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Article
Medico-Legal Study of Fatal Stab Wounds in Baghdad

Authors: Muataz A. Al- Qazzaz
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2013 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 104-110
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT :BACKGROUND :Even with the advent of more modern injury types,sharp force injuries and fatalities have been reported to be the most common crimes of violence in several countries, predominantly in those where access to firearms is restricted.Death due to sharp force violence is the most common cause of homicidal deaths in Sweden and in many other countries in Europe, Africa and Asia.OBJECTIVE:1-To estimate the percentage of sharp wound fatalities from the total number of all injuries referred to the medico-legal institute and the percentage of fatal stab wounds type.2-To study the stab wounds according to age, sex, scene of injury, number, edge type, length and depth of each wound ,presence of other wound types, anatomical regions affected and organs injured METHOD :A medico-legal descriptive study conducted on 41 autopsies during 6 months period .Cases were studied according to their age, sex, scene of incident , number and type of stab wounds , presence of other types of wounds , suggestive manner of injury , anatomical regions affected and organs injured . Blood sample was taken for alcohol detection then complete classical autopsy was done .RESULTS:Sharp force injuries were occupying the 8th class of major injuries. Males were 3 times than females . The mean age was 33.4±13.8 years. Indoor and outdoor scenes of incident were almost equal in number with few unknown scenes. Most of victims were with stab wounds type only having single sharp edge wound. Homicidal manner of death was seen in all cases while defense stab wounds were seen in only 7 cases.The mean length of all stab wounds in all cases was 2.98 + 0.64 cm ranging from 0.5 cm to 8 cm and the mean depth of stab wounds was 9.75+ 4.07 cm. ranging from 1 to 20 cm. Chest was the commonest anatomical region affected and the heart was the commonest organ injured . Alcohol had no role in causation of stab wounds in this study.CONCLUSION :Stab wounds are uncommon in Baghdad. Adult males were usually the victims. Homicidal manner was the only manner of death . Knives were the usual weapon used.It was difficult to determine the exact dimensions of the weapons in most cases because of variability of wounds measurements. Anatomical regions and organs injured revealed their homicidal manner.


Article
Penetrating Injuries of the Neck

Authors: Musaed L. H. Albadri --- Uday A. Albeiruty --- Ahmed Abass Mossa
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2009 Volume: 8 Issue: 3 Pages: 196-203
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

BACKGROUND:Penetrating injuries of the neck are potentially dangerous, causing high rates of morbidity and mortality due to their association with sever bleeding and serious damage to the vital structures in the cervical region.OBJECTIVE:To know the incidence and distribution of these injuries on the anatomical zones of the neck and the damage of the vital structures in the cervical region and their early surgical management.METHODS:A prospective study on 52 patients of both civilian and military personnel with penetrating neck injuries attended the casualty department at Alyarmouk hospital over a period of 7 months from June-December 2006.RESULTS:Fifty patients (96.15%) were males. Twenty four patients (46.15%) were in their third decade. Twenty six patients (50%) were injured by shrapnel of explosives, 23 patients (44.21%) by bullets & 3 patients (5.77%) by unknown objects. Thirty six patients (69.23%) were injured at zone 2, 11 patients (21.15%) at zone 3 & 5 patients (9.62%) at zone 1. Twenty nine patients (55.77%) had laryngeal & tracheal injuries. Thirteen patients (25%) had pharyngeal & esophageal injuries. Four patients (7.7%) had recurrent laryngeal nerve injury. Nine patients (17.3%) had vascular injuries 6 arterial & 3 venous. One patient had vertebral & spinal cord injury. Forty one patients (78.86%) had tracheostomy operations, & 13, (25%) had neck exploration.Six patients (11.54%) treated conservatively. Nine patients (17.3%) have died.CONCLUSION:Male patients at their middle age were the predominant victims either by shrapnel or by bullets. Zone 2 was most commonly affected followed by zone 3 & zone 1. Laryngo – tracheal, pharyngo – esophageal & vascular structures were mostly involved. Tracheostomy & neck exploration were the main urgent operations performed for them. The high mortality reflected the serious nature of these injuries.


