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Article
Treatment of Slack Wax by Thermal Cracking Process

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Abstract

This work deals with thermal cracking of slack wax which produced as a byproduct from solvent dewaxing process of medium lubricating oil fraction in AL-Dura refinery. The thermal cracking process was carried out at a temperature ranges 480-540 ºC and atmospheric pressure. The liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) for thermal cracking was varied between 1.0-2.5 〖hr〗^(-1 ). It was found that the conversion increases (61 - 83) with increasing of reaction temperature (480 - 540) and decreases (83 - 63) with increasing of liquid hourly space velocity (1.0 - 2.5). The maximum gasoline yield obtained by thermal cracking process (48.52 wt. % of feed) was obtained at 500 ºC and liquid hour space velocity 1.0 〖hr〗^(-1). The obtaining liquid product at the best operating condition 500 ºC and LHSV 1.0 〖hr〗^(-1) was fractionated into wide range fractions. Based on the determination of some properties for the distilled fractions and comparison these properties with that required by standard requirements, it is possible to use the fractions of cracking products as a component for production of automobile gasoline, domestic kerosene, light diesel fuel and basic lubricating oils.


Article
Determination the flow of experimental modeling waxes by using Vicat apparatus

Authors: Ahmad W. Alubaidi --- Amer A Taqa --- Nadira A Hatim
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2011 Volume: 11 Issue: 3 Pages: 49-57
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aim of the study: measuring the flow of new experimental modeling waxes. Materials and methods: preparation of one hundred twenty (120) samples of different experimental modeling waxes by mixing of different percentages of Iraqi natural waxes ( hard paraffin, soft paraffin and beeswax) and additives (starch, gum Arabic, rosin and Na-carboxymethylcellulose) using mold made from brass according to ADA specification and measure the flow of them by using vicat apparatus after making modification on it. Results: The experimental modeling wax (80% hard paraffin + 20% soft paraffin) and (80% beeswax + 20% soft paraffin) had the most nearest properties to control (Polywax) at 40c°and 45c° and experimental modeling wax (90% beeswax + 10% starch) to control (Major) at 40c° and experimental modeling waxes (80% beeswax + 20% hard paraffin), (80% hard paraffin + 15% soft paraffin + 5% beeswax), (70% hard paraffin + 20% soft paraffin + 10% beeswax) and (90% beeswax + 10% starch) to control (Major) at 45c°. Conclusions: The flow of waxes increased with increasing heating temperature from 40°C to 45°C

Keywords

flow --- wax --- vicat apparatus


Article
A new technique for producing high-velocity liquid-like jet
طريقة جديدة لأنتاج نفث شبيه بالسوائل وعالي السرعة

Authors: Mazin Y.A مازن ياسين عبود --- Riyah N. K. رياح نجم كطر
Journal: Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences مجلة الأنبار للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19979428 Year: 2008 Volume: 1 Issue: 2 Pages: 118-132
Publisher: University of Anbar جامعة الانبار

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Abstract

A new technique is presented by which lateral outflows of material , from an oblique impact collision between wax projectile and a rigid surface , are collected to form a high speed single jet. This jet has been shown to be capable of producing cavities in semi-infinite target of wax in a manner similar to that produced in a hypervelocity impact situation. The produced jet capability of penetration is found to be maximum at higher velocities of impact , lower values of standoff and with projectiles having angle of obliquity in the range (â=20-25o). A preliminary theoretical model is also presented in an attempt to describe the process of jet creation and jet characteristics. The present technique is proved to be promising in simulating penetration of semi-infinite targets by the impact of high speed jet .

