تقدم الغدد الرحمية بكمية عالية في الطبقة العضلية وهذا ما يعيق تمييز الخلايا في الرحم، عند الصغار. وقد وجدت الارومات الليفية عند الصغار على شكل دوامات

Keywords

adenomyosis --- uterus --- buffaloes


Article
Acetaminophen Mimics the Action of Salbutamol in Relaxing Gravid Human Uterus - In - Vitro

Author: Mahdi I. Hilmy
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2007 Volume: 49 Issue: 1 Pages: 126-129
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Management of preterp'labour generally treated by salbutamol even with some expected disturbing -maternal pulmonary oedema , respiratory distress and cardiovascular side effects and neonatal low-sized and cellularity of thymus and lymph nodes . This demands finding a substitute free of these side effects . Initially, acetaminophen was tested on rats uterine horns and on pregnant rats and reported an effective relaxation of the uterine horns and profound delay in parturition . These results jestified an in-vitro study on strips of gravid human uterus ruptured during difficult labour. Acetaminophen (50 mg) reduced tension by 50% which was comparable decrease in tension when 5 gg of salbutamol was added. Profound drop in tension when adjunct use of both drugs, while repeated three doses of 50 mg acetoaminophen were added separately resulted in corresponding drops in tesion down to below resting level . These findings encouraged future clinical trials on threatened women with abortion since the use of acetaminophen in the usual dosage is effective tocolytic agent without any maternal side effect but with mild possible neonatal lung congestion as a result of transient narrowing of ductus arteriosis especially in advanced gestation age.


Article
EFFECTS OF TESTOSTERONE HORMONE ON STRUCTURE OF UTERUS IN FEMALE MICE BALB/C
تأثير هرمون التيستوستيرون على تركيب الرحم في إناث الفئران المختبرية

Author: Emad. k .Abbas عماد خضير عباس
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: 18138497 Year: 2012 Volume: 11 Issue: 2 Pages: 66-73
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

This study shows the effects of Testosterone hormone on uterus tissue in female mice. We used twenty laboratory mice (Ten animals for each group). The first groups used as a control by using physiological saline (0.9%) concentration. The second groups were taken the 10mg/kg for 28 days. Biopsy was taken from the animals to examine their tissue histopathologically, Results were seen in uterus form of degradation in Endometerium and bleeding .Deteriorate in epithelial tissue and infiltration in inflammatory cells .

أجزيج هذ انذراست ن عًزفت حأريز هزيى انخيسخىسخيزو عهى سَيج انزدى في إ بَد انفئزا حى اسخخذاوعشزو ي أ بَد انفئزا ان خًخبزيت حى حقسي هًب عشىائيب انى يج ىًعخي )عشزة نكم يج ىًعت ( اعخبزث ان جً ىًعتالأونى يج ىًعت سيطزةوديذ دق جُ ببن ذًهىل انفسيىنىجي أيب ان جً ىًعت انزب يَت فقذ دق جُ بهزيى انخيسخىسخيزو 10 يهغى/كغى ي وس انجسى ون ذًة ر بً يَت وعشزي يىيب حى انخضذيت ببنذيىا بَث في هَبيت انخجزبت وأخذث ي هُبعضى انزدى نع مً ان قًبطع ان سُجيت وح زًهج انعلايبث ان زًضيت في سَيج انزدى نفئزا ان جً ىًعت انزب يَت بذصىلدبنت انخذهم في انطبقت ان بًط تُ نهزدى يع دبنت ان شُف وكذنك دبنت انخهف نهطبقت انطلائيت يع دبنت أرحشبح نهخلايبالانخهببيت

Keywords

Testosterone --- uterus --- female mice


Article
HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF R- FSH EFFECTS ON FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM, LIVER AND KIDNEYS IN RATTUS NORVEGICUS RATS

Authors: Noora S. Ghalib --- Batool S. Hamza --- Kassim F. Abdulkareem
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: 18138497 Year: 2017 Volume: 16 Issue: 2 Pages: 334-343
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