Article
EFFECT OF CHITOSAN SHEETS ON WOUND HEALING
تاثير رقائق الكايتوسان على شفاء الجروح

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Abstract

The study was aimed to evaluate the effect ofchitosan sheets on wound healing process andits activity as a wound dressing materials. Accordingly chitosan sheet was isolated and preparedfrom the exoskeleton of the native shrimps in Basrah Province. Twenty-four male rabbits wereused and two full-thickness circular cuts (2cm in diameter) were made on the dorsal aspect ofeach rabbit. The healing process was evaluated macroscopically by evaluation of the properties ofchitosan sheets on wound in terms of (adherence, absorption, and fluid accumulation) on differentintervals (i.e.lSt,3’d,7‘h,and 15"‘ post wounding day). On the other hand the contraction rate in testedliand control wounds were evaluated during different intervals (i.e. at lS‘,3' ,7‘ ,and I5“ post woundingday).The healing process was evaluated microscopically in terms of (infiltration of neutrophils andmacrophage infiltration, new blood vessels and fibroblast proliferation and Re—epithelialization).. The result of macroscopic evaluation showed that chitosan sheets were firmly adherent to' . the wound with underlying mild fluid accumulation during the first three post wounding day. At, the same time the sheets started to disappear and completely absorbed at 7' day after woundbreation. The result of the effect of the chitosan sheet on wound contraction demonstrated that thebontraction rate of tested wounds was significantly higher than in control wounds through thelperiod of experiment. In the treated group complete wound closure with contraction rate of 100%was reached at 103‘ post wounding day while the control wounds failed to close completely till the’ lend of experiment at 15‘ day. The results of microscopic evaluation of wound healing process weredemonstrated significant increase (p<0.05) infiltration of neutrophils in test wound at the first post‘wounding day then decrease and completely disappear while persist in control wound. Infiltrationof macrophages significantly increased (p<0.05) in tested wound during the period of experiment.§The fibrovascular granulation tissue and Re-epithelialization significantly more obvious in testediwound than in control wound through the period of experiment (p<0.050).

Keywords

Chitosan --- Epithelization --- wounds


Article
AUTO-SKIN TRANSPLANTATION IN DOGS
ألترقيع الذاتي للجلد في الكلاب

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Abstract

This study was conducted using auto-skin transplantation for repairing of large skin loss of one front limb in dogs. The study was carried out on 8 clinical cases of dogs that brought to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq; from October 2006 to September 2010. These animals underwent severe lacerated necrotic wounds especially at one front limb more than others. A protocol of general anesthesia was conducted by premedication with atropine sulphate, followed by a mixture of xylazine hydrochloride and ketamine hydrochloride. The large skin defect treated by creating a subcutaneous tunnel extended from the thoracic to the abdominal area at the lateral side of the trunk; therefore the naked area of affected limb covered by a new skin successfully from the subcutaneous tunnel. The result revealed that the all flaps healed without partial or total loss. The appearance, texture, and color of the flaps were similar to those of the donor site. The auto-skin transplantation by subcutaneous tunnel considers an effective and alternative method for the treatment of large skin defect of one front limb in dogs.

Keywords

Wounds --- Skin flap --- Dogs


Article
Assessment of the Laser`s efficacy in treatment of impaired healing wounds

Authors: Ihsan, F. Rostum
Journal: Iraqi Laser Scientists Journal مجلة علماء الليزر العراقية ISSN: 2523 689X Year: 2018 Volume: 1 Issue: 2 Pages: 1-5
Publisher: Iraqi Laser Scientists Society جمعية علماء الليزر العراقيين

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Abstract

Successes occurred in treatment of failing or impaired skin grafts, hypertophic scars,atrophic skin , and atopic dermatitis using Low Level Laser Therapy, L.L.L.T. .The aim of the current study is to assess the efficacy of L.L.L.T. on healing wounds failed to be healed by first intention for experimentally induced whole layers skin loss in rabbits.Eight rabbits underwent the study , they were divided into two groups ,the procedure involved raising two discs of whole skin from the lateral surface of the thigh of both sides .The sites of the operation in the treated group were treated by diode laser daily until the wound was sealed. Diameters of the wounds were periodically measured every three days and histopathological assessment was performed on the seventh day of experimental wounds.L.L.L.T. group of animals showed increasing in the process of healing than approximately 1.5 times when compared with the non - L.L.L.T. group. In tested group wound contraction was faster, vascularity was significantly better with abundant granulation tissue formation, greater formation of collagen fibers, greater mast cell number, epithelial creeping margin was faster and greater epithelial hyperplasia .L.L.L.T. is arising as new tool to accelerate healing process, they showed significant advantages regarding wound therapy by accelerating healing of secondary intention in experimental animal.


