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Article
Causes of Delay in Age Appropriate Vaccination

Author: Kholod Dhaher Al- Shemari
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2006 Volume: 5 Issue: 3 Pages: 298-301
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:The child vaccination status is influenced by factors such as the child’s health status , economic status ,parental health attitudes and family characteristics . The effects of these risk factors including the child’s age , poverty status , geographic location , race , ethnicity and education level of parents .We undertook this study to estimate the risk factors of children who had delay in age appropriate vaccination .METHODS :200 children with history of delay in their age appropriate vaccination were examined in their last visit to vaccination department in Fatema Al-Zahra teaching hospital . their mothers had been inquired about the real causes of delayed vaccination .RESULTS :Child sickness , poverty , large family size , low parental education level , terroristic explosion , one parent family , vaccine contamination rumor ,and displaced families , were significantly related causes of increased child vaccination delay .CONCLUSION :the study had concluded that large family size formed 30.5% of the demographic factors that influenced vaccination status of children .


Article
Measles in Kirkuk Governorate: Cohort Study

Authors: Sana'a H. Abdul Sahib --- Nazar A Mahmud
Journal: nursing national Iraqi specility المجلة العراقية الوطنية للعلوم التمريضية ISSN: 18122388 Year: 2011 Volume: 24 Issue: 2 Pages: 118-123
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Objective(s): To describe the demographic attributes, vaccination status of measles patients and the occurrence of the disease according to time and place in Kirkuk governorate during the year 2010. Methodology: The epidemiological study (a descriptive study) on measles cases was carried out in Kirkuk province which is one of the Iraqi governorates from January 20th to July 30th, 2011. Data were collected retrospectively by review of patients' files that were registered at the department of statistic in health directorate of Kirkuk during the year 2010. A purposive "non-probability" sample of (152) confirmed measles cases (clinically and laboratory) that were registered at the department of statistic in health directorate of Kirkuk during the year 2010, were selected for the purpose of the study. These data include demographic data, vaccination status, place and time of reporting the cases by month. The obtained data of the registered cases were entered in to the computer and analyzed through the use of the statistical package social sciences (SPSS 11.5); the data analysis was preformed through descriptive statistical approach, such as (frequency and percentage). Results: The study findings revealed that (49.3%) of measles cases were more than fifteenth years of age, (57.9%) of them were male. Up to half of cases occurred inside Kirkuk city, and according to vaccination status, (47.4%) of measles cases were vaccinated. Recommendations: The study highlighted the necessity of timely measles vaccine campaign, additional dose of vaccine to include also adolescents and adults who may be sensitive to measles, and importance of health education for unimmunized adult person.

الهـدف: تهدف الدراسة الحالية إلى وصف الخواص الديموغرافية، وحالة التطعيم بالنسبة للمرضى المصابين بالحصبة وكذلك وصف حدوث المرض حسب الزمان والمكان في محافظة كركوك خلال سنة 2010. المنهجيّة: دراسة وبائية (وصفية) أجريت على المرضى المصابين بالحصبة للمدّة من العشرين من كانون الثاني لسنة 2011 ولغاية الثلاثين من تموز، 2011. تمّ جمع البيانات عن طريق مراجعة استعادية للحالات المسجلة لمرض الحصبة في قسم الإحصاء بدائرة صحة كركوك خلال سنة 2010. أختيرت عينة غرضية "غير إحتمالية" مكونة من(152) لحالات الحصبة المثبتة )سريرياً ومختبرياً( والمسجلة في قسم الإحصاء بدائرة صحة كركوك خلال سنة 2010. تضمنت هذه البيانات الخواص الديموغرافية، حالة التطعيم، زمان ومكان حدوث الحالات. تمّ تحليل البيانات من خلال تطبيق البرنامج الإحصائي SPSS بأسلوب التحليل الإحصائي الوصفي للبيانات (التكرارات والنسب المؤية).النتائـج: أشارت نتائجَ الدراسة بأنّ (49,3%) من الحالات كانت في عمر أكثر من خمسة عشر سنة و (57,9%) منهم كانت من الذكور، أكثر من نصف الحالات حدثت داخل مدينة كركوك. أمّا بخصوص حالة التطعيم للمصابين، تبين أنّ (47,4%) من المصابن بالحصبة كانوا ملقحين. التوصيات: أوصتْ الدراسةَ بضرورة إجراء حملات التلقيح الإضافية ليشمل أيضاً المراهقين والبالغين الذين قد يكونون من الفئة الحساسة للحصبة، كذلك ضرورة التوعية الصحية للاشخاص الملامسين للمرضى، خصوصاً غير الملقحين منهم أو ليست لديهم إصابة سابقة بالمرض.

