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Article
Xerostomia: Analysis among dental patients

Authors: Tahani A Al–Sandook --- Karama MT Al–Nuaimy
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2005 Volume: 5 Issue: 2 Pages: 108-113
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The present study was conducted to estimate the incidenceof xerostomia (dry mouth) among 200 dental patients haddifferent systemic diseases, including hypertension, diabetes,cardiovascular (CV) problems, anemia, arthritis and cancer.Distribution of xerostomia according to the type of systemicdisease, age and sex was analyzed.In this study, 64% of total patient represent xerostomia,24.5% of xerostomic cases were males, while 39.5% were females.Incidence of xerostomia was correlated directly withage where 16% of xerostomic patients were limited in agegroup between 21–40 years, while 48% of xerostomicpatients were limited in the age group between 41–60 years.The results concluded that systemic disease played rolein development of xerostomia which could be due to underlyingmedical condition, or due to their medication intake. Patientscomplained from xerostomia were instructed for goodoral hygiene and increase their water intake. In certain cases,pilocarpine was indicated to relieve their symptoms.

Keywords

Xerostomia --- dry mouth


Article
Oral signs and symptoms and hyperglycemic status of type II diabetic patients in relation to cytomorphometric findings of gingival and buccal cytobrush smears

Authors: Mohammad T. Baban محمد بابان --- Balkees T. Garib بلقيس غريب
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 2 Pages: 59-65
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Brush cytology is an accepted technique that gets renewed interest. It is now used as an aid for thediagnosis and observation of possible epithelial changes that could be associated with oral mucosal diseases. Thisstudy aimed to evaluate the cytomorphometric changes in gingiva and buccal mucosa of type II diabetics and toassess their relation to oral symptoms and glycemic status.Materials and methods: Cytological Papanicolaou stained smear were prepared from cheek and gingiva of 20 nontreated cases, 20 treated diabetics and 20 healthy persons of both sex after measuring their HbA1c and recordingtheir oral symptoms. Hundred unfolded epithelial cells were evaluated qualitatively using MCID software to measurenuclear and cytoplasmic areas, ratio, perimeters, and form factors. Different statistical analyses were used todetermine relations between studied parameters.Results: Diabetics smears showed large nucleus, small cytoplasm, and small cytoplasm/nucleus ratio compared withhealthy persons with no sex variation. Xerostomia and burning sensation were significantly correlated with nuclearparameters, while HbA1c was significantly correlated with both cytoplasmic and nuclear parameters. Well-controlledpatients showed reduction in nuclear area, but nucleus and cytoplasm form factors were unlike normal.Conclusions: Oral cytology from type II diabetics is associated with detectable cytomorphometric changes that isbetter demonstrated in buccal than gingival mucosa and tend to return partially to their normal values in wellcontrolledpatients, with no sex variation. NA seems to be the main parameter that changed during hyperglycemiaand xerostomia, while both NA and CA were related to burning sensation


Article
Prevalence of Xerostomia in Patients with Chronic Hemodialysis in Babil City

Author: Ali Mihsen Hussein Al-yassiri
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2014 Volume: 7 Issue: 1 Pages: 1822-1828
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

background: Xerostomia is as a subjective complaint of dry mouth that may result from deficient production of saliva. It may be caused by reduced salivary flow secondary to atrophy and fibrosis of the salivary glands, use of medications, restriction of fluid intake and old age. In patients undergoing hemodialysis, xerostomia is associated with difficulties in chewing, swallowing, tasting and speaking; increased risk of oral diseases. Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of xerostomia in chronic hemodialysis patients in Babil- Hilla, and compare it with healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Forty three subjects were incorporated in this study, with end stage renal disease and undergoing hemodialysis , they were already diagnosed by a nephrologist specialists, all these patients are without any other systemic diseases. Healthy control group, forty control subjects with no signs and symptoms of any systemic disease. They were sex and age matched to hemodialysis patients.Results and Discussion: A total of 43 patients were registered in Merjan teaching hospital in Babil- Hilla. These patients on hemodialysis programs at the beginning of the study, from February to April, 2013. They were (20) males and (23) females and the age range (24- 69) years. Xerostomia was recorded in 69.767% (n=30) of all patients with hemodialysis. Our data involved mostly xerostomia was recorded in patients with hemodialysis, in these patients due to presence of xerostomia increased the poor oral hygiene. Dysgeusia and uremic fetor, bad odor and taste are caused not only by xerostomia but also by the presence of urease-splitting oral organisms, which metabolize urea (present in high levels in these patients) and thus elaborate ammonia. Patients with xerostomia are at increased risk of lesions to the mucosa, gingival, and tongue, as well as candidiasis, dental caries, periodontal disease and other bacterial and fungal infections. Many of these conditions either cause inflammation, or worsen the chronic inflammation that is frequently present in patients on hemodialysis, and consequently contribute to the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases.Conclusions: Xerostomia remains a frustrating symptom for patients on hemodialysis, and further efforts should be made to identify effective treatments, restoration of the salivary function.

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