Article
TOPICAL ACTIVITY OF_ Aloe vera (/Lverla ) EXTRACT ON EXCISION WOUND—HEALlNG OF SKIN IN RABBITTS:CLINICAL ANDA HISTOLOGICAL STUDY
فعالية مستخلص نبات الصبار في علاج الجروح الجلدية القطعية في الارانب البرية: دراسة سريرية نسيجية

Author: A.A..Sawad علاء عبد الخالق سواد
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: Print:18138497 E; 24108456 Year: 2006 Volume: 5 Issue: 2 Pages: 160-169
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

plant /I/ac van: is a green succulent .cactus-like plant belonging to the lily family,The.plant has a history of use in folk medicine for skin and otherdisorders. The objective ofthe study presented in this report was to screen the extracts of this plant for its wound-- healing properties based on its traditional use for wound healing. ethanolic extracts wasprepared for topical applications. The dose used was 150 mg/kg daily for 10 days, using theexcision wound model in rabbits. Carboxymethyl cellulose (1%) was used as control in . ‘topical studies. Animals were randomized divided to treatment or control groups, . Woundareas were measured. At the day Il',skin .tissue was excised for histological studies" .Wound areas reduced significantly in all treatment groups compared to respective controls (P< .001). Histology outcomes were consistent with changes in the treatment groups. Nodifferences were detected within the treatment groups. The study permits the conclusion thatAloe Vera has wound—hea‘ling potential


Article
Accelerating wound healing and skin loss sealing using low level laser therapy

Authors: Sattar H. Ali --- Ihsan, F. Rostum --- Dunnia A. Barakat
Journal: Iraqi Laser Scientists Journal مجلة علماء الليزر العراقية ISSN: 2523 689X Year: 2017 Volume: 1 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-10
Publisher: Iraqi Laser Scientists Society جمعية علماء الليزر العراقيين

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Abstract

Many therapeutic aids are used to accelerate wound healing and promote the healing processes; the knowledge base about the role of Low Level Laser Therapy L.L.L.T. in regeneration processes continues to grow especially in the fields of dermatology and cosmetic surgery. The aim of the current study was to present an overview of the interrelationship between the hormones involved in wound healing and irradiation with Low Level Lasers. The experiment was conducted on twenty adult male New Zealand rabbits, they were divided into two groups with 10 rabbits each: group 1 (induced wound group) and group 2 (lost skin group).The animals of the 1st. group underwent a surgical operation on the lateral aspect of the left thigh; a surgical wound with 7cm length was made and then closed by simple interrupted stitches using surgical silk 3-0, while the 2nd. group operation involved removing of a whole thickness skin square graft of (10x10 mm) dimensions. The animals of each group were divided into two subgroups (control and treated with laser irradiation). The laser used was diode with wave length 820nm and output of 200 mW. Irradiation began after the operation and continued for three days in the animals of the induced wound subgroup and seven days in the skin loss subgroup animals with 1.2 minute /session daily. Irradiation with the laser was done by directing the beam (1cm) distance from the wound or around the square area of the lost skin. Blood samples were collected at days (0, 1. 3 & 7) from the animals of the 1st. group and (1, 3, 7 &10) in the animals of the 2nd. group. The samples were taken from the marginal ear vein from all the animals and sent for examination with Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay - ELISA to determine the levels of Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), Prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α), Growth hormone (GH) and cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate (cAMP). All the readings got from the study were tested statistically using Minitab and SPSS regression test. Clinically, the animals of the 1st. group showed significant variations in the time of healing being about four days in the treated subgroup and eight days in the control one. The stages of the skin defect's contraction and sealing, was faster in the animals of the treated subgroup taking nine days, while it took fifteen days in the control subgroup. Statistical evaluations revealed significant variations in the values of PGE2, PGF2α, cAMP and GH, between the two subgroups of the 1st. group, P > 0.05. Hormonal assessment of PGE2, PGF2α, cAMP, GH and the diameter of the skin defect for the animals of the 2nd. group showed significant variations between the two subgroups P > 0.05. Conclusion can be done that treating the surgical wounds and skin disorders with low level laser radiation is efficient to promote and accelerate the primary healing.