يقدم هذا البحث طريقة جديدة وغير مسبوقة لأنتاج نفث شبيه بالسوائل وعالي السرعة وذلك باطلاق مقذوفات من الشمع ومجوفة مخروطيآ من المقدمة وجعلها تتصادم مع صفيحة جاسئة . وجد ان هذا النفث له القابلية على احداث فجوات في الاهداف السميكة المصنوعة من الشمع ايضآ وان هذه الفجوات شبيهة بتلك التي تنتج عن التصادم فائق السرعة . كما وجد ايضآ ان هذه القابلية تزداد بأزدياد سرعة المقذوفة وتقليل المسافة الفاصلة بين الهدف والصفيحة مع أستخدام تجاويف مخروطية للمقذوفة ذات زوايا ( o 20 o - 25 ) . قدم البحث ايضآ رؤيا نظرية تحليلية لوصف عملية انتاج هذا النفث والوقوف على خصائصه . أستنتج ايضآ ان هذه الطريقة واعدة لكي تستخدم في تطبيقات هندسية وخصوصآ في محاكاة التغلغل الحاصل في الأهداف السميكة نتيجة صدمها بنفث عالي السرعة


Article
Preparation and modifying a new type of waxes

Authors: Wafa M Abbas --- Amer A Taqa --- Nadira A Hatim
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2006 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 64-70
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

that has almost the same properties of dental modeling wax used in dentistry. Materials and Methods:Three groups of waxes (220 samples) with different compositions regarding its origin (Al–Dorarefinery waxes, natural bees wax–North of Iraq, and commercially available Iraqi waxes), additivessuch as starch, sodium–carboxyl methylcellulose (Na–CMC), rosin, or nylon, and coloring agents wereprepared. The samples were tested for their melting range, 21 samples only had a melting range thatnearly coincides with that of the dental waxes such as Major and Cavex. Results: The resultant 21samples were tested for their softening, trimming, penetration, residue materials and solubility. Only 4samples showed properties that are closely similar to that of Major and Cavex wax. The results ofmelting point ranged from 69–80oC. Softening test showed that the samples which contain nylon, Na–CMC, or rosin were softened without adhering to the fingers. Trimming test showed that they weretrimmed easily and clearly. Penetration test showed that, some samples had the similar measurementsof Major and Cavex wax (0.6–0.9mm). Residue materials showed that all samples had no residue ofwax materials on acrylic teeth after wax elimination procedure. All the prepared waxes were soluble in ether (acetone), and petroleum spirit (benzene). Conclusion: Six new modeling wax materials were prepared according to ADA specification No.24. Three of new wax materials consist of nylon(polystyrene 1.71–2.13%); the other two novel modeling waxes were fabricated by using additive materials (Na–CMC and rosin).


Article
Prosthetic Application of Newly Experimental Modeling Wax with some Additives( Medical Grass Extract)

Authors: Nadira A Hatim Department of --- Amer A Taqa --- Ahmad W Alubaidi
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2012 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 363-370
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims of the study: preparation of a new experimental modeling wax from hard paraffin, beeswax, starch, and medical Grass Extract (olive oil) and study the linear thermal expansion and melting point properties of the prepared wax. Materials and Methods : The samples were prepared ( 30 samples) by mixing Iraqi natural waxes (hard paraffin and beeswax) with additives (starch and olive oil) using spe-cial percentages proportions determined according to this study and using mold prepared according to ADA specification No.24, and the melting range and thermal expansion of these samples measured then compared with commercial modeling wax (SHANGCHI). Results: The new experimental model-ing wax 1 ( 80% hard paraffin + 15% beeswax + 5% olive oil) have minimum and maximum melting point mean value (59.8 – 63.6 °c) near to control (commercial modeling wax) (58 -63.4 °c) and the new experimental modeling wax 2 (90% beeswax + 5% starch + 5% olive oil) have linear thermal expan-sion mean value (0.186%) near to control (SHANGCHI) (commercial modeling wax) (0.204%). Con-clusions : The addition of olive oil to new experimental modeling wax 1(80% hard paraffin + 15% beeswax + 5% olive oil) lead to increase the linear thermal expansion and reduce the melting point, and the addition of olive oil to new experimental modeling wax 2 (90% beeswax + 5% starch + 5% olive oil) lead to decrease thermal expansion and reduce melting point.