Keywords

Measles --- Vaccination


Article
Spectrum of Acute Complications of Measles in Erbil City
طيف مضاعفات الحصبة الحادة في مدينة أربيل

Author: Kawes Omer Hamad
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2010 Volume: 14 Issue: 1 Pages: 22-27
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and Objectives: Measles is an infectious viral disease which is highly communicable and a notifiable disease, it is encountered as a cause of morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to find out the most encountered acute complications of measles and relation of these complications to the age of children and vaccination status.Patients and methods: This is a prospective study done in Raparin pediatric teaching hospital, Erbil city, in the period of December 2008 to May 2009. Sixty eight cases of measles admitted with variable complications were studied. History was taken, complete examination and follow up in the hospital for variable complications was done.Results: The mean age was 23.28 ±18.91 months, 42 cases (61.8%) of the admitted children were two years or less. Male children were 35(51.5%) cases and female 33 (48.5%) cases. Most of affected cases were unvaccinated for measles 58 cases (85.3%), history of contact in the family was observed in 33 cases (48.5 %) while10 cases (14.7%) has contact history in the pediatric hospital and 25 cases (36.8%) didn’t show any clear contact history. The most common complications were diarrhea 45 cases (66.2%), pneumonia and vomiting 36 cases (52.9%) for each and febrile convulsions 5 cases (7.4%) and encephalitis 2 cases (2.9%).Conclusions: Children who were infected and developed complications were less than two years of age , most of them were not vaccinated and they were from rural areas.

Keywords

Measles --- Vaccination


Article
The Levels Of Some Serum Complement Among Seropositive Individuals After Measles Vaccination

Author: Layla S. Al-Omar
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2006 Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Pages: 32-35
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Measles remains a major cause of worldwide childhood mortality. The use of current live attenuatedvaccine control the disease, and measles has been targeted by the WHO for global eradicationfollowing the eradication of poliomyelitis.Objective:To determine the C3 and C4 complement response to measles virus in seropositive volunteers aftervaccination with live attenuated measles vaccine.METHODS:Thirty seven measles virus seropositive normal volunteers have been enrolled in this study, they were25 males and 12 females, their age ranged between 15-45 years. 22 of them were vaccinated withmeasles virus vaccine and 15 were injected with diluent supplied with measles virus vaccine(placebo).C3,C4 complement against measles virus were detected in volunteer's sera prior to, 1,2,3 and 4 weeksafter vaccination, using Radial Immunodiffusion Assay method.RESULTS:There was a significant difference in the concentration of serum C3 complement at week 3 ,following receipt of live measles virus vaccine in seropositive individuals, while no marked changewas observed in the concentration of C4.CONCLUSION:Rising C3 level in the sera of seropositive volunteers after measles virus vaccine administration playa role in increasing immune response against measles virus infection


Article
Risk Factors and Common Causes of Death Due to Measles in AL-Kadhimiyia Teaching Hospital.2009