The present study aims to evaluate the histopathological changes induced by recombinantfollicle stimulating hormone (follitropin alpha) on reproductive organs as well as the liver andkidneys of female rats. The experiment was done on 24 white female rats (Rattus norvegicus)sexually mature weighing 150-200 gram, divided into 4 equal groups of 6 animals: control groupwhich was given distilled water. Single dose group, double dose group and triple dose groupswhich were injected by 0.5 iu.,1 iu. and 1.5 iu of recombinant FSH respectively. The drug wasgiven subcutaneously during the pro-estrous phase for ten consecutive cycles, then animals fromeach group were sacrificed to study the histopathological changes. The histopathologicalexamination of the ovaries, uterus, liver, and kidneys revealed variable changes in differentorgans.The ovarian sections showed many Graafian follicles without ova and many corpus lutealcysts, fibrosis, and thickened granulosa cell layer, and the ovary was surrounded by excessiveadipose tissue. The uterus in single and double doses showed dilated cavity, thin endometrium,thin muscular layer and diminished endometrial glands while in triple dose showed atrophy ofendometrial lining and glands, hypertrophied muscular layer with slit like endometrial cavity andformation of multiple endometrial cyst. The liver sections showed few changes like dilatedcentral vein, congestion of sinusoids, vacuolation of hepatocytes, with moderate degree of fattydegeneration A few hepatocytes appeared necrotic but without inflammatory response. Thekidneys in single and double doses showed unremarkable changes, while in triple doseglomerular congestion, congested vessels, hemorrhage, and degeneration and necrosis ofproximal tubules were found.


Article
PATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN GENITAL ORGANS OF FEMALE ALBINO MICE AFTER TREATMENT WITH PENTOXIFYLLINE

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Abstract

BackgroundLittle to our knowledge has been attempting to show the effect of pentoxifylline (PTX) on ovulation or oogenesis. In a few studies of man with asthenospermia oral treatment with PTX produced significant increase in sperm concentration and motility.ObjectiveStudy the effect of PTX on ovulation and oogenesis in albino mice.MethodsSixty albino mice randomly divided into 6 equal groups: Group 1 received tap water and considered as a control group. Group 2 treated with 16 mg of PTX/Kg/BW/daily for 2 weeks. Group 3, 4, 5, and 6 treated with same dose for 4, 6, 8, 10 weeks respectively. Post-mortem examination done according to the time of treatment and the reproductive systems were excised and processed for light microscopic examination.ResultPTX administration causes an increase in the diameter of the ovary and in the total number of ovarian follicles and their diameters especially Graafian and secondary follicles. In addition, highly significant increase in the numbers of corpus lutea especially in those groups treated for longer time was noticed. Moreover, an increase in the thickness of uterine and oviduct epithelial lining due to hyperplasia and an increase in the diameter of endometrial glands and oviducts was demonstrated.ConclusionsWe concluded that administration of PTX has a significant effect on the female genital organs especially if given in small doses for 10 weeks. This will definitely influence reproduction and litter size manifested after mating with untreated males.Key wordsPentoxifylline, ovary, uterus, fallopian tube

Keywords

Pentoxifylline --- ovary --- uterus --- fallopian tube


Article
Effect of alcoholic extract of Achillea millefolium consumption by pregnant mice on the uterus and reproductive hormones in the female offsprings
تاثير استهلاك الفئران الحوامل للمستخلص الكحولي لنبات القيصوم على رحم والهرمونات التكاثرية للمواليد الاناث

Author: نسرين خزعل فليح
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: 22180265 Year: 2011 Volume: 1 Issue: 2 Pages: 53-56
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

backgroundAchillea millefolium, (Asteraceae) is flowering plant which is popularly known as yarrow. It has been used in folk medicine to (neat complaints such as inflammation, pain, wounds, hemorrhages and gastrointestinal disturbances. To study the histological changes in uterus and reproductive hormones in female mice delivered to mothers heated with Achillea extract during pregnancy.Material* and methods;Seventy pregnant female mice at age of six weeks were used as a model for this study. The animals were divided into two groups: control (C) (35), and experimental(G){35) groups, The experimental group was given 1.5 mg/kg alcohol extract of Achillea millefolium dissolved in 1ml distilled water orally for the whole pregnancy, while the (C )was given distilled water only in the same amount and for the same period of time. The number and the body weight of the delivered offspring was recorded, in addition (he endometrial thickness, the number and diameter of the uterine glands was measured in the histological sections at puberty In addition evaluation of FSH, LH and E2 hormones levelswere done.The results of this study showed highly significant [pO,G1} decrease in the litter size of the experimental compared to the control group, as well as significant decrease (p<0.05) in the weight of the offspring, the endometrial thickness, the number and diameter of the uteri ne glands in the (G)compared to the (C).conclusionConsumption of low dose Achillea millefolium causes significant decrease in number and weight of the offspring, in addition to its effect on the uterus of the delivered female offspring.