Article
Evaluation of some physical properties of prepared molding wax in comparison to commercial available wax

Authors: Ibtehal H. Hassan --- Nadia T. Jaffer --- Mohammed M. Sadoon
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2014 Volume: 14 Issue: 2 Pages: 228-235
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: to evaluate the some physical properties (melting range, hardness and thermal expansion) of two prepared mixtures wax contain paraffin oil in comparison with commercial type wax. Materials and Methods: Two mixtures of experimental modeling wax were prepared, mixture No.1 (M1) and mixture No.2 (M2). These two mixtures underwent three physical tests in compare to commercial modeling wax which is a control group, these tests are: 1- Melting range test, 5 capillary tubes were sealed and filled with all type of wax and placed inside electro thermal melting point apparatus.The start of melting wax considered the beginning melting point and when the wax completely became fluid, it is considered the ending melting point. 2 Needle penetration test (hardness test), 5 cylindrical shape samples for each type of wax were prepared and tested for hardness by standard vicate apparatus. 3- Linear thermal expansion, for each type of wax, 5 samples were prepared in a mold , the samples were heated to 25 C° and 40 C° and the distance between reference marks at the lower temperature and the change in length on heating to higher temperature is determined by electronic digital caliper and thermal expansion is calculated as percentage of the total length of sample. Results: Statistical analysis of melting range test showed a significant difference between tested groups in both minimum and maximum melting point. M1 had the higher mean in minimum and maximum melting point. Hardness test analysis showed a significant difference between tested groups, higher mean of hardness was observed in M2, M1 and control group respectively. ANOVA of linear thermal expansion showed a significant difference between groups at 25 C° and at 40 C°. The control group of wax observed the highest mean of thermal expansion at 25 C° and 40 C° than the other two types of wax.Conclusion: The modification of dental wax improved some of the physical properties than commercial one.

Keywords

mineral oil --- wax --- beeswax --- paraffin oil.


Article
Dewaxing of Distilate Oil Fraction (400 – 500 ºC) Using Urea

Authors: Safaa R.Yasin --- Abdul-Halim A.K. Mohammed
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2007 Volume: 13 Issue: 1 Pages: 1268-1281
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

De-waxing of lubricating oil distillate (400-500 ºC) by using urea was investigated in the present study. Lubricating oil distillate produced by vacuum distillation and refined by furfural extraction was taken from Al-Daura refinery. This oil distillate has a pour point of 34 ºC. Two solvents were used to dilute the oil distillate, these are methyl isobutyl ketone and methylene chloride. The operating conditions of the urea adduct formation with n-paraffins in the presence of methyl isobutyl ketone were studied in details, these are solvent to oil volume ratio within the range of 0 to 2, mixer speed 0 to 2000 rpm, urea to wax weight ratio 0 to 6.3, time of adduction 0 to 71 min and temperature 30-70 ºC). Pour point of de-waxed oil and yield of wax produced were determined to show the effect of these operating conditions. The most favorable operating conditions were solvent to oil volume ratio of 1, mixer speed of 1500 rpm, urea to wax weight ratio of 5, time of adduction of 13 min and temperature of 30-52 ºC.