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Keywords

Laser --- Wounds --- Skin loss --- Regeneration


Article
The Clinical Effect of Phenytoin on Oral Wound

Author: Fayhaa AM Al- Mashhadane
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2012 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 165-170
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To study the effect of oral phenytoin on healing of oral wound in buccal mucosa of rab-bits.Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on twenty healthy male rabbits weighing be-tween 1.0 – 1.5 Kg, they were divided into 2 groups; first group consisted of 10 untreated rabbits (con-trol) and second group consisted of 10 rabbits treated by phenytoin at dose of 60 mg/Kg orally along with 3 ml/Kg of sterile water using cavage needle for 10 days. All animals were anesthetized with amixture of xylazine hydrochloride and ketamine hydrochloride at 0.5, 50 mg/Kg intramuscular respec-tively, then a standard wound was made on buccal mucosa of each rabbit, all animals were kept under observation, and their wounds was measured every day with respect to surface area (length x width) in cm2, type of wound tissue and duration of healing. Results: t – test analysis was performed to test the differences in wound characteristics of both groups, it was found that there was significant differences between control and treatment groups (p< 0.001). Conclusions: Systemic use of phenytoin can delay oral wound healing of buccal mucosa.


Article
Post-appendectomy Infected Wounds and Ideal Management A Retrospective Study

Author: Mahmoud M. Al-Mukhtar محمود محمد المختار
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Medical Journal مجلة القادسية الطبية ISSN: 18170153 Year: 2014 Volume: 10 Issue: 17 Pages: 118-124
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

Background :Abdominal operations are traditionally classified into elective and emergency procedures both of which may be complicated by postoperative wound infections. Although postoperative wound infection is usually infrequent following elective procedures, it is an anticipated and acceptable complication of emergency surgeries as these operations are usually of a contaminated nature with no standard preoperative preparation associated with an urge to operate.Objectives :This study tries to compare the results of a two adopted regimes to manage post-appendectomy wound infections in regard to the significance of using parenteral antibiotics.Methods : This study had evaluated (108) patients with clinical postoperatively wound infections over a period of (3) years in Al-Hilla General Teaching Hospital. All cases with normal appendices and those on preoperative antibiotics therapy for any reason had been excluded from the study. Two treatment regimes had been evaluated : Regime (A) consisting of changing antiseptic wound dressings only while Regime (B) consisted of changing antiseptic wound dressings combined with parenteral administration of intravenous metronidazole (500) mg thrice daily with intravenous cefotaxime (1000) mg twice daily. The study group had been allocated to a randomized single-blind trial to assess the outcomes. Patients were followed–up to an average of (50) days.Results :There is a beneficial effects of adopting Regime (B) in the management of infected wounds following perforated appendectomies in terms of reducing the number of dressings change and the period of inpatients hospitalization . This was not the case with infected wounds following non-perforated appendectomies.Conclusion : According to the literature reviewed, in order to prevent or reduce the rate of post-appendectomy infected wounds it is recommended to use preoperative prophylactic antibiotics which is not a routine in our practice.Wound irrigation with antiseptics may be beneficial in prevention of wound infection following complicated appendectomy. Regime (B) of treatment should be reserved for infected wounds following complicated appendectomy.