Authors: Lamia Abdul Karim --- Abdul-KaremJasemAlbahadle --- Ali Kadhim Al-Husainawi*
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2013 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 32-39
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Remains a common disease in many parts of the world. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 20 million people worldwide are affected by measles each year. It is the leading cause of vaccine-preventable deaths among young children.OBJECTIVE:To find out the epidemiological criteria of died patients because of measles& the main causes of death.PATIENTS AND METHODS:Prospective study carried out in the pediatric ward of Al-Kadmyia Teaching Hospital between the 1st of January to the 1st of May 2009,the total number of measles cases admitted were 894 , the number of died cases in the same period due to measles were 52 case , the age of the studied sample (1month- 10 years).The data collected through a data sheet asked to the parents of the patient including the age ,sex, body weight, feeding history, history of contact, vaccination history , maternal vaccination status and her educational level.All the patients examined systematically and investigated and followed up till discharged or unfortunately diedRESULTS:The age of the died cases mostly in the 1st2years(27 case), there is male(31) , female(21) died cases.The mortality occur more in under weight cases27 , the died cases were either on mixed feeding 17cases, bottle feeding 10, solid feeding 25 cases.All the died cases had history of contact with measles., there were 49 cases non-vaccinated, the vaccination status of the mothers were 38 mother were not vaccinated. The educational level of the mothers were 29 illitrate,15 primary and 8 secondary school.The most common causes of death :16 encephalitis, 36 pneumonia.CONCLUSION:The death occurs more in infants and toddlers than in other age groups, more in males,underweight, and the non-vaccinated than in the vaccinated patients.Death is more common among children belong to non-vaccinated, illiterate mothers.Pneumonia is the most frequent complication of measles and encephalitis is the most lethal complication.


Article
Epidemiological Study of Measles in Al- Kadhimiyia Teaching Hospital

Authors: Lamia Abdul Karim --- Ali Kadhim Al-Husainawi
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2013 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 213-222
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Measles is a highly communicable disease caused by the measles virus. The disease ismarked by prodromal fever, conj unctivitis, coryza, cough, and the pathognomonic koplikspots followed by an erythematous maculopapular rash. Infection confers lifelong immunity. OBJECTIVE:Find out the frequency of measles in the hospital admitted cases in chi l dr en ≤ 12year s accor di ng t o t he vaccination and nutritional status,The causes of non-vaccination andthe vaccine efficiency in preventing measles.The incidence of measles in the exclusively breastfed infants.The presenting signs and symptoms, commonest complications, investigations and theoutcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS:A prospective study was performed from the 1st of January to the 1known as rubeola and is marked by prodromalfever, conjunctivitis, coryza, cough, andpathognomonic Koplik spots, followed by anerythematous maculopapular rash on the 3rd to 7day. Infection confers life-long immunity. st of May in the year 2009, inAl-Kadhimiyia Teaching Hospital.The data was collected through a questionnaire askeddirectly to the parents, and all the patients were systemically examined and followed up clinicallyuntil they discharged home or unfortunately died.The collected data was analyzed and adjustedusing the SPSS version 10 statistical programs.RESULTS:The incidence of measles was (44.29 %).Most of cases were living in crowded houses, allpatients had positive history of contact, mostly during a visit to a medical health facility (49.3%).All age groups were affected by measles, mostly in the 1st (27 %) and the nd (19 %) yearsof life.Higher incidence was reported in males (53.5 %).Most of the cases were nonvaccinated(86.25 %) with non-vaccinated mothers as well (85.25 %). Nineteen percent ofthe cases were malnourished. The incidence was lowest in the exclusively breast fed infants (1.5%).Measles mostly presented with fever for ≥ 3 days (100 %), rash (100 %) and conjunctivitis(98.25 %).The commonest complications were pneumonia (62.75 %), diarrhea (40.25 %).The majority of patients who had developed convulsions had normal CSF analysis results (76.7%). CXR reported pneumonic consolidation in (62.75 %) of the patients. Ninety percent of caseswere discharged home and (10 %) died. CONCLUSION:Measles is higher in the crowded places, in infants and toddlers, in males, in the nonvaccinated,and less in the exclusively breast fed infants. It is more severe in themalnourished patients. Vaccination is the most important preventive measure against measles.Measles mostly present with fever, maculopapular rash, and conjunctivitis, with the mostcommon complications are pneumonia, diarrhea, and encephalitis.The disease usually has no or little effect on the blood counts and CSF analyses, and CXRdocument pneumonic consolidation in the majority of cases.Measles is still a serious disease with high fatality rat

Keywords

measles --- epidemiology --- vaccination.