يتناول هذا البحث عملية إزالة الشمع من مقطر زيت التزييت باستخدام اليوريا. مقطر زيت التزييت الذي تم التعامل معه في هذا البحث مأخوذ من مصفى الدورة والمنتج بواسطة التقطير التجزيئي تحت الضغط المخلخل ( vacuum distillation ) والمعالج بطريقة الاستخلاص بالفورفورال( furfural extraction). هذا المقطر الزيتي له حدود درجة غليان بين 400 – 500 ْم ونقطة انسكاب 34 ْم. تم استخدام مذيبين لغرض تخفيف مقطر زيت التزييت هما مثيل ايزوبيوتيل كيتون ( methyl isobutyl ketone) وميثيلين كلورايد (methylene chloride ). الظروف التشغيلية لتفاعل اليوريا مع الشمع البارافيني المتواجد في مقطر زيت التزييت بوجود مذيب مثيل ايزوبيوتيل كيتون ( MIBK ) تم دراستها بالتفصيل, وهي نسبة حجم المذيب الى حجم الزيت ضمن حدود صفر– 2 ، سرعة الخلاط ضمن حدود صفر– 2000 دورةدقيقة ، نسبة وزن اليوريا إلى وزن الشمع الموجود في الزيت ضمن حدود صفر– 6.3 ، وزمن التبريد ( التفاعل) ضمن حدود صفر– 71 دقيقة, ودرجة الحرارة ضمن حدود 30– 70 ْم. درجة الانسكاب للزيت (pour point ) الناتج من عملية إزالة الشمع تم قياسها وكذلك النتاج ( yield ) للشمع المستخلص تم حسابه لغرض بيان تأثير الظروف التشغيلية آنفة الذكر. أفضل ظروف تشغيلية تم التوصل إليها هي نسبة حجم المذيب الى حجم الزيت بمقدار 1, سرعة الخلاط بمقدار 1500 دورةدقيقة , نسبة وزن اليوريا إلى وزن الشمع الموجود في الزيت بمقدار 5 , وزمن التبريد ( التفاعل) بمقدار 13 دقيقة , ودرجة الحرارة بمقدار 30– 52 ْم .


Article
Hydro-De-Aromatization of Paraffin Wax

Authors: Suondos K. A. Barno --- Ammar S. Abbas
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2005 Volume: 11 Issue: 4 Pages: 715-723
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Iraqi paraffin wax (1.0 wt% aromatic content and 4.4 wt% oil content, Basrah origin) was hydrotreated over commercial Pt-Re/y-Al2O3 catalyst in order to study aromatic removal reaction (de-aromatization) kinetics. Reaction temperature varied from 453 to 533 K over a liquid hourly space velocity from 0.5 to 4.2 h-1. Hydrogen pressure was kept constant throughout all the experiments at 3.6 Mpa with hydrogen to wax ratio about 400 m3/m3. Kinetics analysis showed that the hydro-de-aromatization reaction followed a second order kinetics model. Energy, enthalpy and entropy of activation of hydro-de-aromatization reaction were 17.2 kJJ/mole, 13.1 kJ/mole and -16.9 J/mole K, respectively.

تم هدرجة شمع برافينى عراقي المنشأ (ناتج من عملية تكرير نفط البصرة) ذو محتوى زيتي 4.4 % وزناً و 0.1 % وزناً مواد اروماتية بأستعمال عامل مساعد Pt-Re/y-Al2O3 وذلك لدراسة حركية تفاعل ازالة المواد الاروماتية. تراوحت درجة حرارة التفاعل بين 453 و 533 كلفن و سرعة سائل فراغية بين 0.5 و 4.2 ساعة-1. ثبت ضغط الهيدروجين المستعمل و لكل التجارب بمقدار 3.6 ميكا باسكال و نسبة هيدروجين الى شمع 400 م3/م3. اشارت النتائج الى ان موديل حركية التفاعل هي من الدرجة الثانية و كانت مقدار طاقة التنشيط للتفاعل 17.2 كيلو جول مول و انثاليبية التنشيط 13.1 كيلو جول / مول و انتروبية التنشيط - 16.9 جول / مول كلفن.


Article
Examination of some physiotherapy methods for treatment of Knee joint injury
فحص بعض طرق العلاج الطبيعي لعلاج اصابات مفصل الركبة

Authors: Fatehiya F. Hasan د.فتحية فتح الله حسن --- Elham Khald Ibraham الهام خالد ابراهيم
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2013 Volume: 26 Issue: 2 Pages: 141-145
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Abstract:Objective: This study investigates different range of motion of Knee joint, the effect of age, sex, regular, irregular patients treated with microwave, infrared, and paraffin wax have disorders in their knee.Materials & Methods: Participants were 60 patients have injuries in their Knee joint, 20 of them treated with microwave,20 treated with infrared and 20 patients treated with paraffin wax for 12 weeks ,three times weekly. We take 120 measurements as a control and after12 weeks of physiotherapy treatment we take 720 measurements, by using Goniometric measurements for Knee (flexion, extension,) joint every two weeks. The study was carried out in teaching hospitals in Erbil/ Physiotherapy Department and private centers of physiotherapy. Duration of the study was three months Results: The final results show:1.Microwave more effective than infrared and paraffin wax in treatment of Knee joint. 2.The patients who come early and regular in physiotherapy have increased in range of motion. 3.From data females have decreased range of motion than males. 4.The measurements of research should be taken by the same therapist on the same position to decrease error in measurements.Key words: Knee joint movements, therapeutic (IR), (MW), paraffin wax, pain, injury.