خلفية البحث : تصنف العمليات الجراحية البطنية تقليديا الى عمليات أختيارية و أخرى طارئة و كلاهمها من الممكن أن يتبع بعدوى جروح العمليات . وفيما تعتبر عدوى الجروح في العمليات الأختيارية من غير الشائعة فأنها من المضاعفات المتوقعة و المقبولةفي جراحة الطواري كونها عادة ما تكون ملوثة و تجرى بدون تحضير قياسي لما قبل العملية مع وجود دافع للتداخل الجراحيالسريع .الأهداف : تهدف هذه الدراسة الى مقارنة نتائج أستخدام نظامين لعلاج عدوى جروح أستئصال الزائدة و تقييم الفائدة المرجوة من أستخدام المضادات الحياتية حقنا بالوريد .الطريقة : قيمت هذه الدراسة (108) مصابا بعدوى جروح أستئصال الزائدة على مدى ثلاث سنوات في مستشفى الحلة التعليمي العام . تم أستثناء كل الحالات التي كانت فيها الزائدة غير ملتهبة أو كان المريض يتعاطى المضادات الحياتية ما قبل العملية لأي سبب كان . كان النظام العلاجي ( أ ) مكونا من تبديل ضماد الجروح بضمادات مطهرة و حسب الحالة بينما كان النظام العلاجي ( ب )مكونا من تبديل ضماد الجروح بضمادات مطهرة و حسب الحالة مع أضافة المضاد الحياتي المترونيدازول (500 ) ملغم وريديا ثلاث مرات يوميا مع السيفوتاكسيم (1000) ملغم وريديا مرتين يوميا . تم توزيع المرضى بصورة عشوائية في تجربة مفردة التعمية على النظاميين العلاجيين ( أ ) و ( ب ) لغرض تقييم النتائج. تم متابعة المرضى لمدة معدلها (50) يوما .النتائج : كانت هناك نتائج مفيدة بأستخدام النظام العلاجي (ب) في علاج عدوى جروح عمليات أستئصال الزائدة المثقوبة و ذلك بدلالة تناقص في عدد الضمادات المستخدمة وفي فترة رقود أقل في المستشفى . لم تكن النتائج كذلك عند معالجة عدوى جروح عمليات أستئصال الزائدة غير المثقوبة .الأستناج :أستنادا الى مراجعة الدراسات و التقارير السابقة التي تناولت نفس الموضوع فأنه من المستحسن أستخدام علاج المضاد الحياتي الأحترازي قبل أجراء العملية و لكن هذا لا يتم العمل به في ممارستنا الجراحية . أن غسل الجروح بالمطهرات بعد أستئصال الزائدة المثقوبة مباشرة مفيد لمنع حدوث عدوى الجروح . يوصى بأن النظام العلاجي (ب ) يجب أن يستخدم لعلاج عدوى جروح أستئصال الزائدة المثقوبة تحديدا.


Article
Potential Healing Effect of Topical Stem Cell Transplantation and Methandrostenoloneon in Induced Cutaneous Wounds in Dogs

Author: Oday K. Luaibi 1 , Laith K.T.AL-Ani 2 , Zena, M. Fahmi 3
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 12-21
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This study was done to explore the influence of stem cells on cutaneous wounds in comparison with treatment with methandrostenoloneon drug. Cutaneous wound was induced on the back of each dog using disposable dermal biopsy punches . Twenty five dogs were divided into five groups: 1stgroup (T1) was control. 2nd group (T2) was induced without any treatment. 3rd group (T3) was induced wound and treated with phosphate buffer saline, 4rth group (T4) was induced and treated with 5mg/kg/B.W. of Methandrostenolone, 5th group (T5) was induced and treated with stem cells 1x106cell/250 µL of phosphate buffer saline. After 7 and 15 days post treatment level of Hb and RBCs count in T2 and T3 group were decline as compared with control group. The WBCs, Alkaline phosphatase , acid phosphataseas in T2 and T3 showed enhance as contrast with T1. After 7 days, Hb and RBCs in T4 and T5 showed important increase as compared with T2. Moreover the WBCs, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase and total protein levels significantly elevated in the T4 and T5 as compared with T1. After 15 days of treatment the Hb, RBCs, levels of Alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphataseas and total protein levels in T4 showed significant increase as compared with T1, The Hb, RBCs, levels of Alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphataseas and total protein in T5 showed no significant changes as compared with control group (T1). The histopathological section in (T2) explained less collagen and more inflammatory cells, the section of wound tissue in (T4) appeared incomplete healing wound tissue and presence little inflammatory cells, the histopathological section of wound treated in (T5) showed return the wound to normal tissue. From this result it can be concluded that the MSCs have ability to access healing of the wound in comparison with methandrostenolone without any side effect.

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