Article
Comparative Study of Chick Embryo and Post Hatching Vaccination Against Newcastle Disease
دراسة مقارنة لتلقيح أجنة الدجاج والأفراخ الفاقسة ضد مرض نيوكاسل

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Abstract

Two hundred and fourty chick embryos were used in this study were divided into four equal groups and incubated. The first group was vaccinated with N.D. vaccine at age of 18 days of incubation. The fourth group was injected with sterile phosphate buffered saline and was considered as a control group up to end of experiment. The second and third groups were left without vaccination until hatching. After hatching fifty chicks of each group were taken as follow, the first group which were vaccinated by in ovo-vaccination methods, the second were vaccinated by spraying at one-day age with ND vaccine followed two times of vaccination at ten and twenty days of age, the third group was vaccinated by spraying method at one-day age then it was vaccinated at age of 7-days with oil inactivated N.D. vaccine. The control group was left without vaccination. The result showed that the vaccine which used in ovo-vaccination had not revealed any negative effect upon the percentage of hatchability rate or upon livability of vaccinated chicks during the first week after hatching. Test of haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) and ELISA were held to define the weekly antibodies levels at 1,7,14,28 for the fourth groups challenge test also was carried onto measure the immunological level for the fourth groups at age of 35 days by using the local isolated velogenic N.D.V. of the affected chicks which given by ocular, nose and oral routs. The result of (HI) test showed that the 3rd group was significantly (P<0.01) higher in the level of (HI) titer before the challenge test compare with first group and fourth and showed significantly (P<0.05) higher of HI titer then the second these result were adapted with the results of ELISA test. The results of challenge test showed that the protection rate of the 3rd group significantly (P<0.01) exceeded upon the 4th group which gave 90% of the protection rate and the 1st and 2nd groups had highly (P<0.01) significant protection rate compared with 4th group which they get the same rate of protection 70% at the challenge test whereas the 4th group (control) gave 10%of the protection rate in the challenge test. The study showed that vaccination by oil inactivated vaccine proceeded by a life attenuated vaccine by coarse spraying at one day age was the best method and gave a higher immunological levels comparing with other groups.