المقدمة : مدى الحركة هو وصف لمدى حركة المفصل ويعتبر الدوران هو الحركة المثالية والتي تدعى الحركة الزاوية، مدى الحركة يمكن قياسها في حالتي التنشيط والسلبي، المدى النشيط للحركة تصنع او تخلق من قبل المريض والحركة السلبية تخلق بواسطة الاجهزة و دائما مدى الحركة السلبي هو اكبر من مدى حركة النشيط.الهدف: هذه الدراسة هو للتحقيق من مدى الحركات المختلفة لمفصل الركبة (الانحناء والتمديد) وتاثير العمر والجنس للمريض على مدى الحركة لمفصل الركبة والذي يعالج مع ثلاث طرق للعلاج الطبيعي وهي جهاز المايكرويف تحت الحمراء وشمع البارافين.المواد و الطرق : المشاركون كانوا 60 مريض و الذين كان عندهم اصابات بمفصل الركبة , 20 منهم عولجوا بجهاز المايكرويف و 20 بجهاز الاشعة تحت الحمراء و20 منهم عولجوا بشمع البارافين, مدة العلاج 12 أسبوع بمعدل ثلاث مرات أسبوعيا.استخدم اداة الكونوميتر لقياس مدى حركة مفصل الركبة و هي الانحناء و التمديد.قياسات مفصل الركبة كانت 120 قياس قبل العلاج الطبيعي (السيطرة ) و720 قياس بعد العلاج الطبيعي.المناقشة:النتائج النهائية بينت: 1.المايكرويف هو اكثر تاثير على مدى الحركةمن تاثير الاشعة تحت الحمراء و شمع البارافين 2. والمرضى الذين يبداون العلاج الطبيعي مبكرا و بشكل منتظم تتحسن مدى الحركة لهم بشكل سريع.3.مدى الحركة للنساء بعد العلاج الطبيعي تتحسن و لكن اقل من الرجال.4.يفضل القياسات ان تأخذ من قبل شخص واحد و بنفس الوضع لكل المرضى لتجنب الاخطاء في القياس.

Keywords

Knee joint movements --- therapeutic --- IR --- MW --- paraffin wax --- pain --- injury.


Article
Effect of Sofrodax, Acetic Acid and Ear Wax on Biofilm Formation on Bacterial Isolates from Otitis Media

Authors: Juman Oday Sabri --- Ilham A. Bnyan --- Safaa H. Al-Terahi
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2014 Volume: 11 Issue: 4 Pages: 961-970
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

In this study, one hundred otitis media (OM) swabs were collected from (100) patients who were referred to Hilla Teaching Hospital (ENT unit) and privacy clinic during a period (from November 2013 through March 2014) suffering from OM. The collected samples were investigated for bacterial isolation. Bacterial culture was positive in (96%) patient's verses (4%) patients revealed negative bacterial culture. The most common types of bacterial isolated were S. epidermidis (23.6%), followed by S. aureus (17%), Proteus spp. (14.1%), Ps. aeroginosa (9.4%), Streptococcus spp., K. pneumoniae and Enterobacter spp. (7.6%), Acinetobacterbummanii (5.6%), Serratiamarecence (5.6%) and E. coli (0.9%).Biofilm formation was investigated in all bacterial species, and the results showed that the most isolates that form biofilm in gram negative bacteria and gram positive bacteria in high rate (100%).The effect of ear wax, vinegar and acetic acid on biofilm formation were studied the results showed that these materials have some effect on biofilm formation.

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