Article
Relationship of Granulated Metrial Gland cells to the trophoblastic barrier of mice and human placenta
العلاقة بين حبيبات خلايا غدة الأرومة الغاذية الرحمية لحاجز المشيمة للفئران والمشيمة البشرية

Author: Khalida K. Jbara, Hanaá Khazal Jaber
Journal: The Medical Journal of Basrah University المجلة الطبية لجامعة البصرة ISSN: 02530759 Year: 2013 Volume: 31 Issue: 2 Pages: 79-88
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Background: A study was performed on the presence of Granulated Metrial Gland (GMG) cells in mice uteri, similarly in human, the presence of human Decidual Granular Leukocytes (DGLs) in aborted placental samples was also studied. Aim of the study: to demonstrate further evidence which may lead to the suggestion that the granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells are specialized immune cells which are involved in inhibition of the rejection reaction of the mother to her foetus as an allograft in pregnant mice uterus and it's relation to the decidual granular leukocytes (DGLs) in human pregnant mothers during early pregnancy. Material and Method: Tissue samples of uterus were taken from mice on each of days (6, 10, 12, 14 and 16) of pregnancy, also human aborted placental tissue samples were taken at 2, 3 &5 months. All samples were prepared by using routine histological techniques.Results: Granulated cells were found in small numbers randomly distributed through out the endometrium on day 6 of pregnancy with a subsequent loss from areas of the antimesometrial and lateral decidua but increase dramatically in number in the developing decidua basalis sharing an intimate association with fibroblast-like stromal cells. Regarding human aborted placental tissue samples, similar to GMG cells, human Decidual Granular Leukocytes (DGLs) are the dominant cell population in 2 months aged deciduas, while in 3 and 5 months aged placenta, the placenta appeared with reduced populations and distribution of DGLs, they looked unhealthy. The loss of (GMG) cells from the implantation sites is accounted for either by degeneration in situ or by migration via vascular channels to the blood vessels of maternal placenta which suggested that it could be of functional significance. Conclusion: Our results indicate that DGLs probably protect the materno-foetal unit from other effects causing disorders to the placental development, and it may play a role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic repetitive abortion.