استخدمت 240 بيضة مخصبة من أمهات دجاج لحم فاوبرو قسمت إلى أربعة مجاميع متساوية ثم حضنت, لقحت المجموع الأولى بلقاح نيوكاسل وبعمر 18 يوما من الحضن، وحقنت المجموعة الرابعة بمحلول دارئ الفوسفات المعقم واتخذت كمجموعة سيطرة أما المجموعتين الثانية والثالثة فتركت بدون لقاح لحين الفقس وبعد الفقس تم اخذ 50 فرخ من كل مجموعة، المجموعة الأولى التي لقحت بطريقة تلقيح الأجنة ،المجموعة الثانية لقحت بالرش بعمر يوم واحد بلقاح نيوكاسل ولقحت بماء الشرب بعمر 10 أو 20 يوما بلقاح نيوكاسل أما المجموعة الثالثة فلقحت بالرش بعمر يوم واحد بلقاح نيوكاسل وبعمر 7 أيام لقحت بلقاح نيوكاسل المبطل الزيتي بطريقة الحقن تحت الجلد، أما المجموعة الرابعة تركت بدون تلقيح. بينت النتائج إن اللقاح المستخدم في حقن الأجنة لم يكن ذو تأثير سلبي على نسبة الفقس آو على حيوية الأفراخ خلال الأسبوع الأول من الفقس، اجري اختبار اثباط التلازن الدموي واختبار الاليزا لتحديد معيار الأضداد المناعية بعمر 1،7،14،28 يوما لكل المجاميع وكذلك تم استخدام اختبار التحدي لقياس المستوى المناعي للمجاميع الاربعة بعمر 35 يوما وكذلك بعمر 49 يوما باستخدام فايروس نيوكاسل الضاري المعزول محليا من افراخ مصابة بجرعة 50 EID 107للطير الواحد أعطي عن طريق العين والمنخرين والفم وقد بينت نتائج اثباط التلازن الدموي تفوق معنوي للمجموعة الثالثة (الزيتي) في مستوى معيار الأضداد المثبطة لتلازن الدم قبل إجراء اختيار التحدي وبمستوى P<0.01 على المجموعتين الأولى والرابعة وبمستوى P<0.05 على المجموعة الثانية والتي كانت تتفق مع نتائج الاليزا أما اختبار التحدي أظهرت النتائج إن أعلى نسبة نسبة حصانة بالمجموعة الثالثة فقد تفوقت معنويا على المجموعة الرابعة بمستوى P<0.01 إذ أعطت نسبة حماية مقدارها 90% وتفوقت المجموعتان الأولى والثانية معنويا وبمستوى P<0.01 إذ أعطتا نفس نسبة الحماية وهي 70% في حين أعطت المجموعة الرابعة السيطرة نسبة حماية مقدارها 10% وقد بينت الدراسة إن التلقيح باللقاح المبطل الزيتي مسبوق بلقاح حي مضعف عن طريق الرش بعمر يوم واحد هي الطريقة الجيدة والتي أعطت مستوى مناعي عالي مقارنة بالمجاميع الأخرى.


Article
Proportion and Determinants of Incomplete Vaccination among Children Aged Less than Two Years in Baghdad City

Authors: ,Faris Al-Lami --- Loai S. Fadil
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2010 Volume: 9 Issue: 2 Pages: 169-173
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Immunization is the most important public health advance of the 20th century and the most cost-effective and a life-saving intervention. The public health initiative is to get 90% of the nation's children adequately immunized before their third birthday. OBJECTIVE: To determine the proportion and determinants of incomplete vaccination among a sample of children aged less than two years in Baghdad city. Design: A cross sectional study. Setting: A random sample of 11 Primary Health Care Centers in Baghdad city. Data Collection time: Feb/1st-May/31st / 2008 SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A systematic random sample of 562 children aged less than two years, living in Baghdad city, and attended the selected Primary Health Care Centers for various health complaints apart from immunization. Vaccination status of children was verified for their age and according to the national Expanded Program of Immunization. RESULTS: The proportion of incomplete vaccination was18.8%; 0.5% were completely non-vaccinated. The proportion of incomplete vaccination increased with increasing age (P=0.000). Males showed higher proportion of incomplete vaccination (24.1%) than females (14.2%) (P =0.003). The major proportion of incomplete vaccination was among children of illiterate mothers (43%) (P =0.000). The main causes of incomplete vaccination were immigration problem (46.23%), security problem (29.25%), and parent’s related problem (15%), and other causes (9%). CONCLUSION: Around one of every five children aged less than two years in Baghdad was incompletely vaccinated; immigration and security obstacles were the main causes of incomplete vaccination


Article
EVALUATION OF HEPATITIS B VIRUS VACCINATION AMONG CHILDREN IN BAGHDAD CITY
تقييم لقاح الكبد البائي عند الاطفال في مدينة بغداد

Author: أمنة نعمة الثويني
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2008 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 198-209
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This study attempt to determine the protective level of antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigen among vaccinated and unvaccinated children in Baghdad city, age ranging 1- 10 year. A total of 250 blood samples have been collected and tested for detection of serological markers of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc). They included 190 children represented the vaccinated group and 60 children represented the unvaccinated group. Prevalence of anti-HBs was higher in vaccinated children (70%) than in unvaccinated children (3.3%.) Anti-HBc was not found in vaccinated children, while 3.3% in unvaccinated children. The distribution of protective level is divided to less than 10; 10-100; and 100-more than 500 m.i.u./ml among studies groups that have anti-HBs 13(6.8%); 21(11%); and 99(52.1%) of vaccinated and (0.0%); (0.0%); and 2(3.3%) of unvaccinated group. Finally, prevalence of protective anti-HBs level according to the doses received by vaccinated group has revealed that 77.2% of those who received the three primary doses.Hepatitis, Hepatitis B virus, vaccinatio

هدفت الدراسة تحديد المستوى الواقي لمضادات التهاب الكبد البائي عند الاطفال في مدينة بغداد الذين تتراوح أعمارهم 1-10 سنة ∙ تم جمع مائتان وخمسون عينة وفحصت لكشف المؤشرات المصلية لفايرس الكبد البائي (مولد مضاد لالتهاب الكبد البائي السطحي ومضاد التهاب الكبد البائي السطحي ومضاد التهاب الكبد اللبي) ٬ تمثل مائة وتسعون من الاطفال لمجموعة الملقحين وستون من الاطفال غير الملقحين. اظهرت النتائج عدم وجود نسبة انتشار لمولد مضاد التهاب الكبد البائي السطحي ضمن الاطفال – كما وجد انتشاراً اعلى لمضاد التهاب الكبد البائي السطحي لمجموعة الملقحين (70٪) ٬ من مجموعة غير الملقحين 3.3 ٪ ∙ لم تسجل نسبة انتشار مضاد التهاب الكبد اللبي في مجموعة الملقحين٬ بينما كانت 3.3 ٪ في مجموعة غير الملقحين∙ أوضحت الدراسة ايضا قياس المستوى الواقي لمضاد التهاب الكبد بمستويات أقل من 10 و 10 –100و 100 – أكثر من 500 ملي وحدة دولية / مليلتر بين المجاميع المدروسة والتي أعطت 13 (6.8٪ ) و 21 (11٪) و 99(52.1٪) عند الملقحين و 0.0 ٪ و 0.0٪ و 2( 3.3 ٪) لدى غير الملقحين ∙ كما سجل مضاد التهاب الكبد البائي السطحي في 77.2٪ للاطفال الملقحين الذين أكملوا التلقيح بثلاث جرعات وهذا يوضح تأثير اكمال السير الاولي للقاح على مستوى مضاد التهاب الكبد البائي السطحي.


Article
Study of Pertussis Disease in Al-Hashimiya District / Babylon Governorate or The Years 2009 – 2013

Authors: Makki Hassan Kadhum --- Nahida Mohammed Al-Janabi
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2014 Volume: 11 Issue: 4 Pages: 882-890
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Objectives of this study to identify occurrence of pertussis disease and vaccination status of affected children through the period from 2009-2013 in Al–Hashimiya district and to study the association between the disease and vaccination status with some related variable. This study was a descriptive, retrospective study, carried out during the period from 9th January 2014 till 10th of March 2014. The study sample was (755) cases of affected children with pertussis disease.The results indicated that the majority of registered cases was reported at the first year (2009) and they are accounted 257(34%), the majority of registered cases was reported at AL- Midhatyia 319(42.3%). Age groups and Gender, they are accounted non significant differences, the higher percentage of registration cases were reported at rural areas 415(55%), the majority of registration cases were reported as illiterate 452(59.9%). The present study showed that 458(60.7%) of patients were vaccinated with DPT vaccine. This study revealed that highly significant differences are registered at P<0.01 concerning the relationships of vaccinated children with DPT vaccine according to some related variables (years , and Al-Hashimiya district areas).

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