المقدمة: دراسة أجريت على ألخلايا ألحبيبيه لغدة ألمتريال لأنثى ألفأر ألحامل في ألأيام 6و10و12و14 و16 من ألحمل, وكذلك أجريت دراسة مماثله للخلايا ألحبيبيه ألبيضاء للساقط ألقاعدي و لمشيمة ألنساء ألحوامل في ألأشهر 2و 3و5 بعد الأجهاض.المواد وطرق العمل : تم أخذ عينات الأنسجة من الرحم من الفئران في كل أيام (6،10،12،14 و 16) من الحمل، اتخذت إحباط عينات أنسجة المشيمة البشرية أيضا في 2،3 و 5 أشهر أعدت جميع العينات وباستخدام التقنيات النسيجية الروتينية. ألنتائج: بينت ألدراسة بأن عدد قليل من ألخلايا ألحبيبية ظهرت في رحم أنثى ألفأر ألحامل في أليوم ألسادس من ألحمل وبدأت بزيادة ملحوضة مع تطور ألساقط ألقاعدي، وأظهرت علاقة متينة مع ألخلايا المكونة للألياف. أما بالنسبة الى ألخلايا ألحبيبية ألبيضاء لمشيمة ألنساء ألحوامل ألمشابهة للخلايا ألحبيبيه لغدة ألمتريال لأنثى ألفأر ألحامل، وجدت هذه ألخلايا بشكل سائد في ألمشيمة للشهر ألثاني من ألحمل. بينما أخذ ألعدد بالتناقص في ألشهر ألثالث والخامس بعد الإجهاض وكذلك ظهرت ألمشيمة متخلفة صحيا.ألمناقشة: فقدان ألخلايا وقلتها من مكان تطورها في غده ألمتريال في رحم أنثى ألفأر الحامل أثناء فترة ألحمل ربما يرجع ألى هجرة هذه ألخلايا بواسطة ألأوعية ألدمويه خاصة وأنها شوهدت في هّذه بعض ألأوعية ألمتصلة بالمشيمة أذ ربما تقوم بعمل وظيفي معين في ألمشيمة خاصة وان ألمِشيمة هي ألرابط ألرئيسي بين ألأم والجنين، ربما يكون هذا ألعمل هو حماية لأنسجه ألأم والجنين من أي تفاعلات مضادة.ألخلفيه: دراسة أجريت على ألخلايا ألحبيبية لغدة ألمتريال لأنثى ألفأر ألحامل في ألأيام 6و10و12و14 و16 من ألحمل، وكذلك أجريت دراسة مماثله للخلايا ألحبيبيه ألبيضاء للساقط ألقاعدي و لمشيمة ألنساء ألحوامل في ألأشهر 2و 3و5 بعد الإجهاض.هدف ألدراسة: الهدف من هذه الدراسة هو إظهار أي أدلة أخرى مما قد يؤدي إلى القول بأن خلايا الغدة الرحمية المحببة (GMG) هي الخلايا المناعية المتخصصة التي تشارك في تثبيط رد فعل الرفض من الأم إلى جنينها بمثابة طعم خيفي في رحم الفئران الحوامل و كذلك متابعة هذه ألخلايا في ألمشيمة ألبشرية لغرض أثبات بأنها تقوم بنفس ألعمل والوظيفة آلتي تؤديها في مشيمة ألفئران وعلاقتها بخلايا الكريات البيض ساقطي الحبيبية (DGLS) في الأمهات الحوامل في الإنسان أثناء الحمل المبكر. ألاستنتاجات: الخلايا القاتلة الطبيعية (NK) هي نوع من خلايا الجهاز المناعي التي تحتوي على حبيبات مع المواد الكيميائية وهي ربما تكون القامع الطبيعي لحماية ألتفاعل بين انسجه ألأم و الجنين من الآثار الأخرى التي تسبب اضطرابات في تنمية المشيمة. وقد تجلى النشاط المثبط للمناعة في الأشهر الثلاثة الأولى من ألحمل في مشيمة ألنساء الحوامل في الإنسان والتي من الممكن أن تلعب دورا في الوقاية من هجوم مناعي خيفي من قبل ألأمهات على الجنين وبالتالي منع الإجهاض العفوي. البحوث التي أجريت مؤخرا تسلط الضوء على حقيقة أن الخلايا القاتلة الطبيعية قد يكون بمثابة خلية قامعة و هي أيضا خلايا تنظيمية تعمل في التفاعلات المتبادلة مع الخلايا الجذعية، الضامة، وخلايا T والخلايا البطانية.


Article
Maternal mortality at the Maternity Teaching Hospital in Erbil, Kurdistan: A hospital-based data 2011-2013
وفيات الأمهات في مستشفى الولادة التعليمي في أربيل ، كوردستان: بيانات مستندة إلى المستشفى 2011-2013

Authors: Rojan K. Jawad --- Ariana K. Jawad --- Mahabad S. Ali
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2015 Volume: 19 Issue: 3 Pages: 1116-1122
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Maternal deaths are still leading problems in many developing countries, including Iraq. Iraq is, in fact, far away to reach the Millennium Development Goal declared to reduce the maternal mortality ratio by three quarters between 1990 and 2015. The aim of this study was to highlight the main causes of avoidable deaths that lead to maternal mortality among those admitted to Maternity Teaching Hospital in Erbil.Methods: This survey was carried out in the Maternity Teaching Hospital in Erbil city, Kurdistan region, Iraq. Variables included in this study were those related to patient’s age, number of parity and mode of delivery of the last baby. Data were collected from patient’s records. In addition, some clinical data were included related to causes leading to death and underlying condition of death. Results: Of the total 75000 live birth recorded in the hospital during the study period (2011-2013), 33 maternal deaths were recorded which gives an overall maternal mortality ratio of 44 per 100,000 live births. Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia were among the top causes of maternal deaths in this study (42.4%) followed by obstetrical bleeding and rapture uterus (30.3%). Conclusion: Maternal mortality rate in Maternity Teaching Hospital was 44/100,000 total live births. The main cause of the maternal deaths was pre-eclampsia and its complications. Most of those died were residents of rural areas and were illiterate women.

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